gynatresia

Summary

Summary: Absence of a normal opening in the lumen of the female genital tract, from the FALLOPIAN TUBES to the VAGINA. This anomaly may be congenital or acquired due to injuries, diseases, or TISSUE ADHESIONS.

Top Publications

  1. Kabli N, Tulandi T. Severe Asherman's syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2007;29:779-80 pubmed
  2. Efetie E. Reproductive outcome following treatment of intrauterine adhesions in Abuja, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2006;9:164-8 pubmed
    ..Endoscopic lysis under direct vision is being introduced into contemporary practice in Nigeria for the treatment of this condition, and is about to commence in this centre...
  3. Kodaman P, Arici A. Intra-uterine adhesions and fertility outcome: how to optimize success?. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2007;19:207-14 pubmed
    ..To review the etiology, diagnosis, and clinical manifestations of intra-uterine adhesions and to address treatment with a specific focus on fertility outcome...
  4. Tan Y, Bennett M. Urinary catheter stent placement for treatment of cervical stenosis. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;47:406-9 pubmed
    ..Cervical stenosis is an uncommon condition that may result in significant distress in premenopausal women. Those affected may present with amenorrhoea and associated cyclical, monthly pain, infertility and haematotrachelos/haematometra...
  5. Rathat G, Do Trinh P, Mercier G, Reyftmann L, Dechanet C, Boulot P, et al. Synechia after uterine compression sutures. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:405-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Synechia occurred in seven patients, of whom three had Asherman syndrome (23% of women who desired pregnancy and had hysteroscopic evaluation) that could not be corrected. ..
  6. Kresowik J, Syrop C, Van Voorhis B, Ryan G. Ultrasound is the optimal choice for guidance in difficult hysteroscopy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2012;39:715-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, transabdominal ultrasound guidance is the optimal means of intraoperative guidance for the resection of uterine synechiae and septa. ..
  7. Robinson J, Colimon L, Isaacson K. Postoperative adhesiolysis therapy for intrauterine adhesions (Asherman's syndrome). Fertil Steril. 2008;90:409-14 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a 92% (22/24) improvement in disease staging over the treatment interval. Blunt adhesiolysis with a flexible hysteroscope is effective for maintenance of cavity patency after primary treatment of intrauterine adhesions. ..
  8. Dalton V, Saunders N, Harris L, Williams J, Lebovic D. Intrauterine adhesions after manual vacuum aspiration for early pregnancy failure. Fertil Steril. 2006;85:1823.e1-3 pubmed
    ..Three cases of symptomatic intrauterine adhesions after manual vacuum aspiration. Intrauterine adhesion formation may follow manual vacuum aspiration for early pregnancy loss. ..
  9. Zinger M, Liu J, Thomas M. Successful use of vaginal sildenafil citrate in two infertility patients with Asherman's syndrome. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2006;15:442-4 pubmed
    ..Using transvaginal ultrasound, endometrial thickness was noted to improve when sildenafil citrate was administered. It is suspected that this medication causes selective vasodilatation, resulting in improved endometrial development. ..

More Information

Publications76

  1. Yasmin H, Adeghe J. Severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in a woman with Asherman's syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;24:312-4 pubmed
  2. Magos A. Hysteroscopic treatment of Asherman's syndrome. Reprod Biomed Online. 2002;4 Suppl 3:46-51 pubmed
    ..Non-hysteroscopic techniques area also beginning to be developed, but whether they will replace the current 'gold' standard of hysteroscopy remains to be seen. ..
  3. Sentilhes L, Kayem G, Ambroselli C, Provansal M, Fernandez H, Perrotin F, et al. Fertility and pregnancy outcomes following conservative treatment for placenta accreta. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:2803-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, patients should be advised of the high risk that placenta accreta may recur during future pregnancies. ..
  4. Lin X, Wei M, Li T, Huang Q, Huang D, Zhou F, et al. A comparison of intrauterine balloon, intrauterine contraceptive device and hyaluronic acid gel in the prevention of adhesion reformation following hysteroscopic surgery for Asherman syndrome: a cohort study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013;170:512-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The insertion of an intrauterine balloon or intrauterine device is more effective than the use of hyaluronic acid gel in the prevention of intra-uterine adhesion reformation. ..
  5. Myers E, Hurst B. Comprehensive management of severe Asherman syndrome and amenorrhea. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:160-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe a comprehensive approach to women with severe Asherman syndrome and amenorrhea, including preoperative, operative, and postoperative care and subsequent resumption menses, and pregnancy...
  6. Zikopoulos K, Kolibianakis E, Platteau P, de Munck L, Tournaye H, Devroey P, et al. Live delivery rates in subfertile women with Asherman's syndrome after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis using the resectoscope or the Versapoint system. Reprod Biomed Online. 2004;8:720-5 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, hysteroscopic adhesiolysis offers a real chance of parenthood in a substantial proportion of infertile couples either by using the Versapoint system or the resectoscope. ..
  7. Segal S, Harvie H, Siegelman E, Arya L. Severe atrophic vaginitis causing vaginal synechiae and hematocolpos at menopause. Menopause. 2011;18:333-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Untreated severe atrophic vaginitis at menopause can result in a shortened vagina and hematocolpos. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful to characterize vaginal pathology in postmenopausal women. ..
  8. Cogendez E, Dolgun Z, Sanverdi I, Turgut A, Eren S. Post-abortion hysteroscopy: a method for early diagnosis of congenital and acquired intrauterine causes of abortions. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;156:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnostic hysteroscopy can be performed after the first miscarriage in order to determine congenital and acquired uterine pathologies, with regard to the patient's age and anxiety level. ..
  9. Fletcher H, Kulkarni S, Brown E. Successful pregnancy outcome after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis in Asherman's syndrome. West Indian Med J. 1997;46:124-5 pubmed
    ..We present one such case of a young woman who had secondary infertility after dilatation and curettage, and who was diagnosed and treated with a successful outcome. ..
  10. Ceccaldi P, Nguyen T, Mandelbrot L. Unusual synechia at hysterosalpingography: intrauterine fallopian tube after surgical abortion. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2078-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a patient who had uterine perforation with incarceration of the fallopian tube after surgical abortion. The diagnosis was made during hysteroscopy, realized after hysterosalpingography, and treated by laparoscopy...
  11. Olaore J, Shittu O, Adewole I. Intravesical Lippes loop following insertion for the treatment of Asherman's syndrome: a case report. Afr J Med Med Sci. 1999;28:207-8 pubmed
    ..She defaulted 3 months after presentation and was seen 1 year after with intravesical translocation of the IUCD. This was successfully removed using a forward biting bladder biopsy forceps under direct cystoscopic view...
  12. Broome J, Vancaillie T. Fluoroscopically guided hysteroscopic division of adhesions in severe Asherman syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93:1041-3 pubmed
  13. Protopapas A, Shushan A, Magos A. Myometrial scoring: a new technique for the management of severe Asherman's syndrome. Fertil Steril. 1998;69:860-4 pubmed
    ..To describe a new hysteroscopic technique for the management of severe Asherman's syndrome...
  14. Sentilhes L, Gromez A, Clavier E, Resch B, Verspyck E, Marpeau L. Fertility and pregnancy following pelvic arterial embolisation for postpartum haemorrhage. BJOG. 2010;117:84-93 pubmed publisher
  15. Bukar M, Mustapha Z, Takai U, Tahir A. Hysterosalpingographic findings in infertile women: a seven year review. Niger J Clin Pract. 2011;14:168-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To review the hysterosalpingographic (HSG) findings in women investigated for infertility in a tertiary center in north eastern Nigeria...
  16. Heinonen P. [Intrauterine adhesions--Asherman's syndrome]. Duodecim. 2010;126:2486-91 pubmed
    ..Operative hysteroscopy for selective curettage of residual trophoblastic tissue instead of nonselective conventional curettage may prevent intrauterine adhesions...
  17. Colacurci N, Fortunato N, Nasto R, Mele D, Errico G, De Franciscis P, et al. [Reproductive outcome of hysteroscopic lysis of intrauterine adhesions]. Minerva Ginecol. 1997;49:325-7 pubmed
    ..To analyze the reproductive outcome in women undergoing hysteroscopic lysis of intrauterine adhesions, according to their localization and severity...
  18. Barash A, Granot I, Fieldust S, Or Y. Successful pregnancy and delivery of a healthy baby after endometrial biopsy treatment in an in vitro fertilization patient with severe Asherman syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:1956.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To implement the procedure of endometrial biopsy in a case of severe Asherman syndrome as a possible treatment to increase uterine receptivity...
  19. Santamaria X, Cabanillas S, Cervelló I, Arbona C, Raga F, Ferro J, et al. Autologous cell therapy with CD133+ bone marrow-derived stem cells for refractory Asherman's syndrome and endometrial atrophy: a pilot cohort study. Hum Reprod. 2016;31:1087-96 pubmed publisher
    ..using autologous peripheral blood CD133+ bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) offer a safe and efficient therapeutic approach for patients with refractory Asherman's syndrome (AS) and/or endometrial atrophy (EA) and a wish to conceive?..
  20. Knopman J, Copperman A. Endometrial thickness measured by ultrasound scan in women with uterine outlet obstruction due to intrauterine or upper cervical adhesions. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:1234; author reply 1234-5 pubmed publisher
  21. Yasmin H, Nasir A, Noorani K. Hystroscopic management of Ashermans syndrome. J Pak Med Assoc. 2007;57:553-5 pubmed
    ..To confirm the diagnosis of Asherman's syndrome in patients with scanty menses/amenorrhoea or infertility and to assess the effectiveness of hysteroscopy in the treatment of Asherman's syndrome...
  22. Davies C, Gibson M, Holt E, Torrie E. Amenorrhoea secondary to endometrial ablation and Asherman's syndrome following uterine artery embolization. Clin Radiol. 2002;57:317-8 pubmed
  23. Tuuli M, Shanks A, Bernhard L, Odibo A, Macones G, Cahill A. Uterine synechiae and pregnancy complications. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;119:810-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Uterine synechiae have generally been considered benign findings in pregnancy. We used a large perinatal database to test the hypothesis that uterine synechiae are associated with pregnancy complications...
  24. Malhotra N, Kumar S, Roy K, Agarwal R, Verma V. Vaginal calculus secondary to vaginal outlet obstruction. J Clin Ultrasound. 2004;32:204-6 pubmed
    ..Surgery was performed to repair the outlet obstruction and remove the stone, which permitted the woman to urinate normally and engage in normal sexual relations...
  25. Yu D, Wong Y, Cheong Y, Xia E, Li T. Asherman syndrome--one century later. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:759-79 pubmed publisher
    ..To provide an update on the current knowledge of Asherman syndrome...
  26. Uchil D, Uddin R, Omar K, Hill N. Unusual cause of secondary amenorrhoea. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;26:272-3 pubmed
  27. Deans R, Abbott J. Review of intrauterine adhesions. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2010;17:555-69 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most important features of treatment is prevention of recurrence, with the best available evidence demonstrating that newly developed adhesion barriers such as hyaluronic acid show promise for preventing new adhesions...
  28. Roy K, Baruah J, Sharma J, Kumar S, Kachawa G, Singh N. Reproductive outcome following hysteroscopic adhesiolysis in patients with infertility due to Asherman's syndrome. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010;281:355-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the outcome of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis in patients with infertility due to Asherman's syndrome...
  29. Huang L, Ye M, Wang Y, Ji B, Tang J. [Analysis of 81 cases of congenital anomalies of the vagina]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:1468-70 pubmed
    ..To investigate the types, clinical features and therapeutic approaches of congenital anomalies of the vagina...
  30. Goorah B, Tulandi T. Uterine rupture resulting from the pressure of an intrauterine balloon. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2009;31:649-651 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to preserve the integrity of the uterine cavity after correction, placement of an intrauterine Foley catheter with the balloon inflated is routinely performed...
  31. March C. Asherman's syndrome. Semin Reprod Med. 2011;29:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Follow-up studies to assure resolution of the scarring are mandatory before the patient attempts to conceive as is careful monitoring of pregnancies for cervical incompetence, placenta accreta, and intrauterine growth retardation...
  32. Malhotra N, Bahadur A, Kalaivani M, Mittal S. Changes in endometrial receptivity in women with Asherman's syndrome undergoing hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;286:525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether there is any improvement in the endometrial receptivity in infertile women with Asherman's syndrome undergoing hysteroscopic adhesiolysis...
  33. Blanc J, Courbiere B, Desbriere R, Bretelle F, Boubli L, d Ercole C, et al. Is uterine-sparing surgical management of persistent postpartum hemorrhage truly a fertility-sparing technique?. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2503-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Twelve patients developed subsequent pregnancies, and four had abnormal obstetric outcomes: one placenta percreta, one placenta accreta, one recurrent postpartum hemorrhage, and one intrauterine growth retardation...
  34. Yu D, Li T, Xia E, Huang X, Liu Y, Peng X. Factors affecting reproductive outcome of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis for Asherman's syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:715-22 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the outcome of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis in women with Asherman's syndrome...
  35. Abbott J, Thomson A, Vancaillie T. SprayGel following surgery for Asherman's syndrome may improve pregnancy outcome. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;24:710-1 pubmed
  36. Ugburo A, Fadeyibi I, Oluwole A, Mofikoya B, Gbadegesin A, Adegbola O. The epidemiology and management of gynatresia in Lagos, southwest Nigeria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012;118:231-5 pubmed publisher
    To document data from patients presenting with gynatresia at 2 tertiary health centers in Lagos, southwest Nigeria.
  37. Fernandez H, Peyrelevade S, Legendre G, Faivre E, Deffieux X, Nazac A. Total adhesions treated by hysteroscopy: must we stop at two procedures?. Fertil Steril. 2012;98:980-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the anatomic and fertility results after treatment for Asherman syndrome involving more than two separate surgical procedures...
  38. Berman J. Intrauterine adhesions. Semin Reprod Med. 2008;26:349-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective controlled studies are needed to determine the best diagnostic and treatments for intrauterine adhesions...
  39. Capella Allouc S, Morsad F, Rongières Bertrand C, Taylor S, Fernandez H. Hysteroscopic treatment of severe Asherman's syndrome and subsequent fertility. Hum Reprod. 1999;14:1230-3 pubmed
    ..8% pregnancy rate. However, these pregnancies were at risk for haemorrhage with abnormal placentation...
  40. Goojha C, Case A, Pierson R. Development of Asherman syndrome after conservative surgical management of intractable postpartum hemorrhage. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1098.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Describe a case of secondary infertility due to the development of severe Asherman Syndrome after the B-Lynch compression suture and uterine artery ligation, and to review the B-Lynch technique and documented complications...
  41. Al Serehi A, Mhoyan A, Brown M, Benirschke K, Hull A, Pretorius D. Placenta accreta: an association with fibroids and Asherman syndrome. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27:1623-8 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to emphasize that accreta is also identified at sites other than cesarean scars...
  42. Li B, Wang H, Wei W. [Clinical study on laparoscopic technique for vaginoplasty using an ileum with long vascular pedicle]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2005;40:818-21 pubmed
    ..To study the operative methods and clinical outcome of laparoscopic ileal colpopoiesis with long vascular pedicle...
  43. Daaloul W, Ouerdiane N, Masmoudi A, Ben Hamouda S, Bouguerra B, Sfar R. [Epidemiological profile, etiological diagnosis and prognosis of uterine synechias: report of 86 cases]. Tunis Med. 2012;90:306-10 pubmed
    ..Uterine synechias may pose real problems for fertility prognosis. It depends mainly on its etiology...
  44. Ibrahim M, Raafat T, Ellaithy M, Aly R. Risk of postpartum uterine synechiae following uterine compression suturing during postpartum haemorrhage. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013;53:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..However, insufficient data are available about the potential risk of subsequent intrauterine ?synechiae (IUS)...
  45. Sugaya S, Yahata T, Nishikawa N, Arinami Y, Maruhashi T, Takakuwa K, et al. Severe Asherman's syndrome complicated with placenta increta conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection following hysteroscopic surgery. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2012;39:547-9 pubmed
  46. Lo S, Ramsay P, Pierson R, Manconi F, Munro M, Fraser I. Endometrial thickness measured by ultrasound scan in women with uterine outlet obstruction due to intrauterine or upper cervical adhesions. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:306-9 pubmed
    ..Haematometra are rarely found in these women. We tested the hypothesis that women with localized adhesions occluding the uterine outlet (but not affecting the upper uterine cavity) will have much thinner endometrium than controls...
  47. Ugburo A, Mofikoya B, Oluwole A, Fadeyibi I, Abidoye G. Pudendal thigh flap in the treatment of acquired gynatresia from caustic pessaries. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;115:44-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the use of vaginoplasty with the pudendal thigh flap in patients with gynatresia caused by herbal pessaries in a multidisciplinary context.
  48. Westendorp I, Ankum W, Mol B, Vonk J. Prevalence of Asherman's syndrome after secondary removal of placental remnants or a repeat curettage for incomplete abortion. Hum Reprod. 1998;13:3347-50 pubmed
    ..Based on our findings, hysteroscopy is recommended only in those patients who develop menstrual disorders, either after secondary intervention for placental remnants after delivery or after a repeat curettage...
  49. Liu Y, Shen G, Cheng K. [The surgical treatment of severely injured vagina]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2005;21:189-91 pubmed
    ..To investigate the surgical methods of treating severely injured vagina...
  50. Sato M, Kanenishi K, Ito M, Tanaka H, Takemoto M, Hata T. Antenatal 3-D sonographic features of uterine synechia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013;39:395-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate how 3-D sonography provided a novel visual depiction of uterine synechia, which greatly helped in prenatal diagnosis and counseling...
  51. Roux I, Das M, Fernandez H, Deffieux X. Pregnancy after endometrial ablation. A report of three cases. J Reprod Med. 2013;58:173-6 pubmed
    ..Pregnancies after endometrial ablation (EA) are rare and are associated with high morbidity, especially in the second and third trimesters...
  52. Song D, Xia E, Xiao Y, Li T, Huang X, Liu Y. Management of false passage created during hysteroscopic adhesiolysis for Asherman's syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2016;36:87-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of the three patients who wished to conceive did become pregnant. The early recognition of a false passage inadvertently created during hysteroscopy is crucial in preventing further damage to the uterus. ..
  53. Shiau C, Hsieh C, Chiang C, Hsieh T, Chang M. Intrapartum spontaneous uterine rupture following uncomplicated resectoscopic treatment of Asherman's syndrome. Chang Gung Med J. 2005;28:123-7 pubmed
    ..Because of the potential for a disastrous outcome in the rupture of the pregnant uterus, patients treated for Asherman's syndrome should be identified early and appropriate precautions should be taken in their obstetric management...
  54. Poujade O, Grossetti A, Mougel L, Ceccaldi P, Ducarme G, Luton D. Risk of synechiae following uterine compression sutures in the management of major postpartum haemorrhage. BJOG. 2011;118:433-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine with hysteroscopy or hysterosalpingogram the risk of uterine synechiae following uterine compression sutures for major postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) caused by uterine atony...
  55. Fernandez H, Al Najjar F, Chauveaud Lambling A, Frydman R, Gervaise A. Fertility after treatment of Asherman's syndrome stage 3 and 4. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2006;13:398-402 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis and subsequent fertility in patients with adhesions stage 3 and 4...
  56. Taniguchi F, Suginami H. Pregnancy and delivery following sonohysterographic lysis to treat recurrence after hysteroscopic lysis of severe intrauterine adhesions: a case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2008;35:215-7 pubmed
  57. Knopman J, Copperman A. Value of 3D ultrasound in the management of suspected Asherman's syndrome. J Reprod Med. 2007;52:1016-22 pubmed
    ..To assess the value of 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound in the management of patients with suspected Asherman's syndrome...
  58. Sharma J, Roy K, Pushparaj M, Gupta N, Jain S, Malhotra N, et al. Genital tuberculosis: an important cause of Asherman's syndrome in India. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;277:37-41 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate the association between genital endometrial tuberculosis and Asherman's syndrome...
  59. Hatasaka H. Clinical management of the uterine factor in infertility. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2011;54:696-709 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical approaches based upon the current literature are assessed. Recommendations are provided for which conditions and in which circumstances surgical interventions are appropriate to enhance reproductive outcomes...
  60. Mathelier A. Unusual late complications after two previous cesarean deliveries: a case report. Int J Fertil Womens Med. 2003;48:70-3 pubmed
    ..Women with multiple previous cesarean deliveries (CDs) risk the development of uterine synechiae and ventral fixation of the uterus to the abdominal wall...
  61. March C. Management of Asherman's syndrome. Reprod Biomed Online. 2011;23:63-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Follow-up studies to assure resolution of the IUA are mandatory before the patient attempts to conceive as is careful monitoring of pregnancies for cervical incompetence, placenta accreta and intrauterine growth restriction...
  62. Nishi Y, Takeshita T. [Asherman syndrome]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;Suppl 2:418-21 pubmed
  63. Onuora V, Oguike T, Adekanye A, Onawola K, Obarisiagbon E. Appendico-vesicostomy in tile management of complex vesico-vaginal fistulae. Niger J Clin Pract. 2006;9:89-90 pubmed
    ..Recently a young lady presented to us with a huge VVF, associated with loss of the urethra and bladder neck, severe gynaetresia and recto-vaginal fistula. Her VVF was successfully managed by an appendico-vesiscostomy...
  64. Thomson A, Abbott J, Kingston A, Lenart M, Vancaillie T. Fluoroscopically guided synechiolysis for patients with Asherman's syndrome: menstrual and fertility outcomes. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:405-10 pubmed
    ..To describe a 5-year experience of fluoroscopically guided hysteroscopic synechiolysis for Asherman's syndrome...
  65. Kjer J. Asherman syndrome in a Danish population. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014;93:425-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It seems, however, that a conservative approach to curettage, hysteroscopic removal of retained tissue, and the use of distending media are important, together with gentle tissue handling when such procedures are required. ..
  66. Munarriz R, Talakoub L, Kuohung W, Gioia M, Hoag L, Flaherty E, et al. The prevalence of phimosis of the clitoris in women presenting to the sexual dysfunction clinic: lack of correlation to disorders of desire, arousal and orgasm. J Sex Marital Ther. 2002;28 Suppl 1:181-5 pubmed
    ..Other than its link to sexual pain, the clinical significance of this finding, in particular the relation to diminished sensitivity and impaired orgasmic capability, is unclear at this time...
  67. Chason R, Levens E, Yauger B, Payson M, Cho K, Larsen F. Balloon fluoroscopy as treatment for intrauterine adhesions: a novel approach. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:2005.e15-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To report a unique fluoroscopically guided approach to treat severe intrauterine adhesions and cervical stenosis using balloon hysteroplasty...