Summary: Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris.

Top Publications

  1. Levi M, Kodsi S, Rubin S, Lyons C, Golden R, Olitsky S, et al. Ocular involvement as the initial manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis in children. J AAPOS. 2008;12:94-6 pubmed
    ..The disease may present initially with ocular manifestations. We report the largest series to date of children whose ocular findings were the initial presenting signs of Wegener's granulomatosis...
  2. Lin C, Tseng P, Chen C, Woung L, Liou S. Iritis and pupillary distortion after periorbital cosmetic alexandrite laser. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011;249:783-5 pubmed publisher
  3. Blau E. Familial granulomatous arthritis, iritis, and rash. J Pediatr. 1985;107:689-93 pubmed
    ..Ten have had arthritis; two had skin, eye, and joint involvement; one had skin and joint disease, and one had iritis only. The disease is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait and is not associated with HLA-B27...
  4. Melles R, Wong I. Metipranolol-associated granulomatous iritis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;118:712-5 pubmed
    ..We studied granulomatous uveitis reactions to topical metipranolol 0.3% therapy for primary open-angle glaucoma in two patients in the United States...
  5. Tseng A, Mortimer C, Salit I. Iritis associated with intravenous cidofovir. Ann Pharmacother. 1999;33:167-71 pubmed
    To report two patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinitis who developed iritis after receiving intravenous cidofovir. Both experienced recurrent symptoms upon rechallenge.
  6. Freeman H. Pouchitis-associated iritis (uveitis) following total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-to-anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis. Can J Gastroenterol. 2001;15:131-3 pubmed
    ..Although no ophthalmological manifestations were present before the staged surgical procedures, iritis developed after appearance of the pouchitis...
  7. Bardenstein D, Cheyer C, Lee C, Cocuzzi E, Mizuno M, Okada N, et al. Blockage of complement regulators in the conjunctiva and within the eye leads to massive inflammation and iritis. Immunology. 2001;104:423-30 pubmed
    ..blockage of 5I2 Ag function in periocular tissues and within the eye causes intense conjunctival inflammation and iritis demonstrates the importance of intrinsic complement regulators in protecting ocular tissues from spontaneous or ..
  8. Kleinmann G, Apple D, Mackool R. Recurrent iritis after implantation of an iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens for the correction of myopia Case report and clinicopathologic correlation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:1385-7 pubmed
    ..We report the case of a young healthy patient who experienced persistent and intolerable iritis after implantation of an iris-claw IOL. The iritis was resolved only after explantation of the IOL.
  9. Brophy S, Taylor G, Blake D, Calin A. The interrelationship between sex, susceptibility factors, and outcome in ankylosing spondylitis and its associated disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, and iritis. J Rheumatol. 2003;30:2054-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that either women with disease carry more susceptibility factors than men or that the uterine environment/breast feeding may play a role in AS...

More Information


  1. Price F, Ziemba S. Placement of a collagen glaucoma drainage device to control intraocular pressure and chronic iritis secondary to juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 2002;33:233-6 pubmed
    A patient with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and chronic iritis is reported with intraocular pressure near 30 mm Hg and previous episodes of intraocular pressure as high as 50 mm Hg despite maximally tolerated medical therapy...
  2. Srinivasan R, T S, Gupta A, Kaliaperumal S. Hypopyon iritis after primary fresh amniotic membrane transplantation. Cornea. 2007;26:1275-6 pubmed
    To report the occurrence of hypopyon iritis after primary, fresh amniotic membrane transplant (AMT).
  3. Rosenbaum J. Effect of etanercept on iritis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:3736-7 pubmed
  4. Kymionis G, Portaliou D, Bouzoukis D, Suh L, Pallikaris A, Markomanolakis M, et al. Herpetic keratitis with iritis after corneal crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet A for keratoconus. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1982-4 pubmed
    ..Five days postoperatively, she presented with geographic epithelial keratitis and iritis. Analysis of tear samples by polymerase chain reaction confirmed the diagnosis...
  5. Cohen J, Fahle G, Kemp M, Apakupakul K, Margolis T. Human herpesvirus 6-A, 6-B, and 7 in vitreous fluid samples. J Med Virol. 2010;82:996-9 pubmed publisher
    ..including 69 samples from patients with ocular inflammation including CMV retinitis, idiopathic retinitis, iritis, and vitritis, for HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7 DNA by PCR...
  6. Roy F. The red eye. Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie). 2006;38:35-8 pubmed
    ..Ciliary injection indicates inflammation of the cornea, iris, or ciliary body, whereas conjunctival injection mainly affects the posterior conjunctival blood vessels. ..
  7. Yoshikawa T, Miyata K, Nakai T, Ohbayashi C, Kaneko M, Ogata N. Iris metastasis preceding diagnosis of gastric signet ring cell adenocarcinoma: a case report. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:125 pubmed publisher
    ..She had no history of systemic cancer. She was initially diagnosed with acute iritis from diabetes mellitus and secondary glaucoma. She underwent trabeculectomy because of the uncontrolled IOP...
  8. Kowalewska J, Tomford R, Alpers C. Crystals in podocytes: an unusual manifestation of systemic disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42:605-11 pubmed
  9. Papadia M, Herbort C, Mochizuki M. Diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2010;18:432-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In countries where the incidence of sarcoidosis is common, like Japan, a complete workup should be performed, whereas in countries where the incidence of the disease is less high, a noninvasive approach may be warranted at first. ..
  10. Nessi F, Bovey E, Guex Crosier Y. Endogenous pneumococcal endophthalmitis followed by pneumococcal-induced uveitis. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2003;220:204-6 pubmed
    ..This case report is rare. To our knowledge, only 3 similar cases have been reported in the literature. ..
  11. Mukewar S, Hall P, Lashner B, Lopez R, Kiran R, Shen B. Risk factors for nephrolithiasis in patients with ileal pouches. J Crohns Colitis. 2013;7:70-8 pubmed publisher
  12. Langford M, Foreman B, Srur L, Ganley J, Redens T. Bilateral acute pyogenic conjunctivitis with iritis induced by unilateral topical application of bacterial peptidoglycan muramyl dipeptide in adult rabbits. Exp Eye Res. 2013;116:324-36 pubmed publisher
    The factors responsible for the conjunctivitis and iritis associated with acute ocular infection and post enteric inflammatory disease are not fully known...
  13. Dong Z, Iwata D, Kitaichi N, Takeuchi M, Sato M, Endo N, et al. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis by inhibition of glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end-product formation. J Leukoc Biol. 2014;96:1077-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum glycer-AGE levels may therefore serve as a biomarker of human uveitis, as well as systemic inflammation, and may contribute to the progression of uveitis, including diabetic iritis, via the activation of NF-κB.
  14. Barroso J, Pfannenbecker U, Adriaens E, Alépée N, Cluzel M, De Smedt A, et al. Cosmetics Europe compilation of historical serious eye damage/eye irritation in vivo data analysed by drivers of classification to support the selection of chemicals for development and evaluation of alternative methods/strategies: the Draize eye tes. Arch Toxicol. 2017;91:521-547 pubmed publisher
    ..e. degree of severity and persistence of corneal opacity (CO), iritis, and/or conjunctiva effects, was added for each individual study in the database, and the studies were categorised ..
  15. Kuerten D, Fuest M, Mazinani B, Walter P, Plange N. [Candida infiltrations in the iris and lens during iritis and situation after sepsis]. Ophthalmologe. 2018;115:145-149 pubmed publisher the lens capsule and behind the iris after corticosteroid treatment of a presumed HLA-B27-positive iritis. The patient suffered from a life-threatening intensive care stay with positive Candida blood cultures earlier ..
  16. Tanito M, Chihara E. Safety and effectiveness of gold glaucoma micro shunt for reducing intraocular pressure in Japanese patients with open angle glaucoma. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2017;61:388-394 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflammation-related complications such as posterior and anterior synechiae, or iritis/keratic precipitates tended to occur during late postoperative periods...
  17. Watkinson S, Seewoodhary R. Assessment, care and management of patients with red eye. Nurs Stand. 2017;32:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The main ocular conditions that can give rise to red eye are: primary acute angle closure glaucoma, acute iritis, dry eye, blepharitis and conjunctivitis. Red eye can be classified as sight-threatening or non-sight-threatening...
  18. He D, Blomquist P, Ellis E. Association between ocular injuries and internal orbital fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:713-20 pubmed
    ..This study was performed to assess the association between orbital blowout fractures and ocular injuries...
  19. Martindale J, Smith J, Sutton C, Grennan D, Goodacre L, Goodacre J. Disease and psychological status in ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006;45:1288-93 pubmed
    ..Our secondary objectives were to identify patient subgroups based on such associations and to determine the stability of the measures over time...
  20. Cowan C. Review for disease of the year: differential diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2010;18:442-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper provides an overview of ocular conditions that may share part of the spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with sarcoid...
  21. Altintas A, Arifoglu H, Tutar E, Koklu G, Ozcan P. Effect on anterior chamber bevacizumab injection combined with seton implantation in treatment of rubeosis iridis in neovascular glaucoma. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2012;31:124-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effect of anti-VEGF (bevacizumab) injection to the posterior chamber (BIPC) behind the iris combined with seton implantation in treatment of neovascular glaucoma (NVG)...
  22. Mozayan A, Farah S. Acute anterior uveitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013;44:25-7 pubmed publisher
    To report five cases of iritis after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab.
  23. Kim D, Singh A. Severe iritis and choroidal effusion following selective laser trabeculoplasty. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2008;39:409-11 pubmed
    ..The authors believe this is the first reported case of severe iritis and choroidal effusion following selective laser trabeculoplasty.
  24. Fraser Smith E, Matthews T. Effect of ketorolac on herpes simplex virus type one ocular infection in rabbits. J Ocul Pharmacol. 1988;4:321-6 pubmed
    ..infection was determined by scoring corneal opacity and HSV-1 corneal ulcerations with the Draize scale as well as iritis and conjunctivitis. Ten days after treatment ended both the corneal opacity scores (1...
  25. Ebihara I, Hirayama K, Usui J, Seki M, Higuchi F, Oteki T, et al. Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome associated with hyperthyroidism. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2006;10:216-21 pubmed
    ..He had iritis, which was complicated by fibrin in the anterior chamber, diagnosed by slit-lamp examination...
  26. Jap A, Sivakumar M, Chee S. Is Posner Schlossman syndrome benign?. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:913-8 pubmed
    ..To determine the clinical course of patients with Posner Schlossman syndrome (PSS)...
  27. Gutierrez C, Merayo J, Cuevas J, Lazaro M, Rebolleda G, Munoz Negrete F. [Glaucoma related with photoreceptor outer segments in aqueous humor. Schwartz-Matsuo syndrome]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2001;76:315-8 pubmed
    ..The sample of aqueous humor showed melanic pigment and degenerated photoreceptor outer segments. After retinal detachment surgery, the intraocular pressure returned to normal levels without antiglaucoma medication...
  28. Uchoa U, Rezende R, Carrasco M, Rapuano C, Laibson P, Cohen E. Long-term acyclovir use to prevent recurrent ocular herpes simplex virus infection. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:1702-4 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effectiveness of more than 12 months of oral acyclovir therapy in reducing recurrences of ocular herpes simplex virus...
  29. Crouch E, Lattanzio F, Williams P, Mitrev P, Theobald T, Allen R. Cyclosporin-augmented laser peripheral iridoplasty. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2004;35:475-81 pubmed
    Almost all patients develop iritis following argon laser peripheral iridoplasty. Numerous adverse effects, particularly elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and reduced microbial resistance, complicate therapy with topical corticosteroids...
  30. Brophy S, Hickey S, Menon A, Taylor G, Bradbury L, Hamersma J, et al. Concordance of disease severity among family members with ankylosing spondylitis?. J Rheumatol. 2004;31:1775-8 pubmed
    ..51 and 0.63 (i.e., 51% and 63%), respectively. We examined the concordance of disease severity among family members in terms of disease activity, function, radiological change, prevalence of iritis, and juvenile onset.
  31. Keitel W, Zouboulis C. [The Greek and the Turk: Benediktos Adamantiades (1875-1965) and Hulûsi Behçet (1889-1948)]. Z Rheumatol. 2003;62:88-94 pubmed
  32. Fuchs H, Becker K, Auffarth G. [Persistent iritis 6 months after cataract surgery. Residual lens nucleus after cataract operation in the chamber angle]. Ophthalmologe. 2002;99:792-3 pubmed
  33. Levänen V, Lauerma H. [F99, a mental disorder not otherwise specified]. Duodecim. 2003;119:343, 345 pubmed
  34. Shingleton B, Campbell C, O Donoghue M. Effects of pupil stretch technique during phacoemulsification on postoperative vision, intraocular pressure, and inflammation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:1142-5 pubmed
    ..To determine whether pupil stretch during phacoemulsification affects postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and inflammation compared with results in patients without pupil stretch...
  35. Pandit R, Coburn A. Sudden corneal edema due to retained lens nuclear fragment presenting 8.5 years after cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011;37:1165-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Slitlamp examination revealed significant corneal edema and mild iritis. Gonioscopy revealed a retained lens nuclear fragment in the inferior angle...
  36. Handzel D. [Iritis with destabilization of the intraocular pressure due to dislocation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens]. Ophthalmologe. 2012;109:385-7 pubmed publisher
    ..After an interval of 2 months the patient developed iritis together with an uncontrollable increase in intraocular pressure...
  37. Gabler B. [Ophthalmological emergencies. 1. The acute red eye]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2002;144:39-40 pubmed
  38. Deibel J, Cowling K. Ocular inflammation and infection. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2013;31:387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Pain relief may be achieved with oral analgesics and cycloplegics. In most cases, prompt follow-up is required...
  39. Stanca H. [Hypopyon]. Oftalmologia. 2012;56:19-22 pubmed
    ..A clear view over the etiology is strongly correlated with the therapeutical approach and the patient evolution...
  40. Schumer R, Camras C, Mandahl A. Putative side effects of prostaglandin analogs. Surv Ophthalmol. 2002;47 Suppl 1:S219 pubmed
    Anecdotal case reports describe the occurrence of cystoid macular edema, iritis, herpes simplex keratitis, periocular skin darkening, and headaches in patients treated with prostaglandin analogs for glaucoma...
  41. Moszczyńska Kowalska A, Kecik T, Drobecka Brydak E, Stanisławska A. [Oral acyclovir treatment of viral eye infections]. Klin Oczna. 1992;94:135-6 pubmed
    ..the results were satisfactory. The drug was well tolerated and it could be used also in patients who showed hypersensitivity for acyclovir after ++intra-conjunctival application in the form of ointment...
  42. Fonollosa A, Giralt J, Pelegrin L, Sanchez Dalmau B, Segura A, Garcia Arumi J, et al. Ocular syphilis--back again: understanding recent increases in the incidence of ocular syphilitic disease. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2009;17:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical findings and outcomes of 12 cases of luetic uveitis are reported...
  43. Seth R, Abedi G, Daccache A, Tsai J. Cataract secondary to electrical shock from a Taser gun. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1664-5 pubmed
    A 35-year-old man presented with traumatic iritis, angle-recession glaucoma, and a retinal dialysis secondary to blunt trauma from a Taser gun in the right eye and a unique electrical cataract in the left eye...
  44. Aydin S, Ozcura F. Corneal oedema and acute anterior uveitis after two doses of travoprost. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2007;85:693-4 pubmed
  45. Yeniad B, Ayranci O, Tuncer S, Kir N, Ovali T, Tugal Tutkun I, et al. Assessment of anterior chamber inflammation after intravitreal bevacizumab injection in different ocular exudative diseases. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2011;21:156-61 pubmed
    ..To investigate the inflammation of the anterior chamber after intravitreal bevacizumab injection in different ocular exudative diseases...
  46. Xie F, Sun D, Schering A, Nakao S, Zandi S, Liu P, et al. Novel molecular imaging approach for subclinical detection of iritis and evaluation of therapeutic success. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This work introduces noninvasive subclinical detection of endothelial injury in the iris vasculature, providing a unique opportunity for quantifying vascular injury and immune response in vivo...
  47. Wirbelauer C. Management of the red eye for the primary care physician. Am J Med. 2006;119:302-6 pubmed
    ..The most frequent causes of a red eye, such as dry eye, conjunctivitis, keratitis, iritis, acute glaucoma, subconjunctival hematoma, foreign bodies, corneal abrasion, and blunt or penetrating trauma, are ..
  48. Ziu T, Ajvazi H. Management of patient with Cogan's syndrome: a case report. Oftalmologia. 2010;54:73-5 pubmed
    ..Cogan syndrome-CS, is a rare autoimmune disease defined as an inflammation of the eyes followed by bilateral audiovestibular symptoms...
  49. Glass D, Maender J, Metry D. Two pediatric cases of Blau syndrome. Dermatol Online J. 2009;15:5 pubmed
  50. Dalesandro N, Stiles J, Miller M. Septic lens implantation syndrome in a cat. Vet Ophthalmol. 2011;14 Suppl 1:84-7 pubmed publisher
    ..penetrating wound was suspected as the cause for a corneal scar, an anterior cortical incipient cataract and mild iritis. The cat was not re-presented until 1 year later at which time ocular pain was marked...
  51. Wang F, Wang N. Etanercept therapy-associated acute uveitis: a case report and literature review. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009;27:838-9 pubmed
    A female patient diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis experienced a new onset acute iritis following the initiation of etanercept therapy and recurrent episodes of iritis continues during the treatment of etanercept...
  52. Wacker T, Eckert S. [Laser trabeculoplasty: therapeutic options and adverse effects]. Ophthalmologe. 2010;107:13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There are different laser systems for reducing the intraocular pressure of patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Complications include transient intraocular pressure elevation, iritis, and anterior synechiae.
  53. Moyle W, Purdy E. Nematode-induced low-grade chronic inflammation of the iris. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:E939-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether adult or larvae, alive or dead, they can result in a wide range of ocular and systemic manifestations. Classification of the nematode can be helpful in the treatment planning for these patients...
  54. Espinosa M, Gottlieb B. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Pediatr Rev. 2012;33:303-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic analysis also may allow physicians to target therapies more effectively. It is hoped that development of more specific therapies will decrease overall immunosuppression and other associated toxicities...
  55. Pahor D, Gracner T, Gracner B. [Cataract surgery in nanophthalmic eyes]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2012;229:1113-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nanophthalmos among cataract patients and to evaluate intraoperative and postoperative complications in nanophthalmic eyes...
  56. Yabe H, Takano Y, Nomura E, Nakayama M, Kihara M, Miyakawa S, et al. Two cases of SAPHO syndrome accompanied by classic features of Behcet's disease and review of the literature. Clin Rheumatol. 2008;27:133-5 pubmed
    ..Another conspicuous complication was bilateral glaucoma and episodes of iritis were recognized during the follow-up period...
  57. Watkinson S. Assessment and management of patients with acute red eye. Nurs Older People. 2013;25:27-34; quiz 35 pubmed
    ..The conditions discussed are acute closed angle glaucoma, acute iritis, acute conjunctivitis, herpes zoster ophthalmicus and bacterial corneal ulcer.
  58. Brophy S, Pavy S, Lewis P, Taylor G, Bradbury L, Robertson D, et al. Inflammatory eye, skin, and bowel disease in spondyloarthritis: genetic, phenotypic, and environmental factors. J Rheumatol. 2001;28:2667-73 pubmed
    To explore the nature of the interrelationship between inflammatory disease of the spine/joints, skin, eye, and bowel [i.e., ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriasis, iritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)].
  59. Hedin E, Lyckberg H, Carlsson P. [Not Available]. Lakartidningen. 2016;113: pubmed
    ..Here we present a case of suspected Cogan's syndrome where diagnosis was considered after exclusion of other possible autoimmune and infectious diseases. ..
  60. Mathew B, Brownstein S, Kertes P, Gilberg S, Damji K, Chialant D. Clinically unsuspected diffuse uveal melanoma presenting as recurrent iritis. Can J Ophthalmol. 2004;39:464-7 pubmed
  61. Maruyama Y, Kimura Y, Kishi S, Shimizu K. Serous detachment of the ciliary body in Harada disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;125:666-72 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the involvement of the anterior ocular segment in Harada disease...
  62. Logothetis H, Leikin S, Patrianakos T. Management of anterior segment trauma. Dis Mon. 2014;60:247-53 pubmed publisher
  63. Miller B, Goldstein M, Monshizadeh R, Tabandeh H, Bhatti M. Ocular manifestations of electrical injury: a case report and review of the literature. CLAO J. 2002;28:224-7 pubmed
    ..a case of electrical shock resulting in multiple ocular manifestations, including anisocoria, acute bilateral iritis, bilateral cataracts, and macular cyst formation, and to provide a review of the literature on electrically ..
  64. Gottlieb C, Mishra A, Belliveau D, Green P, Heathcote J. Ocular involvement in acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet syndrome): new cases and review of the literature. Surv Ophthalmol. 2008;53:219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..dacryoadenitis, conjunctivitis, episcleritis, scleritis, limbal nodules, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, iritis, glaucoma, and choroiditis. The ocular inflammation appears concurrently with skin lesions...
  65. Faulkner W, Burk S. Acute anterior uveitis and corneal edema associated with travoprost. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:1054-5 pubmed
  66. Koralewska Makár A, Johnsson C, Bruun A, Stenevi U, Ehinger B. COX-2 inhibitors prolong trauma-induced elevations of iris hyaluronan. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2003;19:385-95 pubmed
    To investigate whether and how treatment with COX-2 inhibitors influences hyaluronan responses to a standardized trauma, argon laser induced iritis, in rabbits.