adnexal diseases


Summary: Diseases of the uterine appendages (ADNEXA UTERI) including diseases involving the OVARY, the FALLOPIAN TUBES, and ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).

Top Publications

  1. Adusumilli S, Hussain H, Caoili E, Weadock W, Murray J, Johnson T, et al. MRI of sonographically indeterminate adnexal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187:732-40 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of MRI to characterize sonographically indeterminate adnexal masses and to define the sonographic features contributing to indeterminate diagnoses...
  2. Magrina J, Espada M, Munoz R, Noble B, Kho R. Robotic adnexectomy compared with laparoscopy for adnexal mass. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:581-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate whether the application of robotic technology in the performance of adnexectomy resulted in benefits for the patient when compared with patients operated by laparoscopy...
  3. Zhang J, Mironov S, Hricak H, Ishill N, Moskowitz C, Soslow R, et al. Characterization of adnexal masses using feature analysis at contrast-enhanced helical computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2008;32:533-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the computed tomographic imaging features predictive of adnexal malignancy and evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced helical computed tomography (CT) in the characterization of adnexal masses...
  4. McDonald J, Doran S, DeSimone C, Ueland F, DePriest P, Ware R, et al. Predicting risk of malignancy in adnexal masses. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115:687-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate the accuracy of preoperative ultrasonography, serum CA 125, and patient demographics as a means of predicting risk of malignancy in women with a ultrasonographically confirmed adnexal mass...
  5. Daponte A, Stergioti E, Messinis I. Risk scoring for adnexal masses and endoscopic management. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007;96:42-3 pubmed
  6. Van Holsbeke C, Van Calster B, Guerriero S, Savelli L, Paladini D, Lissoni A, et al. Endometriomas: their ultrasound characteristics. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;35:730-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the ultrasound characteristics of endometriomas in pre- and postmenopausal patients and to develop rules that characterize endometriomas...
  7. Ulusoy S, Akbayir O, Numanoglu C, Ulusoy N, Odabas E, Gulkilik A. The risk of malignancy index in discrimination of adnexal masses. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007;96:186-91 pubmed
    ..To assess the ability of the risk of malignancy index (RMI) based on a serum CA125 level, ultrasound findings and menopausal status, to discriminate benign from malignant adnexal masses...
  8. Valentin L, Ameye L, Jurkovic D, Metzger U, Lecuru F, Van Huffel S, et al. Which extrauterine pelvic masses are difficult to correctly classify as benign or malignant on the basis of ultrasound findings and is there a way of making a correct diagnosis?. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006;27:438-44 pubmed
  9. Valentin L, Ameye L, Testa A, Lecuru F, Bernard J, Paladini D, et al. Ultrasound characteristics of different types of adnexal malignancies. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;102:41-8 pubmed
    ..e., borderline ovarian tumors, primary invasive ovarian epithelial cancer stage 1, primary invasive ovarian epithelial cancer stages 2-4, rare types of malignancy, and metastatic tumors...

More Information


  1. Timmerman D, Testa A, Bourne T, Ferrazzi E, Ameye L, Konstantinovic M, et al. Logistic regression model to distinguish between the benign and malignant adnexal mass before surgery: a multicenter study by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:8794-801 pubmed
    ..To collect data for the development of a more universally useful logistic regression model to distinguish between a malignant and benign adnexal tumor before surgery...
  2. Van Holsbeke C, Van Calster B, Valentin L, Testa A, Ferrazzi E, Dimou I, et al. External validation of mathematical models to distinguish between benign and malignant adnexal tumors: a multicenter study by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis Group. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:4440-7 pubmed
    ..However, few of them have been externally validated in new populations. Our aim was to compare their performance on a prospectively collected large multicenter data set...
  3. Tsili A, Tsampoulas C, Charisiadi A, Kalef Ezra J, Dousias V, Paraskevaidis E, et al. Adnexal masses: accuracy of detection and differentiation with multidetector computed tomography. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;110:22-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) on a 16-row CT scanner in the detection and differentiation of adnexal masses...
  4. Yazbek J, Helmy S, Ben Nagi J, Holland T, Sawyer E, Jurkovic D. Value of preoperative ultrasound examination in the selection of women with adnexal masses for laparoscopic surgery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;30:883-8 pubmed
    ..To assess the value of preoperative ultrasound examination in predicting the feasibility of intermediate-level laparoscopic surgery for benign adnexal masses...
  5. Timmerman D, Van Calster B, Testa A, Guerriero S, Fischerova D, Lissoni A, et al. Ovarian cancer prediction in adnexal masses using ultrasound-based logistic regression models: a temporal and external validation study by the IOTA group. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;36:226-34 pubmed publisher
  6. Timmerman D, Testa A, Bourne T, Ameye L, Jurkovic D, Van Holsbeke C, et al. Simple ultrasound-based rules for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008;31:681-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To derive simple and clinically useful ultrasound-based rules for discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses...
  7. Smorgick N, Barel O, Halperin R, Schneider D, Pansky M. Laparoscopic removal of adnexal cysts: is it possible to decrease inadvertent intraoperative rupture rate?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:237.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the study was to characterize surgical risks for intraoperative rupture of benign adnexal lesions during laparoscopy...
  8. Van Calster B, Timmerman D, Bourne T, Testa A, Van Holsbeke C, Domali E, et al. Discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses by specialist ultrasound examination versus serum CA-125. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99:1706-14 pubmed
    ..e., ovarian, paraovarian, or tubal) masses. We compared the diagnostic performance of these methods in a large multicenter study...
  9. Tsili A, Tsampoulas C, Argyropoulou M, Navrozoglou I, Alamanos Y, Paraskevaidis E, et al. Comparative evaluation of multidetector CT and MR imaging in the differentiation of adnexal masses. Eur Radiol. 2008;18:1049-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Although MRI performed slightly better, this did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, both MDCT on a 16-row CT scanner and MR imaging demonstrated satisfactory results in the characterization of ovarian masses...
  10. Spencer J, Forstner R, Cunha T, Kinkel K. ESUR guidelines for MR imaging of the sonographically indeterminate adnexal mass: an algorithmic approach. Eur Radiol. 2010;20:25-35 pubmed
    ..MR imaging should provide a more timely diagnosis and, thereby, guide the management of the patient with reduced costs of investigation and treatment...
  11. Levine D, Brown D, Andreotti R, Benacerraf B, Benson C, Brewster W, et al. Management of asymptomatic ovarian and other adnexal cysts imaged at US: Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference Statement. Radiology. 2010;256:943-54 pubmed publisher
  12. Pickhardt P, Hanson M. Incidental adnexal masses detected at low-dose unenhanced CT in asymptomatic women age 50 and older: implications for clinical management and ovarian cancer screening. Radiology. 2010;257:144-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence, work-up, and outcomes of indeterminate adnexal masses identified at low-dose unenhanced computed tomography (CT) in asymptomatic women age 50 and older undergoing colonography screening...
  13. Spencer J, Ghattamaneni S. MR imaging of the sonographically indeterminate adnexal mass. Radiology. 2010;256:677-94 pubmed publisher
    ..There are simple diagnostic steps in the MR imaging assessment that direct a problem-solving, tailored approach based on signal characteristics and morphology...
  14. Fagotti A, Fanfani F, Marocco F, Rossitto C, Gallotta V, Marana E, et al. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for the treatment of benign adnexal diseases: a pilot study. Surg Endosc. 2011;25:1215-21 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to validate the feasibility, efficacy, and safeness of laparoscopic treatment for benign adnexal diseases through a single transumbilical access in a prospective series of patients.
  15. Mol B, Boll D, De Kanter M, Heintz A, Sijmons E, Oei S, et al. Distinguishing the benign and malignant adnexal mass: an external validation of prognostic models. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;80:162-7 pubmed
    ..Because external validation of the present models has not been reported, the purpose of the present study was to assess existing diagnostic models that are used to distinguish malignant from benign masses...
  16. Sohaib S, Mills T, Sahdev A, Webb J, Vantrappen P, Jacobs I, et al. The role of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound in patients with adnexal masses. Clin Radiol. 2005;60:340-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in characterizing adnexal masses, and to determine which patients may benefit from MRI...
  17. Varras M, Tsikini A, Polyzos D, Samara C, Hadjopoulos G, Akrivis C. Uterine adnexal torsion: pathologic and gray-scale ultrasonographic findings. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2004;31:34-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the study was to determine the spectrum of the histologic and gray-scale sonographic pictures in a series of surgically proven cases of uterine adnexal torsion...
  18. Havrilesky L, Peterson B, Dryden D, Soper J, Clarke Pearson D, Berchuck A. Predictors of clinical outcomes in the laparoscopic management of adnexal masses. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102:243-51 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopy has become an accepted approach in the management of adnexal masses. We evaluated clinical outcomes of laparoscopic management of adnexal masses thought to be benign preoperatively...
  19. Canis M, Rabischong B, Houlle C, Botchorishvili R, Jardon K, Safi A, et al. Laparoscopic management of adnexal masses: a gold standard?. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2002;14:423-8 pubmed
    ..To review recent literature on the laparoscopic management of adnexal masses, when this approach may be considered as a gold standard...
  20. Van Holsbeke C, Daemen A, Yazbek J, Holland T, Bourne T, Mesens T, et al. Ultrasound methods to distinguish between malignant and benign adnexal masses in the hands of examiners with different levels of experience. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2009;34:454-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Before using a model or a scoring system, experience and/or proper training are likely to be of paramount importance if diagnostic performance is to be optimized. ..
  21. Saeng Anan U, Pantasri T, Neeyalavira V, Tongsong T. Sonographic pattern recognition of endometriomas mimicking ovarian cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:5409-13 pubmed
    ..Most endometriomas mimicking ovarian malignancy could be correctly predicted by subjective impression based on familiarity of pattern recognition. ..
  22. Türkçüoğlu I, Meydanli M, Engin Ustun Y, Ustun Y, Kafkasli A. Evaluation of histopathological features and pregnancy outcomes of pregnancy associated adnexal masses. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;29:107-9 pubmed publisher
  23. Bignardi T, Condous G. Ultrasound for ovarian cancer screening: are we throwing the baby out with the bath water?. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2011;71:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we will critically evaluate current terminology, newly proposed accepted morphological classification of ovarian cysts as well as the ability for ultrasound to discriminate between benign and malignant ovarian masses. ..
  24. Fanfani F, Zannoni G, Fagotti A, Gagliardi M, Masciullo V, Testa A, et al. Importance of a specialized pathologist for the examination of frozen sections of adnexal masses. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007;17:1034-9 pubmed
    ..8%] for the general pathologist). Our data confirm previous reports on the accuracy of frozen section analysis of adnexal masses and show a significant positive impact of the specialized pathologist as opposed to the general pathologist. ..
  25. Alcazar J, Guerriero S, Laparte C, Ajossa S, Jurado M. Contribution of power Doppler blood flow mapping to gray-scale ultrasound for predicting malignancy of adnexal masses in symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;155:99-105 pubmed publisher
    ..5 vs 12.8 in group A, 33.2 vs 12.8 in group B and 6.0 vs 3.1 in group C). The diagnostic performance of B-mode and power Doppler ultrasound is different depending on patients' complaints. ..
  26. Baser E, Erkilinc S, Esin S, Toğrul C, Biberoglu E, Karaca M, et al. Adnexal masses encountered during cesarean delivery. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013;123:124-6 pubmed publisher
    ..9% and 11.9%, respectively. There were no serious neonatal morbidities and no neonatal mortality. Adnexal masses encountered during cesarean delivery generally have a favorable prognosis in terms of maternal and fetal outcome. ..
  27. Colby G, Banks K, Torres E. AJR teaching file: Incidental adrenal mass and hypertension. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187:S470-2 pubmed
  28. Madan R. The bridging vascular sign. Radiology. 2006;238:371-2 pubmed
  29. Levine D, Brown D, Andreotti R, Benacerraf B, Benson C, Brewster W, et al. Management of asymptomatic ovarian and other adnexal cysts imaged at US Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound consensus conference statement. Ultrasound Q. 2010;26:121-31 pubmed publisher
  30. Ikeda S, Kato T. A case of pelvic actinomycosis unrelated to an intrauterine device. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2012;42:237-8 pubmed publisher
  31. Guerriero S, Ajossa S, Piras S, Angiolucci M, Marisa O, Melis G. Diagnosis of paraovarian cysts using transvaginal sonography combined with CA 125 determination. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006;28:856-8 pubmed
  32. Gocmen A, Atak T, Uçar M, Sanlikal F. Laparoscopy-assisted cystectomy for large adnexal cysts. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;279:17-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Laparoscopy-assisted surgery is feasible and safe for women with large benign adnexal cysts and result s in a short surgery time. ..
  33. Bailey H, Wu A. Images in clinical medicine. Bright green serum. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:e10 pubmed
  34. Tianmin X, Weiqim C, Mianhua C, Xiaocui L, Hongwen G, Min Y. Tumor of the mesosalpinx: case report of a female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2012;33:233-5 pubmed
    ..Through this report, we aimed to call attention to this disease in order to better understand the correct treatment and surgical possibilities, and to evaluate and perform the prognosis properly. ..
  35. Khemakhem R, Barhoumi A, Matoussi N, Hidouri S, Ghorbel S, Nouira F, et al. [The adnexal torsion in children]. Tunis Med. 2008;86:468-72 pubmed
    ..Adnexal torsion is a surgical emergency that need an early diagnosis and management to preserve ovarian function in girls and Doppler sonography every must be done every time there is a pelvic pain without fever in girls ..
  36. Levine D, Asch E, Mehta T, Broder J, O Donnell C, Hecht J. Assessment of factors that affect the quality of performance and interpretation of sonography of adnexal masses. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27:721-8 pubmed
    ..Reports of adnexal mass findings were accurately described by all radiologists, although specialization in women's imaging improved the ability to provide an accurate impression. ..
  37. Alcazar J, Royo P, Jurado M, Minguez J, Garcia Manero M, Laparte C, et al. Triage for surgical management of ovarian tumors in asymptomatic women: assessment of an ultrasound-based scoring system. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008;32:220-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this group, 21 (91.3%) tumors proved to be benign and two (8.7%) were malignant. Ultrasound-based triage of asymptomatic women diagnosed with a persistent adnexal mass is effective for selecting the surgical approach. ..
  38. Hasson J, Tsafrir Z, Azem F, Bar On S, Almog B, Mashiach R, et al. Comparison of adnexal torsion between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202:536.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Doppler blood flow has a high false-negative rate and should not outweigh clinical suspicion. Although pregnancy outcome is favorable, the high rate of recurrence raises the issue of surgical fixation at the first episode. ..
  39. Chang E, Kim A, Kim J, Yoon T. Ultrasound-guided transvaginal aspiration as initial treatment for adnexal torsion following ovarian hyperstimulation. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;152:60-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the safety, feasibility, and pregnancy outcomes of adnexal detorsion using simple aspiration following ovarian hyperstimulation in pregnancy...
  40. Van Holsbeke C, Van Belle V, Leone F, Guerriero S, Paladini D, Melis G, et al. Prospective external validation of the 'ovarian crescent sign' as a single ultrasound parameter to distinguish between benign and malignant adnexal pathology. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;36:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..58 and the LR- was 0.14. This study confirms previous reports that the presence of the OCS decreases the likelihood of invasive malignancy in adnexal masses. However it is a poor discriminator between benign and malignant adnexal masses. ..
  41. Yazbek J, Ameye L, Timmerman D, Testa A, Valentin L, Holland T, et al. Use of ultrasound pattern recognition by expert operators to identify borderline ovarian tumors: a study of diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;35:84-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement are better when the outcomes are dichotomized into non-invasive and invasive malignant lesions, as opposed to the traditional diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors. ..
  42. Malinowski M, Pisarek Miedzińiska D. [Non-obstetric surgery during pregnancy]. Ginekol Pol. 2009;80:523-7 pubmed
    ..In the event of direct threat to the mother and/or fetus, surgical intervention should be conducted regardless of the stage of pregnancy. ..
  43. Sturlese E, Retto G, Mancuso A, Tripodi A, Tripodi M, Palmara V, et al. Laparoscopic management of adnexal masses in postmenopause. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2008;35:54-6 pubmed
    ..The results of the study confirm that the removal of a cystic mass in postmenopausal patients with laparoscopic surgery is a more valid and acceptable alternative to traditional surgery. ..
  44. Ameye L, Timmerman D, Valentin L, Paladini D, Zhang J, Van Holsbeke C, et al. Clinically oriented three-step strategy for assessment of adnexal pathology. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2012;40:582-91 pubmed publisher
  45. Luciano D, Roy G, Luciano A. Adhesion reformation after laparoscopic adhesiolysis: where, what type, and in whom they are most likely to recur. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2008;15:44-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial extent and severity of adhesions did not predict recurrence; however, the involved organ did, being most frequent on the adnexa and least frequent on the abdominal wall and bowel. ..
  46. Bozkurt N, Korucuoglu U, Bakirci Y, Yilmaz U, Sakrak O, Guner H. Vaginal evisceration after trauma unrelated to previous pelvic surgery. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;279:595-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Repositioning of viable bowels into the abdominal cavity and appropriate surgical repair are cornerstones of the treatment. ..
  47. Pezzuto A, Pomini P, Steinkasserer M, Nardelli G, Minelli L. Patient with pelvic pains: retroperitoneal fibrosis or pelvic endometriosis? A case report and review of literature. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:1497.e9-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Magnetic resonance imaging sometimes does not enable a correct diagnosis between these two pathologies. Fertile women with suspected fibrosis should undergo a diagnostic laparoscopy by an expert surgeon in retroperitoneal surgery. ..
  48. Koo Y, Lee J, Lim K, Shim J, Mok J, Kim T. A 10-year experience of laparoscopic surgery for adnexal masses during pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;113:36-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Laparoscopic surgery for adnexal masses during pregnancy provided tolerable outcomes for the fetus and the mother. In the future, larger prospective clinical trials are necessary to elucidate fully the impact on the fetus. ..
  49. Liu Y. Metastatic female adnexal tumor of possible wolffian origin (FATWO) of the appendix demonstrated by FDG PET/CT: the first reported case. Clin Nucl Med. 2011;36:136-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The case highlights the significance of FDG uptake in the appendix. When interpreting FDG PET/CT, caution should be exercised to identify uptake in the appendix, because it is easily misinterpreted as bowel activity. ..
  50. Alcazar J, Diaz L, Florez P, Guerriero S, Jurado M. Intensive training program for ultrasound diagnosis of adnexal masses: protocol and preliminary results. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;42:218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed training program appears to be feasible. High diagnostic performance can be achieved after analysis of 200 cases and maintained thereafter. ..
  51. Cappabianca S, Iaselli F, Reginelli A, D Andrea A, Urraro F, Grassi R, et al. Value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the characterization of complex adnexal masses. Tumori. 2013;99:210-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Only the definition of the signal intensities on diffusion-weighted images obtained with the use of high b values on the solid component of a complex adnexal mass is useful to characterize an ovarian mass as benign or malignant. ..
  52. Baloglu A, Bezircioglu I, Cetinkaya B, Karci L, Bicer M. Development of secondary ovarian lesions after hysterectomy without oophorectomy versus unilateral oophorectomy for benign conditions: a retrospective analysis of patients during a nine-year period of observation. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2010;37:299-302 pubmed
    ..This study was done to determine the occurrence of disease in retained ovaries after hysterectomy...
  53. Peitsidis P, Akrivos T, Vecchini G, Rodolakis A, Akrivos N, Markaki S. Splenosis of the peritoneal cavity resembling an adnexal tumor: case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2007;34:120-2 pubmed
    ..Extraperitoneal locations occur less frequently and include the thorax and brain. Also locallization in the subcutaneous fat has been described...
  54. Huchon C, Staraci S, Fauconnier A. Adnexal torsion: a predictive score for pre-operative diagnosis. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:2276-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Adnexal torsion (AT) is difficult to diagnose and requires immediate surgery. The aim of this study was to develop a simple score for assisting in the pre-operative diagnosis of AT in women with acute pelvic pain...
  55. Vaes E, Manchanda R, Autier P, Nir R, Nir D, Bleiberg H, et al. Differential diagnosis of adnexal masses: sequential use of the risk of malignancy index and HistoScanning, a novel computer-aided diagnostic tool. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2012;39:91-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the value of ovarian Histo-Scanning(™) , a novel computerized technique for interpreting ultrasound data, in combination with the risk of malignancy index (RMI) in improving triage for women with adnexal masses...
  56. Terzic M, Dotlic J, Ladjević I, Atanacković J, Ladjević N. Evaluation of the risk malignancy index diagnostic value in patients with adnexal masses. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2011;68:589-93 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of the RMI in the discrimination between benign lesions and malignant adnexal masses in clinical practice...
  57. Garg R, Zahra F, Chandra J, Vatsal P. A comparative study of injection placentrex and conventional therapy in treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease. J Indian Med Assoc. 2008;106:463, 467 pubmed
    ..01 and 0.05 respectively). This study showed significant and persistent improvement of signs and symptoms of PID in women who received injection placentrex...
  58. Valentin L. Imaging in gynecology. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;20:881-906 pubmed
    ..g. endometriosis in the rectovaginal septum or in the uterosacral ligaments), and in the diagnosis of extremely rare types of ectopic pregnancy (e.g. in the spleen, liver or retroperitoneum)...
  59. Koga K, Hiroi H, Osuga Y, Nagai M, Yano T, Taketani Y. Autoamputated adnexa presents as a peritoneal loose body. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:967-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of unilateral adnexal absence with a peritoneal loose body. Laparoscopic findings and medical history suggested that she had adnexal torsion in her childhood followed by its calcification and autoamputation...
  60. Uckuyu A, Ozcimen E, Sevinc Ciftci F. Unilateral congenital ovarian and partial tubal absence: report of four cases with review of the literature. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:936.e5-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To present four rare cases of congenital unilateral tubal and ovarian abnormalities with their laparoscopic images...
  61. Wanapirak C, Srisupundit K, Tongsong T. Sonographic morphology scores (SMS) for differentiation between benign and malignant adnexal masses. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006;7:407-10 pubmed
    ..To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a scoring system for distinguishing between benign and malignant adnexal masses and to detect threshold scores for prediction of malignant ovarian tumors...
  62. Iyer V, Lee S. MRI, CT, and PET/CT for ovarian cancer detection and adnexal lesion characterization. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194:311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this article is to describe the role of MR, CT, and PET/CT in the detection of ovarian cancer and the evaluation of adnexal lesions...
  63. Owusu Ansah R, Gatongi D, Chien P. Health technology assessment of surgical therapies for benign gynaecological disease. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;20:841-79 pubmed
    ..There appears to be no significant advantage in performing a subtotal hysterectomy instead of the total removal of the uterine corpus and cervix...
  64. Miller J, Horowitz N, Thrall J, Lee S. Evaluating adnexal lesions: which need follow-up?. J Am Coll Radiol. 2007;4:725-9 pubmed
  65. Demir R, Marchand G. Adnexal masses suspected to be benign treated with laparoscopy. JSLS. 2012;16:71-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We set out to evaluate the negative predictive value of these guidelines and to assess a modified algorithm involving minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of women with masses suspected to be benign...
  66. Spinelli C, Buti I, Pucci V, Liserre J, Alberti E, Nencini L, et al. Adnexal torsion in children and adolescents: new trends to conservative surgical approach -- our experience and review of literature. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013;29:54-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The surgical treatment of children and adolescents presenting adnexal torsion should be practiced as an emergency and it should be more conservative as possible in order to maximize the future reproductive potential...
  67. Rossi A, Braghin C, Soldano F, Isola M, Capodicasa V, Londero A, et al. A proposal for a new scoring system to evaluate pelvic masses: Pelvic Masses Score (PMS). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;157:84-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We tried to create a sonographic scoring system, called PMS, that could be helpful in diagnosis of pelvic masses...
  68. Ogburn T, Wurzel J, Espey E, Espey D. Adnexal torsion: experience at a single university center. J Reprod Med. 2005;50:591-4 pubmed
    ..To review the management of adnexal torsion over an 11-year period at a single institution and to assess trends in the surgical approach, including laparoscopy vs. laparotomy, and ovarian conservation vs. removal...
  69. Oelsner G, Shashar D. Adnexal torsion. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2006;49:459-63 pubmed
    ..Adnexectomy should be avoided as ovarian function is preserved in 88% to 100% of cases. Awareness and suspicion of the diagnosis of AT is needed in patients who present with lower abdominal pain...
  70. Asch E, Levine D, Kim Y, Hecht J. Histologic, surgical, and imaging correlations of adnexal masses. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27:327-42 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to quantify, categorize, and illustrate discrepancies between preoperative radiologic, surgical, and pathologic diagnoses and to assess the potential impact of discrepancies on clinical care...
  71. Wang P, Chang W, Cheng M, Horng H. Management of adnexal masses during pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2009;35:597-8 pubmed publisher
  72. Takeda A, Manabe S, Mitsui T, Nakamura H. Laparoscopic management of mature cystic teratoma of bilateral ovaries with adnexal torsion occurring in a 9-year-old premenarchal girl. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2006;19:403-6 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopic surgery is a minimal-access procedure with many advantages. However, reports of young girls with adnexal disease treated by laparoscopic surgery are limited in the literature...
  73. Balci O, Icen M, Mahmoud A, Capar M, Colakoglu M. Management and outcomes of adnexal torsion: a 5-year experience. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;284:643-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To discuss the surgical results of patients with diagnosis of adnexal torsion...
  74. Harada O, Ota H, Takagi K, Matsuura H, Hidaka E, Nakayama J. Female adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin: morphological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study with c-kit gene analysis. Pathol Int. 2006;56:95-100 pubmed
    ..In addition, the cytological features of this rare tumor are presented, which have not been described previously...
  75. Carbognin G, Girardi V, Pinali L, Raffaelli R, Bergamini V, Pozzi Mucelli R. Assessment of pelvic endometriosis: correlation of US and MRI with laparoscopic findings. Radiol Med. 2006;111:687-701 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis and local staging of endometriosis by comparing results with laparoscopic findings...
  76. Bakir B, Bakan S, Tunaci M, Bakir V, Iyibozkurt A, Berkman S, et al. Diffusion-weighted imaging of solid or predominantly solid gynaecological adnexial masses: is it useful in the differential diagnosis?. Br J Radiol. 2011;84:600-11 pubmed publisher
  77. Barnsfather K, Fitzpatrick C, Wilson J, Linn C, Brizendine E, Schilder J. The Morphology Index: predictive value of malignancy among clinicians at various levels of training. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;127:94-7 pubmed publisher
  78. Pascual M, Graupera B, Hereter L, Rotili A, Rodriguez I, Alcazar J. Intra- and interobserver variability of 2D and 3D transvaginal sonography in the diagnosis of benign versus malignant adnexal masses. J Clin Ultrasound. 2011;39:316-21 pubmed publisher
  79. Rajkotia K, Veeramani M, MacUra K. Magnetic resonance imaging of adnexal masses. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2006;17:379-97 pubmed
    ..In this article, the authors review the histopathologic background and MRI features of adnexal masses and discuss the role of MRI in the differentiation of benign from malignant adnexal pathologies...
  80. Joshi M, Ganesan K, Munshi H, Ganesan S, Lawande A. Ultrasound of adnexal masses. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2008;29:72-97 pubmed
    ..Sonography allows a more detailed assessment of morphologic features of an adnexal mass. With a benign-appearing adnexal mass on sonography, the need for any further diagnostic tests is often obviated...
  81. Saboo S, Di Salvo D. Perineural cysts resembling complex cystic adnexal masses on transvaginal sonography. J Clin Ultrasound. 2013;41:55-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the complex cystic adnexal mass like appearance of these incidentally noted cysts which mimicked malignancy on sonography in a postmenopausal female, with stage I breast cancer and vaginal spotting...
  82. Bajka M. [Cystic adnexal mass]. Praxis (Bern 1994). 2011;100:1543-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Also in postmenopausal woman 50% of them resolve spontaneously in 60 days. Ovarian cancer screening is still an unsolved problem. Nearly all established methods fail because of the low prevalence of ovarian cancer at around 0.4%...
  83. Sokalska A, Timmerman D, Testa A, Van Holsbeke C, Lissoni A, Leone F, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound examination for assigning a specific diagnosis to adnexal masses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2009;34:462-70 pubmed publisher
  84. Brown D. A practical approach to the ultrasound characterization of adnexal masses. Ultrasound Q. 2007;23:87-105 pubmed
    ..We will review an approach to the ultrasound diagnosis of adnexal masses that progresses through a series of 4 questions to help lead one to the most likely diagnosis...
  85. Erdemoglu M, Kuyumcuoglu U, Kale A. Pregnancy and adnexal torsion: analysis of 20 cases. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2010;37:224-5 pubmed
    ..To study the clinical profile, management and outcome of pregnancy complicated by adnexal torsion...