posterior uveitis


Summary: Inflammation of the choroid as well as the retina and vitreous body. Some form of visual disturbance is usually present. The most important characteristics of posterior uveitis are vitreous opacities, choroiditis, and chorioretinitis.

Top Publications

  1. Pavesio C, Zierhut M, Bairi K, Comstock T, Usner D. Evaluation of an intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant versus standard systemic therapy in noninfectious posterior uveitis. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:567-75, 575.e1 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide (FA) implant compared with standard therapy in subjects with noninfectious posterior uveitis (NIPU).
  2. Levinson R, Brezin A, Rothova A, Accorinti M, Holland G. Research criteria for the diagnosis of birdshot chorioretinopathy: results of an international consensus conference. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:185-7 pubmed
    ..To present and evaluate research criteria for the diagnosis of birdshot chorioretinopathy...
  3. Murphy C, Greiner K, Plskova J, Frost N, Forrester J, Dick A. Validity of using vision-related quality of life as a treatment end point in intermediate and posterior uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:154-6 pubmed
  4. Jaffe G, McCallum R, Branchaud B, Skalak C, Butuner Z, Ashton P. Long-term follow-up results of a pilot trial of a fluocinolone acetonide implant to treat posterior uveitis. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1192-8 pubmed
    To investigate the safety and efficacy of a fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant in the treatment of noninfectious posterior uveitis.
  5. O Toole L, Tufail A, Pavesio C. Management of choroidal neovascularization in uveitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2005;45:157-77 pubmed
  6. Gerstenblith A, Thorne J, Sobrin L, Do D, Shah S, Foster C, et al. Punctate inner choroidopathy: a survey analysis of 77 persons. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1201-4 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the demographic and clinical features of punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC)...
  7. Benitez del Castillo J, Martinez de la Casa J, Pato Cour E, Mendez Fernandez R, López Abad C, Matilla M, et al. Long-term treatment of refractory posterior uveitis with anti-TNFalpha (infliximab). Eye (Lond). 2005;19:841-5 pubmed
    To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of infliximab as treatment for noninfectious posterior uveitis.
  8. Murphy C, Greiner K, Plskova J, Duncan L, Frost A, Isaacs J, et al. Neutralizing tumor necrosis factor activity leads to remission in patients with refractory noninfectious posterior uveitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122:845-51 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibition with the p55 TNF receptor fusion protein (TNFr-Ig) for severe sight-threatening noninfectious posterior segment intraocular inflammation...
  9. Hogewind B, Zijlstra C, Klevering B, Hoyng C. Intravitreal triamcinolone for the treatment of refractory macular edema in idiopathic intermediate or posterior uveitis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2008;18:429-34 pubmed
    ..The authors report on the use of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) in a group of patients with macular edema due to idiopathic intermediate and posterior uveitis.

More Information


  1. Dworkin L, Gibler T, Van Gelder R. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of infectious posterior uveitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:1534-9 pubmed
    To validate a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay allowing rapid and sensitive detection and quantitation of 4 common infectious posterior uveitis pathogens.
  2. Sudharshan S, Ganesh S, Biswas J. Current approach in the diagnosis and management of posterior uveitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2010;58:29-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In case of diagnostic dilemma, intraocular fluid evaluation for polymerase chain testing for the genome and antibody testing against the causative agent provide greater diagnostic ability...
  3. Boyd S, Young S, Lightman S. Immunopathology of the noninfectious posterior and intermediate uveitides. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001;46:209-33 pubmed
  4. Joseph A, Raj D, Dua H, Powell P, Lanyon P, Powell R. Infliximab in the treatment of refractory posterior uveitis. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:1449-53 pubmed
    To determine the efficacy and safety of infliximab in the treatment of refractory posterior uveitis.
  5. Jaffe G, Martin D, Callanan D, Pearson P, Levy B, Comstock T. Fluocinolone acetonide implant (Retisert) for noninfectious posterior uveitis: thirty-four-week results of a multicenter randomized clinical study. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1020-7 pubmed
    To report the interim 34-week safety and efficacy results of a 3-year study to evaluate an investigational intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide (FA) implant in patients with noninfectious posterior uveitis.
  6. Tay Kearney M. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection for the treatment of posterior uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2006;14:201-2 pubmed
  7. Dhingra N, Kelly S, Majid M, Bailey C, Dick A. Inflammatory choroidal neovascular membrane in posterior uveitis-pathogenesis and treatment. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2010;58:3-10 pubmed publisher
    ..degeneration, immunosuppression, photodynamic therapy, steroids, vascular endothelial growth factors and posterior uveitis. Additionally, we evaluated the visual outcome of and clinical response to our standard treatment protocol ..
  8. Perez V, Papaliodis G, Chu D, Anzaar F, Christen W, Foster C. Elevated levels of interleukin 6 in the vitreous fluid of patients with pars planitis and posterior uveitis: the Massachusetts eye & ear experience and review of previous studies. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2004;12:193-201 pubmed
    ..Review of these studies indicate that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is present, and animal data suggest the important role of IL-6 in the regulation of ophthalmologic immune responses...
  9. Giansanti F, Barbera M, Virgili G, Pieri B, Emmi L, Menchini U. Infliximab for the treatment of posterior uveitis with retinal neovascularization in Behçet disease. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2004;14:445-8 pubmed
    To report a case of posterior uveitis with retinal neovascularization in a patient with Behçet disease treated with infliximab.
  10. Lanthier N, Parc C, Scavennec R, Dhote R, Brezin A, Guillevin L. Infliximab in the treatment of posterior uveitis in Behçet's disease. Long term follow up in four patients. Presse Med. 2005;34:916-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of infliximab as adjuvant therapy for refractory uveitis in Behçet's disease...
  11. Bouchenaki N, Cimino L, Auer C, Tao Tran V, Herbort C. Assessment and classification of choroidal vasculitis in posterior uveitis using indocyanine green angiography. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2002;219:243-9 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to characterize choroidal vasculitis in posterior uveitis using ICGA.
  12. Ormerod L, Puklin J, Sobel J. Syphilitic posterior uveitis: correlative findings and significance. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:1661-73 pubmed
    Twenty-one patients with syphilitic posterior uveitis were investigated retrospectively to study the disease spectrum, associations with neurosyphilis, and therapeutic implications...
  13. Adamus G, Karren L, Mooney J, Burrows G. A promising therapeutic approach for treatment of posterior uveitis: recombinant T cell receptor ligand protects Lewis rats from acute and recurrent experimental autoimmune uveitis. Ophthalmic Res. 2010;44:24-33 pubmed publisher
  14. Teoh S, Sharma S, Hogan A, Lee R, Ramanan A, Dick A. Tailoring biological treatment: anakinra treatment of posterior uveitis associated with the CINCA syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:263-4 pubmed
  15. Figueroa M, Ciancas E, Orte L. Long-term follow-up of tacrolimus treatment in immune posterior uveitis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2007;17:69-74 pubmed
    To study the efficacy of tacrolimus in immune posterior uveitis.
  16. de Visser L, Rothova A, De Boer J, van Loon A, Kerkhoff F, Canninga Van Dijk M, et al. Diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis by establishing intraocular antibody production. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:369-74 pubmed
    To investigate the role of Toxocara canis in posterior uveitis of undetermined origin.
  17. Margolis R. Diagnostic vitrectomy for the diagnosis and management of posterior uveitis of unknown etiology. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2008;19:218-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Advances in vitrectomy technique and laboratory tests have improved the diagnostic yield in these challenging cases. The methods for obtaining vitreous specimens and the diagnostic tests used to analyze them are discussed...
  18. Lopez Gonzalez R, Loza E, Jover J, Benitez del Castillo J, Mendez R, Hernandez Garcia C, et al. Treatment of refractory posterior uveitis with infliximab: a 7-year follow-up study. Scand J Rheumatol. 2009;38:58-62 pubmed publisher
    To describe, in a 7-year follow-up study, the use of infliximab in patients with refractory posterior uveitis and scleritis.
  19. Callanan D, Jaffe G, Martin D, Pearson P, Comstock T. Treatment of posterior uveitis with a fluocinolone acetonide implant: three-year clinical trial results. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:1191-201 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 0.59-mg and 2.1-mg fluocinolone acetonide (FA) intravitreous implants in noninfectious posterior uveitis.
  20. Dabil H, Boley M, Schmitz T, Van Gelder R. Validation of a diagnostic multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for infectious posterior uveitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:1315-22 pubmed
    To validate a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay capable of simultaneously screening vitreous biopsy specimens for a panel of common pathogens in posterior uveitis.
  21. Bonfioli A, Orefice F. Toxoplasmosis. Semin Ophthalmol. 2005;20:129-41 pubmed
    Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis in immunocompetent subjects. The infection can be congenital or acquired. Ocular symptoms are variable according to the age of the subject...
  22. Bodaghi B, Rozenberg F, Cassoux N, Fardeau C, Lehoang P. Nonnecrotizing herpetic retinopathies masquerading as severe posterior uveitis. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:1737-43 pubmed
    Aqueous humor analysis can be performed in severe atypical forms of posterior uveitis unresponsive to conventional treatment to exclude a viral infection.
  23. Ciardella A, Prall F, Borodoker N, Cunningham E. Imaging techniques for posterior uveitis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2004;15:519-30 pubmed
    The goal of this review is to describe the more commonly used imaging techniques and their use to identify causes of vision loss, extent of disease, and distinctive patterns associated with various causes of posterior uveitis.
  24. Jabs D, Akpek E. Immunosuppression for posterior uveitis. Retina. 2005;25:1-18 pubmed
  25. Ferrante P, Ramsey A, Bunce C, Lightman S. Clinical trial to compare efficacy and side-effects of injection of posterior sub-Tenon triamcinolone versus orbital floor methylprednisolone in the management of posterior uveitis. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2004;32:563-8 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy and side-effects of posterior sub-Tenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide (Kenalog) with orbital floor injection of methylpredisolone acetate (Depomedrone) in the management of posterior uveitis.
  26. Stewart J, Cubillan L, Cunningham E. Prevalence, clinical features, and causes of vision loss among patients with ocular toxocariasis. Retina. 2005;25:1005-13 pubmed
    ..To describe the prevalence, clinical features, and causes of vision loss among patients with ocular toxocariasis seen at a uveitis referral center...
  27. Keino H, Takeuchi M, Kezuka T, Yamakawa N, Tsukahara R, Usui M. Chemokine and chemokine receptor expression during experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis in mice. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;241:111-5 pubmed
  28. Rothova A, De Boer J, Ten Dam van Loon N, Postma G, de Visser L, Zuurveen S, et al. Usefulness of aqueous humor analysis for the diagnosis of posterior uveitis. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:306-11 pubmed
    To assess the clinical usefulness of aqueous fluid analysis for the diagnosis and treatment of patients suspected of having infectious posterior uveitis (PU).
  29. Plskova J, Greiner K, Forrester J. Interferon-alpha as an effective treatment for noninfectious posterior uveitis and panuveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:55-61 pubmed
    ..The authors aimed to determine whether IFN-alpha was effective in treating patients with severe, refractory sight-threatening intraocular inflammation (uveitis) from a wider range of causes, including Behçet disease...
  30. Gallagher M, Yilmaz T, Cervantes Castaneda R, Foster C. The characteristic features of optical coherence tomography in posterior uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:1680-5 pubmed
    ..To describe the different retinal morphological characteristics that can present on optical coherence topography (OCT) in a spectrum of uveitic diseases...
  31. Margolis R, Brasil O, Lowder C, Singh R, Kaiser P, Smith S, et al. Vitrectomy for the diagnosis and management of uveitis of unknown cause. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1893-7 pubmed
    ..To determine the diagnostic yield of tests commonly used for vitreous fluid analysis in eyes with suspected intraocular infection or malignancy...
  32. Niccoli L, Nannini C, Benucci M, Chindamo D, Cassara E, Salvarani C, et al. Long-term efficacy of infliximab in refractory posterior uveitis of Behcet's disease: a 24-month follow-up study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46:1161-4 pubmed
    To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of infliximab in patients with Behçet's disease (BD) and refractory bilateral posterior uveitis, and to assess the proportion of relapse-free subjects through months 12 and 24.
  33. Forrester J. Intermediate and posterior uveitis. Chem Immunol Allergy. 2007;92:228-43 pubmed
    ..Involvement of the macula is the main cause for visual loss. Experimental models of posterior uveitis have revealed much concerning the mechanisms of inflammatory cell damage to the retina, implicating CD4 T ..
  34. Ozkiris A. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection for the treatment of posterior uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2006;14:233-8 pubmed
    To assess the efficacy and complications of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection in the treatment of posterior uveitis and to compare the outcomes with patients who had received systemic corticosteroids.
  35. Monnet D, Brezin A, Holland G, Yu F, Mahr A, Gordon L, et al. Longitudinal cohort study of patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy. I. Baseline clinical characteristics. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:135-42 pubmed
    ..To describe baseline clinical characteristics of a cohort of 80 patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy in anticipation of a longitudinal study, and to identify relationships between visual acuity, symptoms, and ophthalmic findings...
  36. Narayana K, Bora A, Biswas J. Patterns of uveitis in children presenting at a tertiary eye care centre in south India. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2003;51:129-32 pubmed
    ..To study the patterns of uveitis in the paediatric age group in a referral eye care centre in south India...
  37. Thorne J, Jabs D, Peters G, Hair D, Dunn J, Kempen J. Birdshot retinochoroidopathy: ocular complications and visual impairment. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:45-51 pubmed
    ..To describe the incidence of vision loss and of ocular complications attributable to birdshot retinochoroidopathy and to describe the association between therapy and the incidence thereof...
  38. Intzedy L, Teoh S, Hogan A, Mangwana S, Mayer E, Dick A, et al. Cytopathological analysis of vitreous in intraocular lymphoma. Eye (Lond). 2008;22:289-93 pubmed
    ..To describe the cytopathological method used in the analysis of vitreous samples in the diagnosis of primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL)...
  39. Plskova J, Greiner K, Muckersie E, Duncan L, Forrester J. Interferon-alpha: a key factor in autoimmune disease?. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:3946-50 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of action of IFN-alpha in the treatment of various types of noninfectious sight-threatening uveitis...
  40. Mansour A. Infliximab treatment of posterior uveitis. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:197-8; author reply 198 pubmed
  41. Tranos P, Scott R, Zambarakji H, Zambarajki H, Ayliffe W, Pavesio C, et al. The effect of pars plana vitrectomy on cystoid macular oedema associated with chronic uveitis: a randomised, controlled pilot study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:1107-10 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in the management of chronic uveitic cystoid macular oedema (CMO)...
  42. Banker A. Posterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:377-83 pubmed
    ..Immune recovery uveitis is a new cause of vision loss in patients on HAART. Diagnosis and treatment are guided by the particular conditions and immune status of the patient...
  43. Stubiger N, Besch D, Deuter C, Zierhut M, Kotter I. Multifocal ERG changes in patients with ocular Behçet's disease during therapy with interferon alpha 2a. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;528:529-32 pubmed
  44. Miura Takeda S, Tashiro Yamaji J, Oku H, Takahashi T, Shimizu T, Sugiyama T, et al. Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis initiated by non-phagocytic destruction of inner segments of photoreceptor cells by Mac-1(+) mononuclear cells. Microbiol Immunol. 2008;52:601-10 pubmed publisher
    EAU in mice is a model of human posterior uveitis. EAU is a Th1-dependent disease that has been assumed to target the neural retina and related tissues; however, in situ effector cells and the target have not yet been clearly ..
  45. An F, Li Q, Tu Z, Bu H, Chan C, Caspi R, et al. Role of DAF in protecting against T-cell autoreactivity that leads to experimental autoimmune uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:3778-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic upregulation of DAF levels could be used to suppress retinal antigen(s)-specific autoimmunity to treat autoimmune posterior uveitis.
  46. Wakefield D, Jennings A, McCluskey P. Intravenous pulse methylprednisolone in the treatment of uveitis associated with multiple sclerosis. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2000;28:103-6 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) in the treatment of uveitis in association with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  47. Xu H, Dawson R, Forrester J, Liversidge J. Identification of novel dendritic cell populations in normal mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:1701-10 pubmed
    ..In this histologic study, the authors examine the retinas of mice strains with different susceptibility to experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) for tissue resident APC...
  48. Kilmartin D, Fletcher Z, Almeida J, Liversidge J, Forrester J, Dick A. CD69 expression on peripheral CD4+ T cells parallels disease activity and is reduced by mycophenolate mofetil therapy in uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:1285-92 pubmed
    ..To assess the effects of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy on T helper cell activation status, using CD69 expression and cytokine profile with flow cytometry in relation to clinical activity in uveitis...
  49. Chen L, Pai V, Levinson R, Sharpe A, Freeman G, Braun J, et al. Constitutive neuronal expression of the immune regulator, programmed death 1 (PD-1), identified during experimental autoimmune uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2009;17:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Programmed death-1 (PD-1) ligation downregulates active lymphocyte responses. The authors tested whether PD-1 or its ligands are expressed in the posterior segment during active intraocular inflammation...
  50. Kaçmaz R, Kempen J, Newcomb C, Gangaputra S, Daniel E, Levy Clarke G, et al. Ocular inflammation in Behçet disease: incidence of ocular complications and of loss of visual acuity. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:828-36 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate the risk of structural ocular complications and loss of visual acuity (VA) in cases of Behçet disease (BD) and to evaluate potential risk and protective factors for these events...
  51. Karahocagil M, Demirok A, Kilic A, Cinal A, Caksen H, Yasar T. Brucellosis and uveitis. Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie). 2008;40:48-50 pubmed
    ..In Case 2, a 12-year-old-girl diagnosis of left brucellosis uveitis was made. Both SAT and SAT/Coombs titers were positive at 1:1280. This report confirms that Brucellae organisms as a cause of uveitis...
  52. Deuter C, Koetter I, Guenaydin I, Stuebiger N, Zierhut M. Interferon alfa-2a: a new treatment option for long lasting refractory cystoid macular edema in uveitis? A pilot study. Retina. 2006;26:786-91 pubmed
    ..To perform a prospective pilot study to evaluate interferon alfa-2a (IFN alfa-2a) for the treatment of refractory cystoid macular edema (CME) in endogenous uveitis...
  53. Gupta A, Gupta V. Tubercular posterior uveitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2005;45:71-88 pubmed