endometrial hyperplasia


Summary: Benign proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM in the UTERUS. Endometrial hyperplasia is classified by its cytology and glandular tissue. There are simple, complex (adenomatous without atypia), and atypical hyperplasia representing also the ascending risk of becoming malignant.

Top Publications

  1. Sivridis E, Giatromanolaki A, Liberis V, Koukourakis M. Autophagy in endometrial carcinomas and prognostic relevance of 'stone-like' structures (SLS): what is destined for the atypical endometrial hyperplasia?. Autophagy. 2011;7:74-82 pubmed
  2. McCampbell A, Walker C, Broaddus R, Cook J, Davies P. Developmental reprogramming of IGF signaling and susceptibility to endometrial hyperplasia in the rat. Lab Invest. 2008;88:615-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Progression from a normal endometrium to carcinoma occurs via the intermediate stage of endometrial hyperplasia. We previously reported that endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal women is linked to abnormal ..
  3. Lacey J, Chia V. Endometrial hyperplasia and the risk of progression to carcinoma. Maturitas. 2009;63:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The remaining 15% receive a diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia (EH), which includes a broad range of lesions, from mild, reversible proliferations to the immediate ..
  4. Gallos I, Ofinran O, Shehmar M, Coomarasamy A, Gupta J. Current management of endometrial hyperplasia-a survey of United Kingdom consultant gynaecologists. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;158:305-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine current practice for the management of endometrial hyperplasia.
  5. Buttini M, Jordan S, Webb P. The effect of the levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system on endometrial hyperplasia: an Australian study and systematic review. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;49:316-22 pubmed publisher
    The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) provides effective contraception and treatment for menorrhagia and is used to prevent endometrial hyperplasia (EH) in women taking unopposed oestrogens.
  6. Orbo A, Arnes M, Pettersen I, Larsen K, Hanssen K, Moe B. Down-regulated progesterone receptor A and B coinciding with successful treatment of endometrial hyperplasia by the levonorgestrel impregnated intrauterine system. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89:1438-46 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether regression of endometrial hyperplasia observed after 3 months of treatment with levonorgestrel impregnated intrauterine system device (LNG-IUS) was sustained after 6 months and whether these effects were still ..
  7. Baker J, Obermair A, Gebski V, Janda M. Efficacy of oral or intrauterine device-delivered progestin in patients with complex endometrial hyperplasia with atypia or early endometrial adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;125:263-70 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the efficacy of progestin treatment to achieve pathological complete response (pCR) in patients with complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia (CAH) or early endometrial adenocarcinoma (EC).
  8. Gunderson C, Fader A, Carson K, Bristow R. Oncologic and reproductive outcomes with progestin therapy in women with endometrial hyperplasia and grade 1 adenocarcinoma: a systematic review. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;125:477-82 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this review was to analyze published contemporary oncologic and reproductive outcomes in women with endometrial hyperplasia or cancer undergoing medical management with progestin therapy.
  9. Upson K, Allison K, Reed S, Jordan C, Newton K, Swisher E, et al. Biomarkers of progestin therapy resistance and endometrial hyperplasia progression. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207:36.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    We sought to identify biomarkers associated with progestin therapy resistance and persistence/progression of endometrial hyperplasia.

More Information


  1. Haimovich S, Checa M, Mancebo G, Fuste P, Carreras R. Treatment of endometrial hyperplasia without atypia in peri- and postmenopausal women with a levonorgestrel intrauterine device. Menopause. 2008;15:1002-4 pubmed publisher
    To assess the effectiveness of the Mirena levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in peri- and postmenopausal women with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia.
  2. Erdemoglu E, Guney M, Giray S, Take G, Mungan T. Effects of metformin on mammalian target of rapamycin in a mouse model of endometrial hyperplasia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;145:195-9 pubmed publisher
    The effects of metformin on S6K1, which is a crucial effector of mTOR signaling, and on endometrium were studied in a mouse model of endometrial hyperplasia induced by unopposed estradiol or tamoxifen.
  3. Mentrikoski M, Shah A, Hanley K, Atkins K. Assessing endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma treated with progestin therapy. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;138:524-34 pubmed
    ..Our study confirms that cytologic atypia after 6 months of therapy is strongly associated with treatment failure, and should be an indication to pursue definitive surgical treatment in these patients...
  4. Choudhury M, Bansal S. Expression of cyclin D1 in endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2007;50:708-10 pubmed
    ..Since there was no difference in extent and intensity of cyclin D1 expression between complex hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma, it appears that deregulation is maximal in complex hyperplasia...
  5. Espindola D, Kennedy K, Fischer E. Management of abnormal uterine bleeding and the pathology of endometrial hyperplasia. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2007;34:717-37, ix pubmed
    ..Emerging molecular markers also provide the opportunity to develop clinically useful screening tests for the most common malignancy of the female genital tract...
  6. Villavicencio A, Goyeneche A, Telleria C, Bacallao K, Gabler F, Fuentes A, et al. Involvement of Akt, Ras and cell cycle regulators in the potential development of endometrial hyperplasia in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;115:102-107 pubmed publisher
    ..and/or Western blot in 9 normal endometria (NE), 12 endometria from PCOS patients without endometrial hyperplasia (PCOSE), 7 endometria from PCOS women with endometrial hyperplasia (HPCOSE), and 9 endometria from ..
  7. McCampbell A, Harris H, Crabtree J, Winneker R, Walker C, Broaddus R. Loss of inhibitory insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation is an early event in mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010;3:290-300 pubmed publisher
    Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling contributes to the development of endometrial hyperplasia, the precursor to endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma, in humans and in rodent models...
  8. Pungal A, Balan R, Cotutiu C. [Hormone receptors and markers in endometrial hyperplasia. Immunohistochemical study]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2010;114:180-4 pubmed
    b>Endometrial hyperplasia is a proliferation of the endometrium with increased number of glands and the change of the gland-stroma ratio. By histopathologic examination is now accepted the WHO classification...
  9. Chen Y, Cheng W, Lin M, Huang C, Hsieh C, Chen C. Concurrent endometrial carcinoma in patients with a curettage diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia. J Formos Med Assoc. 2009;108:502-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Endometrial hyperplasia is considered a precursor of endometrial carcinoma, but concurrent endometrial carcinoma in patients with endometrial hyperplasia is seen frequently...
  10. Ørbo A, Arnes M, Hancke C, Vereide A, Pettersen I, Larsen K. Treatment results of endometrial hyperplasia after prospective D-score classification: a follow-up study comparing effect of LNG-IUD and oral progestins versus observation only. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;111:68-73 pubmed publisher
    Three different treatment options for endometrial hyperplasia were evaluated in a prospective long-time follow-up study, comparing effects of intrauterine levonorgestrel impregnated device (LNG-IUD), low oral dose of medroxyprogesterone ..
  11. Zakharov V, Lin H, Azzarello J, McMeekin S, Moore K, Penning T, et al. Suppressed expression of type 2 3alpha/type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3) in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2010;3:608-17 pubmed
    The diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial type adenocarcinoma arising within the uterine cavity has long been rested on morphologic criteria...
  12. Lee T, Seong S, Kim J, Ryu H, Song E, Nam B. Management of endometrial hyperplasia with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: single arm, prospective multicenter study: Korean gynecologic oncology group study (KGOG2006). Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2011;41:817-9 pubmed publisher
    ..investigate the treatment efficacy of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in patients with endometrial hyperplasia. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is an alternative to oral progesterone without the ..
  13. Eddib A, Allaf B, Lee J, Yeh J. Risk for advanced-stage endometrial cancer in surgical specimens from patients with complex endometrial hyperplasia with atypia. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2012;73:38-42 pubmed publisher
    To determine the incidence of endometrial cancer in patients undergoing hysterectomy for atypical complex endometrial hyperplasia and to study the risk of advanced endometrial cancer that may be associated with extra-uterine disease.
  14. Ichinose M, Fujimoto A, Osuga Y, Minaguchi T, Kawana K, Yano T, et al. The influence of infertility treatment on the prognosis of endometrial cancer and atypical complex endometrial hyperplasia. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013;23:288-93 pubmed publisher
    ..brings good response rate in the treatment of endometrial cancer in the early stage and atypical complex endometrial hyperplasia (EC/ACEH)...
  15. Zhang H, Li X, Zhang X, Zhang Z, Meng Y, Xu S, et al. PINCH protein expression in normal endometrium, atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. Chemotherapy. 2010;56:291-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we examined PINCH expression in normal endometrium, atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid carcinoma, and further studied the relationships of PINCH expression with ..
  16. Gallos I, Shehmar M, Thangaratinam S, Papapostolou T, Coomarasamy A, Gupta J. Oral progestogens vs levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for endometrial hyperplasia: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203:547.e1-10 pubmed publisher
    To conduct a systematic review and metaanalysis of studies evaluating the regression rate of endometrial hyperplasia with oral progestogens and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system.
  17. Bitto A, Granese R, Triolo O, Villari D, Maisano D, Giordano D, et al. Genistein aglycone: a new therapeutic approach to reduce endometrial hyperplasia. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:844-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Endometrial hyperplasia without cytological atypia is commonly treated with progestins, but other treatment regimes may be available with equivalent efficacy and low side effects.
  18. Witkiewicz A, McConnell T, Potoczek M, Emmons R, Kurman R. Increased natural killer cells and decreased regulatory T cells are seen in complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia and well-differentiated carcinoma treated with progestins. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that progestin treatment affects subpopulations of lymphocytes in the endometrium and may induce immune suppression of complex atypical hyperplasia and well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma...
  19. Quddus M, Ologun B, Sung C, Steinhoff M, Lawrence W. Utility of PTEN expression of endometrial "surface epithelial changes" and underlying atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2009;28:471-6 pubmed publisher
    ..They have also been seen to be associated with endometrial hyperplasia. Although morphologically benign, these lesions are considered a marker for underlying malignancy...
  20. Furness S, Roberts H, Marjoribanks J, Lethaby A. Hormone therapy in postmenopausal women and risk of endometrial hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD000402 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this review is to identify the minimum dose(s) of progestogen required to be added to estrogen so that the rate of endometrial hyperplasia is not increased compared to placebo.
  21. van Meurs H, Bleeker M, van der Velden J, Overbeek L, Kenter G, Buist M. The incidence of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer in 1031 patients with a granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: long-term follow-up in a population-based cohort study. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013;23:1417-22 pubmed publisher
    Concurrent presence of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer in patients with granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) is common, with reported incidences of 25.6% to 65.5%...
  22. Dobrzycka B, Terlikowski S, Mazurek A, Kowalczuk O, Niklińska W, Chyczewski L, et al. Mutations of the KRAS oncogene in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2009;47:65-8 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to examine the prevalence and clinicopathological significance of KRAS point mutation in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma...
  23. Varma R, Soneja H, Bhatia K, Ganesan R, Rollason T, Clark T, et al. The effectiveness of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia--a long-term follow-up study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008;139:169-75 pubmed publisher
    Medical treatment of non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia with oral progestogens has limited efficacy and poor compliance...
  24. Zhang X, Qi C, Lin J. Enhanced expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and increased microvascular density in the endometrial hyperplasia of women with anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:2362-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the roles of endometrial matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF), and microvascular density (MVD) in the occurrence of anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)...
  25. Rzepka Gorska I, Bedner R, Cymbaluk Płoska A, Chudecka Głaz A. Serum adiponectin in relation to endometrial cancer and endometrial hyperplasia with atypia in obese women. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2008;29:594-7 pubmed
    The aim of this work was to compare concentrations of adiponectin in the serum of obese women with endometrial cancer, endometrial hyperplasia with atypia, and normal endometrium.
  26. Kashima H, Horiuchi A, Uchikawa J, Miyamoto T, Suzuki A, Ashida T, et al. Up-regulation of nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) in progestin-induced growth suppression of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2009;29:1023-9 pubmed
    ..Although progestins have been used for the treatment of endometrial neoplasias, the mechanisms of progestin-induced growth suppression remain undetermined...
  27. Wu W, Celestino J, Milam M, Schmeler K, Broaddus R, Ellenson L, et al. Primary chemoprevention of endometrial hyperplasia with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist rosiglitazone in the PTEN heterozygote murine model. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2008;18:329-38 pubmed publisher
    PTEN mutations have been implicated in the development of endometrial hyperplasia and subsequent cancer. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonists have demonstrated antineoplastic and chemopreventive effects...
  28. Silva E, Leitão S, Henriques S, Kowalewski M, Hoffmann B, Ferreira Dias G, et al. Gene transcription of TLR2, TLR4, LPS ligands and prostaglandin synthesis enzymes are up-regulated in canine uteri with cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex. J Reprod Immunol. 2010;84:66-74 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most frequent bacterium isolated in cases of cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex, the most frequent endometrial disorder in the bitch...
  29. Lacey J, Sherman M, Rush B, Ronnett B, Ioffe O, Duggan M, et al. Absolute risk of endometrial carcinoma during 20-year follow-up among women with endometrial hyperplasia. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:788-92 pubmed publisher
    PURPOSE The severity of endometrial hyperplasia (EH)-simple (SH), complex (CH), or atypical (AH)-influences clinical management, but valid estimates of absolute risk of clinical progression to carcinoma are lacking...
  30. Saloniemi T, Järvensivu P, Koskimies P, Jokela H, Lamminen T, Ghaem Maghami S, et al. Novel hydroxysteroid (17beta) dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors reverse estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia in transgenic mice. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:1443-51 pubmed publisher
    Local estrogen production plays a key role in proliferative endometrial disorders, such as endometrial hyperplasia and cancer...
  31. Villacorte M, Suzuki K, Hirasawa A, Ohkawa Y, Suyama M, Maruyama T, et al. ?-Catenin signaling regulates Foxa2 expression during endometrial hyperplasia formation. Oncogene. 2013;32:3477-82 pubmed publisher
    ..target of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the uterine epithelia and the mechanism leading to the formation of endometrial hyperplasia. We report that conditional ablation and activation of ?-catenin in the uterine epithelia lead to ..
  32. Haoula Z, Walker K, Powell M. Levonorgestrel intra-uterine system as a treatment option for complex endometrial hyperplasia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;159:176-9 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential treatment of atypical and non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia with the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS).
  33. Komori S, Ito Y, Nakamura Y, Aoki M, Takashi T, Kinuta T, et al. A long-term user of cosmetic cream containing estrogen developed breast cancer and endometrial hyperplasia. Menopause. 2008;15:1191-2 pubmed publisher
    A 93-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for abnormal genital bleeding. It was found that she had endometrial hyperplasia and breast cancer. Her uterus was as large as that of a normal adult menstruating woman...
  34. Tantbirojn P, Triratanachat S, Trivijitsilp P, Niruthisard S. Detection of PTEN immunoreactivity in endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91:1161-5 pubmed
    To investigate PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) expression in endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma as analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
  35. Liao C, Huang Y, Au H, Wang L, Chu S. The cancer marker neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is highly expressed in human endometrial hyperplasia. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:1029-36 pubmed publisher
    Recently, endometrial hyperplasia was identified as presenting a higher risk for progressing to endometrial carcinoma more readily than adenomyosis...
  36. Wang Y, Cao R, Jin H, Huang Y, Zhang X, Cong Q, et al. Altered protein expression in serum from endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma patients. J Hematol Oncol. 2011;4:15 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, diagnosis and follow-up of endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia require invasive procedures. Therefore, there is considerable demand for the identification of biomarkers to allow non-invasive detection of these conditions...
  37. Lacey J, Ioffe O, Ronnett B, Rush B, Richesson D, Chatterjee N, et al. Endometrial carcinoma risk among women diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia: the 34-year experience in a large health plan. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:45-53 pubmed
    Classifying endometrial hyperplasia (EH) according to the severity of glandular crowding (simple hyperplasia (SH) vs complex hyperplasia (CH)) and nuclear atypia (simple atypical hyperplasia (SAH) vs complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH)) ..
  38. Arifin E, Shively C, Register T, Cline J. Polycystic ovary syndrome with endometrial hyperplasia in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Vet Pathol. 2008;45:512-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Both ovaries contained many 2- to 3-mm follicles, without any corpora lutea. A diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome was made based on the clinical history, endocrinology, and gross and histopathologic findings...
  39. Sherman M, Ronnett B, Ioffe O, Richesson D, Rush B, Glass A, et al. Reproducibility of biopsy diagnoses of endometrial hyperplasia: evidence supporting a simplified classification. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008;27:318-25 pubmed publisher
    Identifying which categories in the World Health Organization classification of endometrial hyperplasia contribute to suboptimal reproducibility is clinically important.
  40. Pejić S, Todorović A, Stojiljković V, Cvetković D, Lucić N, Radojicić R, et al. Superoxide dismutase and lipid hydroperoxides in blood and endometrial tissue of patients with benign, hyperplastic and malignant endometrium. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2008;80:515-22 pubmed
    ..Since evidence suggests that SOD may be a therapy target for cancer treatment, our findings provide a basis for further research and options for clinical applications...
  41. Ørbo A, Kaino T, Arnes M, Larsen K, Pettersen I, Moe B. Prognostic markers for coexistent carcinoma in high-risk endometrial hyperplasia with negative D-score: significance of morphometry, hormone receptors and apoptosis for outcome prediction. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88:1234-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Among women diagnosed with high-risk hyperplasia, approximately 40% show signs of endometrial cancer in the hysterectomy specimen. Thus, more sophisticated methods are needed to select the women at risk...
  42. Ishikawa M, Nakayama K, Yeasmin S, Katagiri A, Iida K, Nakayama N, et al. NAC1, a potential stem cell pluripotency factor expression in normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:1097-103 pubmed
    ..was significantly higher in the early and mid proliferative phases than in the other menstrual phases, endometrial hyperplasia, and endometrial carcinoma. NAC1 expression was down-regulated during endometrial carcinogenesis...
  43. Shen Z, Zhu H, Lin J. Reverse of progestin-resistant atypical endometrial hyperplasia by metformin and oral contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:465-7 pubmed publisher
    Atypical endometrial hyperplasia usually is treated with high-dose progestin or hysterectomy, but the latter deprives the patient of future child bearing.
  44. Reed S, Voigt L, Newton K, Garcia R, Allison H, Epplein M, et al. Progestin therapy of complex endometrial hyperplasia with and without atypia. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113:655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the likelihood of histologic persistence/progression of complex hyperplasia and atypical hyperplasia among women treated with progestin compared with those not treated, with attention to type, dose, and duration...
  45. Allison K, Tenpenny E, Reed S, Swisher E, Garica R. Immunohistochemical markers in endometrial hyperplasia: is there a panel with promise? A review. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2008;16:329-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this literature review was to identify studies on endometrial hyperplasia (EH) that describe markers with potential to predict response to progestin therapy or potential for ..
  46. Reed S, Newton K, Clinton W, Epplein M, Garcia R, Allison K, et al. Incidence of endometrial hyperplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:678.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the study was to estimate the age-specific incidence of endometrial hyperplasia: simple, complex, and atypical, in order of increasing likelihood of progression to carcinoma.
  47. Gallos I, Yap J, Rajkhowa M, Luesley D, Coomarasamy A, Gupta J. Regression, relapse, and live birth rates with fertility-sparing therapy for endometrial cancer and atypical complex endometrial hyperplasia: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207:266.e1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the study was to evaluate the regression, relapse, and live birth rates of early-stage endometrial cancer (EC) and atypical complex hyperplasia (ACH) with fertility-sparing treatment...
  48. Tas M, Kutuk M, Serin I, Ozgun M, Oner G, Ozturk F. Comparison of antiproliferative effects of metformine and progesterone on estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia in rats. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013;29:311-4 pubmed publisher
    Metformin has been shown to inhibit the growth of endometriotic implants, and reverse endometrial hyperplasia when combined with oral contraceptive in a case report...
  49. Kresowik J, Ryan G, Van Voorhis B. Progression of atypical endometrial hyperplasia to adenocarcinoma despite intrauterine progesterone treatment with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111:547-9 pubmed publisher
    Intrauterine progesterone therapy has been proposed as a potential uterine-sparing treatment for atypical endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  50. Chen X, Zhang Z, Feng Y, Fadare O, Wang J, Ai Z, et al. Aberrant survivin expression in endometrial hyperplasia: another mechanism of progestin resistance. Mod Pathol. 2009;22:699-708 pubmed publisher
    Up to 30% of failure rate in endometrial hyperplasia patients treated by progestin urges more detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in progestin resistance...
  51. Linkov F, Edwards R, Balk J, Yurkovetsky Z, Stadterman B, Lokshin A, et al. Endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer and prevention: gaps in existing research of modifiable risk factors. Eur J Cancer. 2008;44:1632-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This review paper presents the existing knowledge about modifiable risk factors leading to endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer and highlights the need for more studies in this area.
  52. Bacallao K, Leon L, Gabler F, Soto E, Romero C, Valladares L, et al. In situ estrogen metabolism in proliferative endometria from untreated women with polycystic ovarian syndrome with and without endometrial hyperplasia. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;110:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..normal endometria (CE), 18 PCOS endometria without treatment (PCOSE), 10 specimens from PCOS women with endometrial hyperplasia (HPCOSE), and 7 endometria from patients with endometrial hyperplasia not associated to PCOS (EH)...
  53. Gultekin M, Dogan N, Aksan G, Ozgul N. Management of endometrial hyperplasia. Minerva Ginecol. 2010;62:433-45 pubmed
    b>Endometrial hyperplasia is a commonly seen clinical entity. A great majority of patients present with abnormal uterine bleeding. Unopposed estrogen either from an endogenous or exogenous source is the most important etiologic factor...
  54. Gallos I, Krishan P, Shehmar M, Ganesan R, Gupta J. Relapse of endometrial hyperplasia after conservative treatment: a cohort study with long-term follow-up. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:1231-6 pubmed publisher
    What is the risk of relapse for women with endometrial hyperplasia treated with levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) or oral progestogens?
  55. Gallos I, Devey J, Ganesan R, Gupta J. Predictive ability of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), COX-2, Mlh1, and Bcl-2 expressions for regression and relapse of endometrial hyperplasia treated with LNG-IUS: a prospective cohort study. Gynecol Oncol. 2013;130:58-63 pubmed publisher
    ..progesterone receptor (PR), COX-2, Mlh1, and Bcl-2 expressions for predicting the outcomes of regression and relapse in women with endometrial hyperplasia treated with the Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS).
  56. Bedner R, Rzepka Gorska I. Hysteroscopy with directed biopsy versus dilatation and curettage for the diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer in perimenopausal women. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2007;28:400-2 pubmed
    ..of dilatation and curretage (D&C) with hysteroscopy and guided biopsy (H+B) for the collection of endometrial samples adequate for histological examination in perimenopausal women at risk of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer.