Summary: Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)

Top Publications

  1. Thomassin Naggara I, Dubernard G, Lafont C, Chopier J, Darai E, Bazot M. [Imaging in pelvic inflammatory disease]. J Radiol. 2008;89:134-41 pubmed
    This is a review of evolutive aspects in pelvic inflammatory disease (salpingitis, endometritis, pyosalpinx, tubo ovarian abscess) assessed by different imaging modalities (Ultrasound, CT, MRI and hysterosalpingography).
  2. Pires Dos Santos T, Bisgaard M, Christensen H. Genetic diversity and virulence profiles of Escherichia coli causing salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:873-80 pubmed publisher
    The genetic relatedness and virulence profiles of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli that caused salpingitis and peritonitis in 68 broiler breeders from 21 Danish farms were determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field-..
  3. Hebb J, Cohen C, Astete S, Bukusi E, Totten P. Detection of novel organisms associated with salpingitis, by use of 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:2109-20 pubmed
    Although Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are established causes of salpingitis, the majority of cases have no known etiology...
  4. Mardh P. Tubal factor infertility, with special regard to chlamydial salpingitis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004;17:49-52 pubmed
    ..This article will highlight recent research into tubal factor infertility as one of the main causes of involuntary childlessness in women. There will be a focus on chlamydial infections...
  5. Awartani K, McComb P. Microsurgical resection of nonocclusive salpingitis isthmica nodosa is beneficial. Fertil Steril. 2003;79:1199-203 pubmed
    To determine the effect of microsurgical resection and tubocornual anastomosis (TCA) of nonocclusive salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN) on fertility and risk for ectopic pregnancy (EP).
  6. Lichtenwalner A, Patton D, Van Voorhis W, Sweeney Y, Kuo C. Heat shock protein 60 is the major antigen which stimulates delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in the macaque model of Chlamydia trachomatis salpingitis. Infect Immun. 2004;72:1159-61 pubmed
  7. Furuya M, Murakami T, Sato O, Kikuchi K, Tanaka S, Shimizu M, et al. Pseudoxanthomatous and xanthogranulomatous salpingitis of the fallopian tube: a report of four cases and a literature review. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2002;21:56-9 pubmed
    The clinical and pathological features of four cases of pseudoxanthomatous salpingitis (PXS) and xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS) are described...
  8. Romosan G, Bjartling C, Skoog L, Valentin L. Ultrasound for diagnosing acute salpingitis: a prospective observational diagnostic study. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:1569-79 pubmed publisher
    What are the diagnostic benefits of using ultrasound in patients with a clinical suspicion of acute salpingitis and signs of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?
  9. Gray Y, Libbey N. Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis and oophoritis: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2001;125:260-3 pubmed
    A case of xanthogranulomatous salpingitis and oophoritis in a 47-year-old woman is presented...

More Information


  1. Landman W, Cornelissen R. [Escherichia coli salpingitis and peritonitis in layer chickens: an overview]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2006;131:814-22 pubmed
    Escherichia coli can induce salpingitis and/or peritonitis, a major cause of mortality in layer hens, but also other localized and systemic infections. E...
  2. Jordan F, Williams N, Wattret A, Jones T. Observations on salpingitis, peritonitis and salpingoperitonitis in a layer breeder flock. Vet Rec. 2005;157:573-7 pubmed
    A flock of 13,951 hens and 1379 cockerels was monitored from 26 to 58 weeks of age for the complex of salpingitis, peritonitis and salpingoperitonitis (sps)...
  3. Eckert L, Hawes S, Wölner Hanssen P, Kiviat N, Wasserheit J, Paavonen J, et al. Endometritis: the clinical-pathologic syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186:690-5 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically proved endometritis as a clinical syndrome that is distinct from laparoscopically confirmed salpingitis.
  4. Seidman J, Sherman M, Bell K, Katabuchi H, O Leary T, Kurman R. Salpingitis, salpingoliths, and serous tumors of the ovaries: is there a connection?. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2002;21:101-7 pubmed
    ..The presence of salpingitis and salpingoliths was prospectively evaluated in 358 women with a variety of nonneoplastic and neoplastic ..
  5. Idrees M, Zakashansky K, Kalir T. Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis associated with fallopian tube mucosal endometriosis: a clue to the pathogenesis. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2007;11:117-21 pubmed
    Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis is an unusual inflammatory lesion of the fallopian tube, characterized by accumulation of foamy macrophages in the wall of the fallopian tube along with other chronic inflammatory cells...
  6. Cohen C, Sinei S, Reilly M, Bukusi E, Eschenbach D, Holmes K, et al. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection upon acute salpingitis: a laparoscopic study. J Infect Dis. 1998;178:1352-8 pubmed
    ..Of the 133 women with laparoscopically verified salpingitis, 52 (39%) were HIV-1-seropositive...
  7. Tuffrey M, Alexander F, Inman C, Ward M. Correlation of infertility with altered tubal morphology and function in mice with salpingitis induced by a human genital-tract isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Reprod Fertil. 1990;88:295-305 pubmed
    ..Infertility following chlamydial salpingitis could be associated with failure of egg transportation to the oviduct...
  8. Barron A, Pasley J, Rank R, White H, Mrak R. Chlamydial salpingitis in female guinea pigs receiving oral contraceptives. Sex Transm Dis. 1988;15:169-73 pubmed
    ..animals were killed on days 15 and 43, and gross pathological evidence for ascending infection culminating in salpingitis was found in all of five and four of five animals, respectively...
  9. Lefrancq T, Orain I, Michalak S, Hourseau M, Fetissof F. Herpetic salpingitis and fallopian tube prolapse. Histopathology. 1999;34:548-50 pubmed
    ..We describe the unusual association of fallopian tubal prolapse and herpetic infection, an occurrence not previously reported to our knowledge...
  10. Cohen C, Mugo N, Astete S, Odondo R, Manhart L, Kiehlbauch J, et al. Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in women with laparoscopically diagnosed acute salpingitis. Sex Transm Infect. 2005;81:463-6 pubmed remains undefined, we performed an investigation to determine the prevalence of M genitalium in fallopian tube, endometrial, and cervical specimens from women laparoscopically diagnosed with acute salpingitis in Nairobi, Kenya.
  11. Kostopoulou E, Daponte A, Kallitsaris A, Papamichali R, Kalodimos G, Messinis I, et al. Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis: report of three cases and comparison with a case of pseudoxanthomatous salpingitis. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2008;35:291-4 pubmed
    ..A rare condition described as pseudoxanthomatous salpingitis or pseudoxanthomatous salpingiosis, which is often associated with endometriosis, has been distinguished from ..
  12. Mugo N, Kiehlbauch J, Nguti R, Meier A, Gichuhi J, Stamm W, et al. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection on treatment outcome of acute salpingitis. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107:807-12 pubmed
    To examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on treatment outcome of laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis.
  13. Horii T, Izumida S, Takeuchi K, Tada T, Ishikawa J, Tsuboi K. Acute peritonitis and salpingitis associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by Lancefield group G alpha-haemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:953-6 pubmed
    The authors treated a patient for what appears to be the first reported occurrence of acute peritonitis and salpingitis associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS)...
  14. Crespo R, Walker R, Nordhausen R, Sawyer S, Manalac R. Salpingitis in Pekin ducks associated with concurrent infection with Tetratrichomonas sp. and Escherichia coli. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13:240-5 pubmed
    ..At necropsy, salpingitis and peritonitis were the most significant findings...
  15. Ohsawa I, Ohi H, Endo M, Fujita T, Hidaka M, Satomura A, et al. A case of renal involvement in persistent immune activation caused by chlamydial salpingitis. Virchows Arch. 2001;438:306-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conclude that chlamydial salpingitis must be considered as one causative disease factor for renal involvement by means of its persistent immune ..
  16. Quintar A, Mukdsi J, del Valle Bonaterra M, Aoki A, Maldonado C, Pérez Alzaa J. Increased expression of uteroglobin associated with tubal inflammation and ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:1613-7 pubmed
    ..The UG was screened and quantified in samples of fallopian tubes from patients with salpingitis, hydrosalpinx, and ectopic pregnancy by exposing the UG with immunohistochemical techniques...
  17. Yuen J, Wong G, Lam C. Preoperative sonographic diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma. J Ultrasound Med. 2002;21:1171-3 pubmed
  18. Horne A, Stock S, King A. Innate immunity and disorders of the female reproductive tract. Reproduction. 2008;135:739-49 pubmed publisher
  19. Kobayashi T, Moritani S, Urabe M, Bamba M, Ueda M, Nishino T, et al. Cytologic diagnosis of endosalpingiosis with pregnant women presenting in peritoneal fluid: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol. 2004;30:422-5 pubmed
    ..Peritoneal fluid cytology with these findings may be helpful to suggest the probable preoperative diagnosis of endosalpingiosis or benign glandular inclusions involving the pelvic peritoneum. ..
  20. Hsu W, Lee Y, Chang D. Tuboovarian abscess caused by Candida in a woman with an intrauterine device. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2007;64:14-6 pubmed
    ..We present a case of a tuboovarian abscess caused by Candida species in a woman with an intrauterine device for >10 years. Surgical intervention followed by antifungal therapy resulted in a favorable outcome. ..
  21. Wang I, Kuo H, Chen Y, Lin C, Chang H, Chuang F, et al. Extraintestinal manifestations of Edwardsiella tarda infection. Int J Clin Pract. 2005;59:917-21 pubmed
    ..tarda extraintestinal infections can have diverse clinical manifestations and moreover may cause severe and life-threatening infections. Consequently, E. tarda should be considered a potentially important pathogen. ..
  22. Puistola U, Risteli L, Risteli J, Kauppila A. Collagen metabolism in gynecologic patients: changes in the concentration of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in serum. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;163:1276-81 pubmed
    ..Elevated values were occasionally seen in endometriosis and leiomyomas. These findings indicate that the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen is a relatively unspecific indicator of ovarian carcinoma...
  23. Brook I. Microbiology and management of polymicrobial female genital tract infections in adolescents. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2002;15:217-26 pubmed
    ..infected labial inclusion cysts, labial abscesses, furunculosis, and hidradenitis), endometritis, pyometritis, salpingitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and tubo-ovarian and pelvic abscess...
  24. Kurman R, Vang R, Junge J, Hannibal C, Kjaer S, Shih I. Papillary tubal hyperplasia: the putative precursor of ovarian atypical proliferative (borderline) serous tumors, noninvasive implants, and endosalpingiosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011;35:1605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..If this hypothesis is confirmed, it can be concluded that low-grade and high-grade ovarian tumors develop from tubal epithelium and involve the ovary secondarily...
  25. Semfke A, Wackernagel C, Vier H, Schutz A, Wiechmann V, Gillissen A. Histologically proven isoniazid hepatoxicity in complicated tuberculous salpingitis. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2009;3:159-62 pubmed publisher
    ..a complaint of lower abdominal pain, which was diagnosed after a long diagnostic work-up as tuberculous salpingitis and which is rare in women in developed countries...
  26. Bond E, LU D, Herweijer E, Sundström K, Valdimarsdottir U, Fall K, et al. Sexually transmitted infections after bereavement - a population-based cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:419 pubmed publisher
    ..00-3.34). Notably, a consistent excess risk, persisting for over five years, was observed for acute salpingitis (IRR: 1.28, 95 % CI: 1.13-1.44), a severe complication of bacterial STIs...
  27. Kuo C, Tsai S, Liu T, Lin C, Liu C, Lee C. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with tubo-ovarian abscess at a tertiary care hospital in Northern Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2012;45:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with TOA who underwent surgery had a longer duration of hospitalization. Among the patients who underwent surgical intervention, those admitted to the emergency room had higher CRP levels and were more likely to be multiparous. ..
  28. Maubon A, Pouquet M, Piver P, Mazet N, Viala Trentini M, Rouanet J. [Imaging of female infertility]. J Radiol. 2008;89:172-83 pubmed
    ..Imaging modalities are essentially non ionising (US and MRI). Hysterosalpingogram retains its indication to study tubal patency, it can be completed by tubal catheterisation in cases of proximal tubal obstruction. ..
  29. Matsunaga Y, Fukushima K, Nozaki M, Nakanami N, Kawano Y, Shigematsu T, et al. A case of pregnancy complicated by the development of a tubo-ovarian abscess following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Am J Perinatol. 2003;20:277-82 pubmed
    ..This case suggests that a preconception evaluation and treatment for such conditions should be considered for women undergoing treatment for infertility. ..
  30. Chevalier N, de Tayrac R, Dagher I, Mockly J, Franco D, Fernandez H. [Peri-hepatitis abscess secondary to pelvic peritonitis]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2002;31:681-3 pubmed
    ..Serum CA-125 was elevated and ovarian cancer with liver metastasis was suspected. An alternative diagnosis was salpingitis complicated by Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in this patient wearing an intra-uterine contraceptive device...
  31. Lima M, Libri M, Aquino A, Gobbi D. Bilateral hydrosalpinx with asynchronous tubal torsion: an exceptional finding in a premenarcheal girl. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:e27-e29 pubmed publisher
    ..This report describes the problems associated with misdiagnosis, therapeutic approach, and the risk of suboptimal treatment of this rare clinical entity in a 13-year-old girl. ..
  32. Speer B. Observations of basic diagnostic profile patterns seen in some common disorders of backyard poultry species. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 1999;2:701-8, vii-viii pubmed
    ..This article presents some of this author's observations in diagnostic profiles on some selected disorders of backyard poultry. ..
  33. Spielman J, Lee R, Podack E. Perforin/Fas-ligand double deficiency is associated with macrophage expansion and severe pancreatitis. J Immunol. 1998;161:7063-70 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate a novel role for perforin in homeostatic regulation of the immune response. ..
  34. Mellata M. Human and avian extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: infections, zoonotic risks, and antibiotic resistance trends. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2013;10:916-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Recognizing and treating the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC would greatly enhance food safety and positively impact human health. ..
  35. Li Z, Zhang Z, Chen X, Zhou J, Xiao X. Treatment evaluation of Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells using a chronic salpingitis model: an animal experiment. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:232 pubmed publisher
    ..the urogenital tract to instill an Escherichia coli suspension into the uterine cavity to establish the chronic salpingitis model...
  36. Zhang X, Lu C, Li Y, Yang X, Wang X, Chang H, et al. In vitro adherence and invasion of primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells by Gallibacterium anatis. Vet Microbiol. 2017;203:136-142 pubmed publisher
    Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis) has been suggested to have a causal role in salpingitis and peritonitis in egg-laying chickens, leading to decreased egg production and increased mortality worldwide...
  37. Litvinenko G, Shurlygina A, Dergacheva T, Mel nikova E, Trufakin V. Chrono- and Immunocorrection of Inflammatory Disorders of Internal Reproductive Organs in Women of Reproductive Age. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2015;159:62-5 pubmed publisher
    We compared the effectiveness of immunomodulators used in the treatment of patients with chronic salpingitis and oophoritis with or without changes in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in blood lymphocytes at incubation with the ..
  38. Logvinov S, Tikhonovskaia O, Petrova M, Evtushenko I, Nevostruev S. [The ultrastructural changes to the ovaries and oviducts in experimental inflammation under the influence of eplir phonophoresis]. Morfologiia. 2000;117:68-72 pubmed
    ..Effect of physiotherapy is manifested though activity of fibroclasts and macrophages, that regulate collagen production/resorption ratio thus preventing the development of fibrotic changes of ovary stroma and oviduct wall. ..
  39. Judlin P. [Pyosalpingitis after interadnexal laparoscopic hysterectomy. Two cases. Gynecol Obstet Fertil 2005;33:768-71]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2006;34:282 pubmed
  40. Peipert J, Sweet R, Walker C, Kahn J, Rielly Gauvin K. Evaluation of ofloxacin in the treatment of laparoscopically documented acute pelvic inflammatory disease (salpingitis). Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 1999;7:138-44 pubmed
    ..Patients identified with laparoscopic findings of salpingitis were treated with 400 mg of intravenous ofloxacin every 12 hours followed by 400 mg of oral ofloxacin every 12 ..
  41. Ozaki H, Murase T. Multiple routes of entry for Escherichia coli causing colibacillosis in commercial layer chickens. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:1685-9 pubmed
    Colibacillosis associated with salpingitis occurred in a layer chicken flock on a commercial egg-producing farm in Japan. An increase in mortality was observed when the birds were at 62 weeks of age and reached 0.89% at 68 weeks of age...
  42. Blot M, De Curraize C, Salmon Rousseau A, Gehin S, Bador J, Chavanet P, et al. Streptococcus pyogenes: an unusual cause of salpingitis. Case report and review of the literature. Infection. 2017;45:697-702 pubmed publisher
    Streptococcus pyogenes can colonize genitourinary tract, but it is a rare cause of salpingitis. We report a case of bilateral salpingitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes in a 34-year-old woman using an intra-uterine device and which ..
  43. Coremans L, de Clerck F. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome associated with tuberculous salpingitis and peritonitis: a case presentation and review of literature. BMC Gastroenterol. 2018;18:42 pubmed publisher
    ..considered a rare complication of pelvic inflammatory disease, mostly associated with chlamydial or gonococcal salpingitis. Peritoneal tuberculosis is a rare site of extra-pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  44. Theodoropoulos G, Haarmann W. [Abdominal actinomycosis in tubo-ovarian abscess]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1995;117:494-7 pubmed
    ..In most cases the definite diagnosis can only be achieved by histological findings followed by an adequate therapy. ..
  45. Zwart P, Kik M, Das A. [Dysfunction of the oviducts and salpingectomy in a boa (C. constrictor). Description of a case]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 1988;113:494-7 pubmed
    ..The abdominal wall was sutured using intradermal sutures. Dressing of the wound...
  46. Ingec M, Erdogan F, Kumtepe Y, Isaoglu U, Gundogdu C, Kadanali S. Management of bilateral fallopian tube carcinoma coexistent with tuberculous salpingitis. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2005;31:65-7 pubmed
    ..There are only a few reports on primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube coexisting with tuberculous salpingitis. We are reporting a patient with both the primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube and tuberculous salpingitis, ..
  47. Boardman L, Peipert J, Brody J, Cooper A, Sung J. Endovaginal sonography for the diagnosis of upper genital tract infection. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;90:54-7 pubmed
    ..To determine the clinical utility of transvaginal sonography for the diagnosis of upper genital tract infection...
  48. Dobos Kovacs M, Varga Z, Czifra G, Stipkovits L. Salpingitis in geese associated with Mycoplasma sp. strain 1220. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:239-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Affected dead or sacrificed birds had sero-fibrinogranulocytic peritonitis and salpingitis, infiltration of the lamina propria in the uterus and heterophil granulocytes in the isthmus and magnum of the ..
  49. Sharma J, Malhotra M, Arora R. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome as a result of genital tuberculosis: a report of three cases. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82:295-7 pubmed
  50. Safarinejad M. Infertility among couples in a population-based study in Iran: prevalence and associated risk factors. Int J Androl. 2008;31:303-14 pubmed
    ..43; 95% CI: 1.28-2.23; p = 0.01], salpingitis (OR: 2.34; 95% CI: 1.31-4.3; p = 0.016), ectopic pregnancy (OR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.90-3.44; p = 0...
  51. Stătescu G. [A report of generalized secondary peritonitis]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2003;107:212-3 pubmed
    ..Our conclusion is that the case had a wrong diagnosis, it was misdiagnosed as the patient had dynamic occlusion. The clinical/physical examination was the decisive factor in taking the decision to operate...
  52. Heidemann Olsen R, Bisgaard M, Christensen J, Kabell S, Christensen H. Pathology and Molecular Characterization of Escherichia Coli Associated With the Avian Salpingitis-Peritonitis Disease Syndrome. Avian Dis. 2016;60:1-7 pubmed publisher
    Outbreaks of salpingitis and peritonitis cause major economic losses due to high mortality, reduced egg-production, and culling...
  53. Foulot H, Lecuru F. [Other indications: tubal sterilization, medically assisted procreation, salpingitis, fibromas]. Rev Prat. 1991;41:2567-9 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopy is of considerable value in salpingitis for the diagnosis and treatment of tubo-ovarian abscesses...
  54. Hu S, Mao C, Zhang D, Lan Z, Wang C, Luo S. [The relationship between HalphaD-5 and HbetaD-2 in infertile women's fimbriae tubes with adhesions and atresias]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010;41:480-2 pubmed
    ..To investigate the expression and relationship of human alpha defensin-5 (HalphaD-5) and human beta defensin-2 (HbetaD-2) in human fimbriae tubes with adhesions and atresias...
  55. Roth T, Hentsch C, Erard P, Tschantz P. Pyosalpinx: not always a sexual transmitted disease? Pyosalpinx caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides in an immunocompetent host. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2002;8:803-5 pubmed
    ..We report a case of right pyosalpinx due to P. shigelloides acquired by swimming in contaminated water. Laparoscopic salpingectomy led to a good outcome...
  56. Raynal P, Lucas J. [Pelviperitonitis and intestinal occlusion: two unusual cold-knife conisation complications]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2003;32:43-5 pubmed
  57. Punia R, Aggarwal R, Amanjit -, Mohan H. Xanthogranulomatous oophoritis and salpingitis: late sequelae of inadequately treated staphylococcal PID. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2003;46:80-1 pubmed
    ..with lymphocytes, plasma cells and neutrophils; this established the diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous salpingitis and oophoritis...
  58. García Ulloa A, Arrieta O. Tubal occlusion causing infertility due to an excessive inflammatory response in patients with predisposition for keloid formation. Med Hypotheses. 2005;65:908-14 pubmed
  59. Hemalatha A, Rao S, Deepak K, Gayathri M, Manjunath B, Rathna S. Xanthogranulomatous salpingo-oophoritis: a rare entity at an exceptional site. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2007;50:607-9 pubmed
  60. Krautwald Junghanns M, Kostka V, Hofbauer H. Observations on the significance of diagnostic findings in egg-binding of Psittaciformes. Vet Rec. 1998;143:498-502 pubmed
    ..However, laminated and thin-shelled eggs could only be differentiated definitively from abdominal masses, salpingitis and cystic degeneration by means of ultrasonography.
  61. Tohya T, Yoshimura T, Onoda C. Tubo-ovarian abscess occurring 16 years after supracervical hysterectomy. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2003;11:167-9 pubmed
    ..Supracervical hysterectomy is seldom performed and there are few reports of tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) after supracervical hysterectomy...
  62. Abeysundara P, Padumadasa G, Tissera W, Wijesinghe P. Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis and oophoritis associated with endometriosis and uterine leiomyoma presenting as intestinal obstruction. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012;38:1115-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There are very few reported cases of xanthogranulomatous salpingitis and oophoritis...
  63. Adewunmi O, Basilingappa H. Primary ovarian hydatid disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:1697-700 pubmed
    ..We endorse the recommendation that every gynecologist, radiologist and histopathologist should maintain a high index of suspicion for hydatid cyst, whenever a septate cystic pelvic mass is found...
  64. Taylor Robinson D, Jensen J, Svenstrup H, Stacey C. Difficulties experienced in defining the microbial cause of pelvic inflammatory disease. Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, of 109 women, 22 at laparoscopy had salpingitis, 19 had adhesions without salpingitis, 20 had endometriosis or ovarian pathology and 48 no observable ..
  65. Manalo R, Mirza H, Opal S. Streptococcus pyogenes tuboovarian abscess: a potential sexually transmitted disease?. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29:606-7 pubmed
  66. Sandifer F. Looking back: drainage in pelvic abscess and pyosalpinx in 1913. J Miss State Med Assoc. 2002;43:282-3 pubmed
  67. Higgins D, Hemsley S, Canfield P. Immuno-histochemical demonstration of the role of chlamydiaceae in renal, uterine and Salpingeal disease of the koala, and demonstration of chlamydiaceae in novel sites. J Comp Pathol. 2005;133:164-74 pubmed
    ..In addition, macrophages appeared to be a potential site of latent persistence from which systemic spread of infection might occur...
  68. Timothy S, Shafi K, Leatherbarrow A, Jordan F, Wigley P. Molecular epidemiology of a reproductive tract-associated colibacillosis outbreak in a layer breeder flock associated with atypical avian pathogenic Escherichia coli. Avian Pathol. 2008;37:375-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, the "epidemic" clone was also found in an environmental sample, suggesting it may have been transmitted to the flock via the environment...
  69. Pŭnevska M, Nalbanski B, Nalbanski A, Georgiev S. [Salpingitis isthmica nodosa--frequency and etiology in infertile women]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2003;42 Suppl 1:20-2 pubmed
  70. Calore E, Calore N, Cavaliere M. Salpingitis due to Entamoeba histolytica. Braz J Infect Dis. 2002;6:97-9 pubmed
    ..Even though it is a rare disease the correct diagnosis of female genital tract amebiasis is of great importance for the indication of proper therapy...
  71. Guerra Infante F, Tapia Yáñez J, López Hurtado M, Flores Medina S, Díaz García F. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and its association with gynecologic alterations in their sexual partners]. Rev Invest Clin. 2005;57:406-14 pubmed
    ..trachomatis-infected and uninfected men to establish a possible association with gynecological damage in their sexual female partners...
  72. Zhang Y, Sun J, Su Y, Guo Y, Sun Y. Ectopic pregnancy in frozen-thawed embryo transfer: a retrospective analysis of 4,034 cycles and related factors. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2013;59:34-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that care should be taken when selecting the treatment protocol in order to avoid ectopic pregnancy...
  73. Arraztoa J, Rocha A, Varela Nallar L, Velasquez L, Toro V, Cardenas H, et al. IgA in the lumen of the human oviduct is not related to the menstrual cycle but increases during local inflammation. Fertil Steril. 2002;77:633-4 pubmed
  74. Redondo P, Idoate M, Corella C. Cutaneous umbilical endosalpingiosis with severe abdominal pain. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2001;15:179-80 pubmed
    ..We report cutaneous umbilical endosalpingiosis associated with severe abdominal pain that disappeared after surgical treatment...
  75. Vegheş S, Lupaşcu I, Solomiţchi V, Duca E, Fochi M. [Chlamydia infections and tubal infertility]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2004;108:617-23 pubmed
    ..65) were noticed. Results with primary prevention through sexual education have been disappointing, so is necessary preventing or limiting sequelae of chlamydial infection, such as PID and tubal infertility...
  76. Sørbye I, Jerve F, Staff A. Reduction in hospitalized women with pelvic inflammatory disease in Oslo over the past decade. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005;84:290-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study was to identify changes during the last 10 years in the number of women hospitalized with PID in Oslo, as well as a change regarding the frequencies of the subdiagnoses salpingitis and tuboovarian abscess.
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    ..To study the microbial etiology of tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA)...
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    ..A case of an inflammatory tubo-ovarian tumour is presented. Histology and entomology identified the infectious agent as Phthirus pubis...
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    ..Serious infections are rare complications of standard treatment in chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon alpha (Peg IFN) and ribavirin...
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    ..To determine the effect of hydrosalpinx fluid on the expression of HOXA10, an essential regulator of endometrial receptivity...