Summary: Blood-filled UTERUS.

Top Publications

  1. Chircop R. A case of retention of urine and haematocolpometra. Eur J Emerg Med. 2003;10:244-5 pubmed
    ..This is a rare cause of the retention of urine and the emergency physician should consider this condition in women between the ages of 12 and 18 years presenting with abdominal pain and obscure urinary complaints...
  2. James C, Arauz A. Abdominal pain from an unusual source. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004;20:607-9 pubmed
  3. Chang J, Yang L, Wang H, Wang J, Tiu C. Acute urinary retention as the presentation of imperforate hymen. J Chin Med Assoc. 2007;70:559-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Adolescent girls who complain of urinary symptoms with no previous menstruation should have their external genitalia examined in order to rule out the possibility of imperforate hymen as the cause of acute urinary retention...
  4. Scheerer L, Bartolucci L. Transvaginal sonography in the evaluation of hematometra. A report of two cases. J Reprod Med. 1996;41:205-6 pubmed
    Transabdominal sonography is useful in the diagnosis of hematometra but may not provide information as to its cause.
  5. Chang C, Chang S, Changchien C, Lui C, Huang H. Hematometra of the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus resulting from cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185:1263-4 pubmed
    ..We report the first apparent case of hematometra of the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus resulting from cesarean section.
  6. Dadhwal V, Sumana G, Mittal S. Hematometra following uterine compression sutures. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007;99:255-6 pubmed
  7. McCausland A, McCausland V. Frequency of symptomatic cornual hematometra and postablation tubal sterilization syndrome after total rollerball endometrial ablation: a 10-year follow-up. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186:1274-80; discussion 1280-3 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of symptomatic cornual hematometra and postablation tubal sterilization syndrome after total rollerball endometrial ablation and to describe methods for diagnosis, treatment, and ..
  8. Fujimoto V, Klein N, Miller P. Late-onset hematometra and hematosalpinx in a woman with a noncommunicating uterine horn. A case report. J Reprod Med. 1998;43:465-7 pubmed
    ..Noncommunicating uterine horns are rare, occasionally presenting with functional endometrial cavities. Surgical removal of the noncommunicating horn is commonly performed to prevent endometriosis in these patients...
  9. Sherer D, Khoury Collado F, Hellmann M, Abdelmalek E, Kheyman M, Abulafia O. Transvaginal sonography of hematotrachelos and hematometra causing acute urinary retention after previous repair of intrapartum cervical lacerations. J Ultrasound Med. 2006;25:269-71 pubmed

More Information


  1. Cheng P, Chueh H, Qiu J. Heterotopic pregnancy in a natural conception cycle presenting as hematometra. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104:1195-8 pubmed
    Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare event in natural conception cycles. Diagnosis of heterotopic pregnancy requires a high index of suspicion. Described herein is a reported case of a heterotopic pregnancy presenting as hematometra.
  2. Cicinelli E, Romano F, Didonna T, Schonauer L, Galantino P, Di Naro E. Resectoscopic treatment of uterus didelphys with unilateral imperforate vagina complicated by hematocolpos and hematometra: case report. Fertil Steril. 1999;72:553-5 pubmed
    To describe a technique for treating hematocolpos and hematometra in patients with uterus didelphys and unilateral imperforate vagina involving the use of resectoscopy under ultrasonographic control.
  3. Rana A, Gurung G, Begum S, Adhikari S, Neupane B. Hysterectomy for hematometra in a 15-year-old mentally handicapped girl with congenital cervicovaginal agenesis and concomitant ovarian adenoma. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2008;34:105-7 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of hematometra and bilateral hematosalphinx in a 15-year-old mentally handicapped adolescent girl, complicated by vaginal agenesis over cervical atresia in the presence of an ovarian adenoma...
  4. Stone S, Alexander J. Images in clinical medicine. Imperforate hymen with hematocolpometra. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:e6 pubmed
  5. Huang E, Howell J. Hematometra presenting as acute appendicitis: a case report. Am J Emerg Med. 1988;6:350-2 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, hematometra presenting in this manner has not been reported in the medical literature...
  6. Tsai C, Chen C, Chang M, Chang S, Chien S. Hematometrocolpos secondary to didelphic uterus and unilateral imperforated double vagina as an unusual cause of acute abdomen. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;46:448-52 pubmed
  7. Isaacson K. Complications of hysteroscopy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1999;26:39-51 pubmed
  8. Grund D, Köhler C, Krauel H, Schneider A. A new approach to preserve fertility by using a coated nitinol stent in a patient with recurrent cervical stenosis. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:1212.e13-6 pubmed
    The incidence of hematometra caused by cervical stenosis after conization is <1%. Nevertheless, if dilatation was unsuccessful, further therapy often remains unclear, and the clinical consequences can be severe, including hysterectomy...
  9. Lang N, Stark H, Ohel G. Unilateral hematometrocolpos associated with double uterus. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 1995;22:289-92 pubmed
    ..Such a mass in normally menstruating women may detract from the true diagnosis. Awareness of this relatively rare condition is the mainstay of prompt diagnosis which will prevent unnecessary and destructive surgery. ..
  10. Motegi E, Hasegawa K, Kawai S, Kiuchi K, Kosaka N, Mochizuki Y, et al. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system placement for severe uterine cervical stenosis after conization: two case reports. J Med Case Rep. 2016;10:56 pubmed publisher
    ..Japanese woman who was diagnosed with dysmenorrhea caused by recurrent uterine cervical stenosis and hematometra after laser conization...
  11. Zhang Y, Chen Y, Hua K. Robotic-assisted Reconstruction of the Cervix and Vagina by Small Intestinal Submucosa Graft and Fusion of the Hemiuterus. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2017;24:525-528 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a hematometra of 7-cm diameter in her pelvis...
  12. Santos Ribeiro S, Coelho A, da Costa T, Barata S, Alho C, Osorio F, et al. Laparoscopic re-anastomosis of a uterine avulsion following cold-knife conization. Surg Technol Int. 2014;24:231-5 pubmed
    ..Although our conservative surgical correction repaired the anatomy and reestablished menstruation outflow, further follow-up is necessary to confirm the extent to which reproductive function was restored. ..
  13. Wu M, Wu C, Chang F, Yen E, Hsieh M, Chao M. Endometrial carcinoma presenting as hematometra mimicking a large pelvic cyst. J Clin Ultrasound. 1999;27:541-3 pubmed
    ..multiparous postmenopausal woman with an unusual manifestation of endometrial adenocarcinoma that presented as hematometra mimicking a large pelvic cyst...
  14. Qazi S, Khan N. Congenital hematometrocolpos in a circumcised girl. An anomaly superimposed by cultural mutilating practices. J Pak Med Assoc. 1997;47:288-9 pubmed
    ..Mutilation caused by bad cultural practice of female circumcision which is although not a problem in Pakistan, is brought into notice for those who may be unaware of perineal appearance of a circumcised female and stitched over vagina. ..
  15. Voigt R, Eichhorn K. [Clinical and ultrasonic diagnosis of hematometra following curettage]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1988;110:636-9 pubmed
    By hands of a case report we describe our diagnostic management in a patient suffering from hematometra 3 months after legal abortion...
  16. Lo S, Ramsay P, Pierson R, Manconi F, Munro M, Fraser I. Endometrial thickness measured by ultrasound scan in women with uterine outlet obstruction due to intrauterine or upper cervical adhesions. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:306-9 pubmed
    ..Haematometra are rarely found in these women. We tested the hypothesis that women with localized adhesions occluding the uterine outlet (but not affecting the upper uterine cavity) will have much thinner endometrium than controls...
  17. Jedryka M, Pochwałowski M, Goluda C, Kuryłło M. [Hematometra in 76-year-old woman followed by DIC and the result of the carcinoma of cervix--a case report]. Ginekol Pol. 2001;72:1530-3 pubmed
    This is a case report of a 76-year-old women with hematometra due to cervical cancer followed by DIC. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of such case.
  18. Dadhwal V, Mittal S, Kumar S, Barua A. Hematometra in postmenarchal adolescent girls: a report of two cases. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2000;50:67-9 pubmed
    ..We report two cases of unicornuate uterus with functioning rudimentary horn to highlight that Mullerian duct anomalies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe dysmenorrhoea even in normally menstruating girls. ..
  19. Rashmi -, Suneja A, Yadav P, Sharma A, Vaid N. Uterine avulsion: a rare cause of cryptomenorrhea. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009;22:e5-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Uterine avulsion due to blunt pelvic trauma is a very rare cause of cryptomenorrhea. But so far no case of uterine avulsion has been reported due to a childhood trauma without pelvic fracture...
  20. Moskovitz B, Deutsch M, Levin D. Acute urinary retention secondary to uterus didelphys with imperforate vagina. Urol Int. 1987;42:464-6 pubmed
    ..Cyclic dysmenorrhea, unilateral abdominopelvic mass, acute urinary retention and renal agenesis ipsilateral to the pelvic mass in a young woman suggest uterus didelphys with unilaterally imperforate vagina. ..
  21. Hubert S, Marcus P, Rothenberg J, Schilder J, Hurd W. Hematometra after thermal balloon endometrial ablation in a patient with cervical incompetence. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2001;11:311-3 pubmed
    Thermal balloon endometrial ablation is a relatively safe nonsurgical treatment for menorrhagia. Hematometra follows this procedure in <3 % of patients, but risk factors for this complication are unclear...
  22. Noor C, Patankar S, Winter Roach B. An unusual case of hematometra in a postmenopausal woman associated with Manchester repair. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2012;16:162-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Hematometra is a rare condition caused by obstruction of the lower female genital tract resulting in an accumulation of menstrual fluid in the uterine cavity...
  23. Arendt T, Broschewitz U. [Hematohydrometra 11 years after cervix conization: a cause of acute massive lung thromboembolism]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1989;111:119-22 pubmed
  24. Froehlich J, Metens T, Chilla B, Hauser N, Hohl M, Kubik Huch R. MRI of the female pelvis: a possible pitfall in the differentiation of haemorrhagic vs. fatty lesions using fat saturated sequences with inversion recovery. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:598-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the fat-specific spectral fat-saturation of T1-weighted images is strongly recommended for tissue characterization in gynaecological disease. ..
  25. Yang L, Kanagalingam D. Spontaneous uterine rupture secondary to recurrent haematometra from cervical stenosis. Singapore Med J. 2012;53:e114-6 pubmed
    ..Total hysterectomy was eventually mandated by spontaneous rupture of the haematometra. ..
  26. Blask A, Sanders R, Rock J. Obstructed uterovaginal anomalies: demonstration with sonography. Part II. Teenagers. Radiology. 1991;179:84-8 pubmed
    ..When the sonogram demonstrated a hematometra, the lesion was due to Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome with functioning uterine anlage(n) (n = 2), ..
  27. Stamatopoulos C, Tsimpanakos I, McKenzie Gray B, Gkioulekas N, Korkontzelos I, Magos A. An unusual case of cervical diverticulum identified by presence of 3 cavities at diagnostic hysteroscopy. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2013;20:238-40 pubmed publisher
    ..severe dysmenorrhea since menarche, known right unicornuate uterus with a left rudimentary horn, and recurrent hematometra. Previous hysteroscopic drainage of the hematometra temporarily alleviated the symptoms...
  28. Meyer W, McCoy M, Fritz M. Combined abdominal-perineal sonography to assist in diagnosis of transverse vaginal septum. Obstet Gynecol. 1995;85:882-4 pubmed
    ..A mid-transverse septum was found and confirmed surgically. Transperineal or translabial sonography assisted in the differentiation of primary amenorrhea, when adequate vaginal access was prohibited. ..
  29. Hucke J, Debruyne F, Campo R, Freikha A. Hysteroscopic treatment of congenital uterine malformations causing hemihematometra: a report of three cases. Fertil Steril. 1992;58:823-5 pubmed
    ..There the endometrium was ablated for prevention of recurrence of hemihematometra. By this endoscopic approach the disadvantages of laparotomy could be avoided in three adolescent patients. ..
  30. Koyama Sato M, Hashida O, Nakamura T, Hirahara F, Sakakibara H. Case of early postoperative adhesion in a patient with molimina due to transverse vaginal septum concomitant with imperforate hymen. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2015;41:1141-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A 16-year-old girl had been treated with puncture several times for hematometra and hematocolpos from 13 years of age because of monthly occurrence of lower abdominal pain without menstrual ..
  31. Gaillard P, Krasin M, Laningham F, Hoffer F, Davidoff A, Spunt S, et al. Hematometrocolpos in an adolescent female treated for pelvic Ewing sarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;50:157-60 pubmed
    ..We describe the clinical presentation, radiographic features, gross pathology, treatment strategies, outcome, as well as putative predisposing factors and preventative interventions. ..
  32. Biler A, Akdemir A, Peker N, Sendag F. A Rare Uterine Malformation: Asymmetric Septate Uterus. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2018;25:28-29 pubmed publisher
    ..a septate uterus with a noncommunicating hemicavity, composed of a blind uterine horn usually with unilateral hematometra, and a contralateral unicornuate uterine cavity. The external uterine shape is normal...
  33. Pliskow S. Severe gynecologic sequelae of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by ibuprofen: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2013;58:354-6 pubmed
    ..After onset of puberty she required surgery to treat vulvar, vaginal and cervical adhesions, stenosis and hematometra. While delaying evaluation and treatment of the extremely young child with this disorder until puberty has been ..
  34. Reuter K, Young S, Daly B. Hematometra complicating conization with radiologic correlation. A case report. J Reprod Med. 1994;39:408-10 pubmed
    We report hematometra as a rare complication of cervical stenosis after a cone biopsy. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were very helpful in determining the diagnosis in conjunction with a physical examination.
  35. Blanco C, Fernandez F, Buelta L, Garijo F, Val Bernal J, Sanchez S. Xanthomatous endometritis. Appl Pathol. 1989;7:273-6 pubmed
    ..This lesion seems to be a rare complication of hematometra with cervical occlusion...
  36. Misumi K, Fujiki M, Miura N, Sakamoto H. Uterine horn torsion in two non-gravid bitches. J Small Anim Pract. 2000;41:468-71 pubmed
    ..Ovariohysterectomy was performed in both cases. Pathological examination of the uteri demonstrated haematometra in one dog and pyometra in the other...
  37. Gyang A, Mirando S. Haematometra following large loop excision of the transformation zone. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;26:835 pubmed
  38. Bacalbasa N, Balescu I, Dragan I, Banceanu G, Suciu I, Suciu N. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Presenting as Hematometra with Underlying Thickened Endometrial Lining in a Postmenopausal Woman - A Case Report. Anticancer Res. 2016;36:2353-7 pubmed
    ..a 65-year-old patient who presented with association of pelvic pain, enlarged uterine cavity with an underlying hematometra and an irregular, thickened endometrium who was submitted to surgery for total histerectomy, bilateral ..
  39. Aartsen E. Fluid detection in the uterus during and after irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix--clinical implications. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1990;16:42-6 pubmed
    ..In the near future an increase of this complication is possible as a consequence of hormonal replacement therapy given to prevent osteoporosis after pelvic irradiation...
  40. Piña García A, Afrashtehfar C. [Uterus Didelphys, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis as a presentation of a case of the Herlyn-Wemer-Wünderlich syndrome. Literature review]. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2013;81:616-20 pubmed
    ..The syndrome is characterized by uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Patients with this syndrome are asymptomatic until menarche, and can follow other complications...
  41. Sak M, Evsen M, Soydinc H, Sak S, Yalinkaya A. Imperforate hymen with elevated serum CA 125 and CA 19-9 levels. J Reprod Med. 2013;58:47-50 pubmed
    ..To report the clinical characteristics of 14 patients with imperforate hymen and their levels of tumor markers (CA 19-9 and CA 125)...
  42. Saleh M, Badawy S. Unilateral non-communicating cervical atresia in a patient with uterus didelphys and unilateral renal agenesis. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2010;23:e137-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Patient on postoperative follow-up doing well...
  43. Knopman J, Copperman A. Endometrial thickness measured by ultrasound scan in women with uterine outlet obstruction due to intrauterine or upper cervical adhesions. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:1234; author reply 1234-5 pubmed publisher
  44. Matignas A, Delos Reyes R. Rectovestibular fistula as neovagina in congenital cervico-vaginal agenesis associated with imperforate anus. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2008;34:428-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Intraoperative findings revealed absent cervix and vagina, partial bicornuate uterus, hematometra, left tubal endometriosis, ruptured left endometrioma and left renal agenesis...
  45. Gupta N, Mittal S, Dadhwal V, Misra R. A unique congenital mullerian anomaly: Robert's uterus. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;276:641-3 pubmed
  46. Liatsikos S, Tsikouras P, Souftas V, Ammari A, Prassopoulos P, Maroulis G, et al. Diagnosis and laparoscopic management of a rudimentary uterine horn in a teenage girl, presenting with haematometra and severe endometriosis: our experience and review of literature. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol. 2010;19:241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Laparoscopy is an accurate diagnostic tool, which also carries significant advantages in effective surgical management of congenital uterine anomalies, especially in young women...
  47. Agarwal M, Das A, Singh A. Dysmenorrhea due to a rare müllerian anomaly. Niger J Clin Pract. 2011;14:377-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we present this case report, with interesting illustrations, so as to increase awareness regarding these anomalies...
  48. Vernooij C, Kruitwagen R, Rodrigus P, Kock H, Feyen H. Hematometra after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 1997;67:325-7 pubmed
    The development of a hematometra after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma is often related to recurrent disease. We present two cases in which a hematometra developed during the use of estrogen replacement therapy...
  49. Yu T, Lin M. Acute urinary retention in two patients with imperforate hymen. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1993;27:543-4 pubmed
    ..Hymenotomy created individually by CO2 laser and cruciate incision was performed. The two patients were discharged on the same day after operation and made an uneventful recovery...
  50. Balasch J, Martinez Román S, Vanrell J. Hematometra in an unattached rudimentary uterine horn and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1994;54:150-2 pubmed
    ..She had been unsuccessfully treated with prostaglandin inhibitors, and in her past history several episodes of urinary tract infections were reported. Removal of the uterine horn afforded complete relief of symptoms...
  51. Deathe A. Hematometra as a cause of lumbar radiculopathy. A case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1993;18:1920-1 pubmed
    ..The accumulation of blood in these cavities is termed hematocolpos, hematometra, and hematosalpinx...
  52. Benítez Navío J, Casanueva Luis T, Laguna Urraca G, Gallardo Galán C, García Velasco S. [Right hematocolpos and hematometra with left renal agenesis. A rare association. Apropos a case]. Arch Esp Urol. 1993;46:824-7 pubmed
    ..the present case is unique in that the genital anomaly (imperforate vagina with the subsequent hematocolpos and hematometra) was associated with contralateral renal agenesis, whereas the cases reported in the literature have all been ..
  53. Perino A, Chianchiano N, Simonaro C, Cittadini E. Endoscopic management of a case of 'complete septate uterus with unilateral haematometra'. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:2171-3 pubmed
    ..After pretreatment with buserelin, hysteroscopic metroplasty was successfully performed...
  54. Pschera H, Kjaeldgaard A. Haematocervix after conization diagnosed by ultrasonography. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1990;29:309-10 pubmed
    ..This report deals with 1 case that presented with clinical signs of progressive stenosis and was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Based on analysis of the 3 previously reported cases the pathogenesis of this condition is discussed...
  55. Giannacopoulos K, Troukis E, Constandinou P, Rozis I, Kokonakis C, Giannikos L. Hematometra and extended vaginal haematoma after laser conization. A case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1998;19:569-70 pubmed
    ..Cervical dilation and protection of surrounding tissues from thermal damage is recommended during laser conization to avoid similar complications...
  56. Saks E, Vakili B, Steinberg A. Primary amenorrhea with an abdominal mass at the umbilicus. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009;22:e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Transverse vaginal septum is a rare cause of primary amenorrhea. It has a reported incidence of 1:2,100-1:72,000 and a variety of clinical presentations...
  57. Hurst B, Rock J. Preoperative dilatation to facilitate repair of the high transverse vaginal septum. Fertil Steril. 1992;57:1351-3 pubmed
    ..Using this approach, we have obtained excellent results in three patients. Further study is necessary to validate this surgical modification...
  58. Gowda M, Garcia L, Maxwell E, Malik R, Gulyaeva L, Tsai M. Spontaneous uterine rupture in a nulligravida female presenting with unexplained recurrent hematometra. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2010;37:60-2 pubmed
    ..recent onset of metromenorrhagia and anemia, was initially admitted for surgical management of unexplained hematometra requiring dilation and curettage...
  59. Yao K, Chu F, Wang J. A clinical epidemiological study of the quantitative diagnosis scale of blood stasis syndrome. Chin J Integr Med. 2011;17:200-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To establish the diagnosis scale of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) and explore the idea and method of using scale to research the quantitative diagnosis of Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome...
  60. Perino A, Python J, Thompson L. Management of hematocervix after loop electrosurgical excision procedure. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118:484-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Management is not established for the uncommon complication of cervical stenosis secondary to a loop electrosurgical excision procedure resulting in a hematocervix...
  61. Manglik N, Sawicki J, Saad A, Fadare O, Soslow R, Liang S. Giant cell tumor of uterus resembling osseous giant cell tumor: case report and review of literature. Int J Surg Pathol. 2012;20:618-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first example of such a case that has been reported in the uterus to the authors' knowledge...
  62. Gupta P, Gupta S, Jindal S, Chopra K, Sinha M, Arora A. Cervical dysgenesis with transverse vaginal septum with imperforate hymen in an 11 year old girl presenting with acute abdomen. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2013;52:281-4 pubmed
    ..Cervical dysgenesis associated with vaginal septum and imperforate hymen has not been reported in literature so far. Present case highlights the simple mode of management with a successful outcome...
  63. Ohara N. Acute onset of hematometra associated with endometritis and cervical stenosis. A case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2002;29:23-4 pubmed
    The possible cause of hematometra is incomplete cervical stenosis which inhibits the passage of blood due to acute endometritis.
  64. Kohlenberg C, Pardey J, Ellwood D. Transabdominal ultrasound as an aid to advanced hysteroscopic surgery. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994;34:462-4 pubmed
    ..The cases vary from haematometra following endometrial ablation to Asherman syndrome and subseptate uteri...
  65. Sacks P, Falk R. Hematometra associated with estrogen replacement therapy. South Med J. 1993;86:842-3 pubmed
    We have described two cases of hematometra occurring after initiation of estrogen replacement therapy. In both cases, cervical stenosis had developed during a prolonged period of hypoestrogenism...
  66. Benzineb N, Bellasfar M, Merchaoui J, Sfar R. [Robert's uterus with menstrual retention in the blind cavity]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1993;22:366-8 pubmed
    ..The authors report an original case: the blind cavity, on the right side of the septum, contained retained secretions. The embryologic and physiopathologic mechanism of this anomaly still are to be discussed...
  67. Gill F, McLucas B. Bleeding complications after CASH. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 1995;2:349-51 pubmed
    ..Two additional patients required repeat surgery, and one required transfusion. Endometrial glands were present in one excised specimen, suggesting the possibility that menstruation and hematometra may occur.
  68. Cooper J, Brady R. Late complications of operative hysteroscopy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2000;27:367-74 pubmed
    ..Meticulous diagnostic assessment and preoperative consideration of risk factors for residual endometrium and future pregnancy remain the keys to minimizing late complications...
  69. Doyle J, Williams C, Raymond C. Hematometra in a patient with Cornelia De Lange syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106:1202-4 pubmed
    b>Hematometra is usually the result of developmental anomalies or may be secondary to cervical obstruction. Abnormal uterine contractile function (atony) would be an uncommon cause of hematometra.
  70. Sherer D, Eugene P, Gorelick C, Ramachandran S, Serur E, Kheyman M, et al. Acute spontaneous hematotrachelos following methotrexate treatment of a suspected tubal pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med. 2006;25:1091-3 pubmed
  71. Donnez O, Jadoul P, Squifflet J, Donnez J. Didelphic uterus and obstructed hemivagina: recurrent hematometra in spite of appropriate classic surgical treatment. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2007;63:98-101 pubmed
    ..myometrium on the treated side never recovered its normal function, with subsequent persistence of recurrent hematometra. Laparoscopic subtotal hemihysterectomy had to be performed to avoid retention of hematometra and secondary ..
  72. Rose S, Kinney T, Roberts A, Valji K, Sanfeliz G, Miller F, et al. Endocavitary three-dimensional ultrasonographic assistance for transvaginal or transrectal drainage of pelvic fluid collections. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005;16:1333-40 pubmed
    ..Determine the feasibility of using three-dimensional ultrasonography (3D US) to assist in planning and performing endocavitary drainage of deep pelvic fluid collections...
  73. Brucker S, Rall K, Campo R, Oppelt P, Isaacson K. Treatment of congenital malformations. Semin Reprod Med. 2011;29:101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The only surgical option in these cases is to remove the rudimentary uterus with endometrium and hematometra, respectively.
  74. Goluda M, Roszyk Rybińska A, Gasińska Drozdowska I, Hirowska Tracz M. [Surgical treatment in a case of partial vaginal obliteration coexisting with hematometra, hematocolpos and other congenital defects]. Ginekol Pol. 1999;70:292-4 pubmed
    A case history of 12 years old girl with transverse vaginal septum occurring with hematometra, hematocolpos and other congenital defects is presented...
  75. Nisanian A. Hematocolpometra presenting as urinary retention. A case report. J Reprod Med. 1993;38:57-60 pubmed
    ..We report on a 14-year-old white girl with hematocolpometra and imperforate hymen. The symptoms, operative findings and postoperative involution of internal genitalia are described...
  76. Hollander M, Verdonk P, Trap K. Unilateral renal agenesis and associated Müllerian anomalies: a case report and recommendations for pre-adolescent screening. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2008;21:151-3 pubmed publisher
  77. Rana A, Gurung G, Manandhar B, Ghimire R. Simultaneous occurrence of hematometrocolpos and consecutive pregnancies in uterine didelphys : a case report. Nepal Med Coll J. 2008;10:136-8 pubmed
    ..there was every reason for this condition not to go unrecognized for the simple fact ofhemivaginal obstruction and hematometra with ipsilateral renal agenesis (on the left side) unaffecting the consecutive pregnancy in the other uterus.
  78. Dilbaz S, Dede F, Kiseli M, Dilbaz B. Cervical fragmentation: a successful end-to-end anastomosis. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2769.e9-11 pubmed publisher
    To report a case of cervical dysgenesis presenting with hematometra.
  79. Lin S, Ho E, Chen Y. Hematosalpinx: an unusual complication after medical abortion with oral mifepristone and misoprostol. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2005;25:416-7 pubmed
  80. Nohuz E, Moreno W, Varga J, Tamburro S, Yanez M, Loriette Y, et al. [Imperforate hymen: one diagnosis can hide another]. Arch Pediatr. 2010;17:394-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A case of imperforate hymen discovered after a surgical complication is reported. We discuss the lessons to draw from this case in terms of diagnosis and therapeutic management...
  81. Nayci A, Avlan D, Oz U, Toktaş S, Aksoyek S. Does menstrual flow exclude hematometra? A rare case of uterine anomaly presenting with anorectal malformation. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:666-7 pubmed
    b>Hematometra, which is defined as accumulation of menstrual secretions in the uterine cavity, may not be diagnosed until the maturating adolescent fails to menstruate...
  82. Mwenda A. Imperforate Hymen - a rare cause of acute abdominal pain and tenesmus: case report and review of the literature. Pan Afr Med J. 2013;15:28 pubmed publisher
    ..A 14 year old girl with imperforate hymen underwent hymenotomy for hematocolpometra, having presented with abdominal pains and tenesmus. ..
  83. Di Spiezio Sardo A, Di Carlo C, Salerno M, Sparice S, Bifulco G, Guida M, et al. Use of office hysteroscopy to empty a very large hematometra in a young virgin patient with mosaic Turner's syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:417.e1-3 pubmed
    To describe the successful management of a hematometra using a 5-mm continuous flow operative office hysteroscope.
  84. Saharan S, Parulekar S. Hemihaematometra with persistent undeveloped Wolffian duct. J Postgrad Med. 1993;39:98-9 pubmed
    ..Exploratory laparotomy revealed a persistent undeveloped Wolffian duct. This is the second case in world literature where a persistent mesonephric duct without any development is reported...
  85. Liu M. Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1994;44:149-53 pubmed
    ..To identify the effects of unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn on reproductive function and analyze the diagnosis and treatment of the condition...