exfoliation syndrome

Summary

Summary: The deposition of flaky, translucent fibrillar material most conspicuous on the anterior lens capsule and pupillary margin but also in both surfaces of the iris, the zonules, trabecular meshwork, ciliary body, corneal endothelium, and orbital blood vessels. It sometimes forms a membrane on the anterior iris surface. Exfoliation refers to the shedding of pigment by the iris. (Newell, Ophthalmology, 7th ed, p380)

Top Publications

  1. Bahadur G, Masket S. Pseudophakia with pseudo-pseudoexfoliation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1827-8 pubmed
  2. Jonasson F. Solving the enigma of exfoliation glaucoma: a breakthrough in glaucoma research. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2007;85:808-9 pubmed
  3. Ritch R. The management of exfoliative glaucoma. Prog Brain Res. 2008;173:211-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related, generalized disorder of the extracellular matrix characterized by the production and progressive accumulation of a fibrillar extracellular material in many ocular tissues and is the most ..
  4. Al Bdour M, Al Till M, Idrees G, Abu Samra K. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome at Jordan University Hospital. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86:755-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS) and analyse its association with particular ocular diseases in patients attending the Department of Ophthalmology at Jordan University Hospital...
  5. Liu Y, Schmidt S, Qin X, Gibson J, Hutchins K, Santiago Turla C, et al. Lack of association between LOXL1 variants and primary open-angle glaucoma in three different populations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:3465-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether XFG-associated variants of LOXL1 play a significant role in primary open-angle glaucoma in the Caucasian, African-American, and Ghanaian (West-African) populations...
  6. Abu Amero K, Morales J, Bosley T, Mohamed G, Cabrera V. The role of mitochondrial haplogroups in glaucoma: a study in an Arab population. Mol Vis. 2008;14:518-22 pubmed
    ..Glaucoma prevalence can vary geographically and ethnically, which suggests that a genetic element could play a significant role. Studies investigating the role of various mitochondrial haplogroups in the pathogenesis of glaucoma are scarce...
  7. Doğu B, Yuksel N, Cekmen M, Caglar Y. Aqueous humor and serum erythropoietin levels in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. Int Ophthalmol. 2010;30:669-74 pubmed publisher
    ..35 mU/ml) and controls (7.30 ± 4.15 mU/ml) (P = 0.672). Contrary to predictions based on the relation with ischemic processes, no difference was revealed between levels of EPO in aqueous humor and serum in patients with PXS and PXG...
  8. Chiras D, Tzika K, Kokotas H, Oliveira S, Grigoriadou M, Kastania A, et al. Development of novel LOXL1 genotyping method and evaluation of LOXL1, APOE and MTHFR polymorphisms in exfoliation syndrome/glaucoma in a Greek population. Mol Vis. 2013;19:1006-16 pubmed
    In the Greek population of Epirus, exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occur at a high prevalence...
  9. Arnarsson A, Jonasson F, Damji K, Gottfredsdottir M, Sverrisson T, Sasaki H. Exfoliation syndrome in the Reykjavik Eye Study: risk factors for baseline prevalence and 5-year incidence. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:831-5 pubmed publisher
    To examine the age- and gender-specific prevalent and 5-year incident risk of developing exfoliation syndrome (XFS).

More Information

Publications62

  1. Chen L, Jia L, Wang N, Tang G, Zhang C, Fan S, et al. Evaluation of LOXL1 polymorphisms in exfoliation syndrome in a Chinese population. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2349-57 pubmed
    To evaluate the association profiles of the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene polymorphisms with exfoliation syndrome in a Chinese population.
  2. Khan M, Micheal S, Rana N, Akhtar F, den Hollander A, Ahmed A, et al. Association of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism G-308A with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma in the Pakistani population. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2861-7 pubmed
  3. Ahrlich K, De Moraes C, Teng C, Prata T, Tello C, Ritch R, et al. Visual field progression differences between normal-tension and exfoliative high-tension glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:1458-63 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the pattern, location, and rate of visual field (VF) change in normal-tension (NTG) and exfoliative high-tension glaucoma (XHTG)...
  4. Ritch R. Exfoliation syndrome: beyond glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:859-61 pubmed publisher
  5. Papadopoulos T, Naxakis S, Charalabopoulou M, Vathylakis I, Goumas P, Gartaganis S. Exfoliation syndrome related to sensorineural hearing loss. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;38:456-61 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the relationship between exfoliation syndrome and sensorineural hearing loss.
  6. Rautenbach R, Bardien S, Harvey J, Ziskind A. An investigation into LOXL1 variants in black South African individuals with exfoliation syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:206-10 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the association between 2 lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) polymorphisms, rs1048661 (R141L) and rs3825942 (G153D), and exfoliation syndrome (XFS) in black South African individuals.
  7. Kasım B, Irkec M, Alikasifoglu M, Orhan M, Mocan M, Aktas D. Association of LOXL1 gene polymorphisms with exfoliation syndrome/glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma in a Turkish population. Mol Vis. 2013;19:114-20 pubmed
    To investigate the association of lysyl oxidase like 1 (LOXL1) variants with exfoliation syndrome (XFS), exfoliation glaucoma (XFG), and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a Turkish population.
  8. Aragon Martin J, Ritch R, Liebmann J, O Brien C, Blaaow K, Mercieca F, et al. Evaluation of LOXL1 gene polymorphisms in exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma. Mol Vis. 2008;14:533-41 pubmed
    To evaluate genetic susceptibility of lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene polymorphisms to exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) in a case-control cohort of American and European patients.
  9. Roberts M, Hawksworth N. Pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation of an AkreosFit intraocular lens. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:1082-3 pubmed
    ..To describe a case of intraocular lens opacification resembling pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation affecting an AkreosFit intraocular lens (IOL)...
  10. Wolf C, Gramer E, Muller Myhsok B, Pasutto F, Wissinger B, Weisschuh N. Mitochondrial haplogroup U is associated with a reduced risk to develop exfoliation glaucoma in the German population. BMC Genet. 2010;11:8 pubmed publisher
  11. Ting J, Damji K, Stiles M. Ab interno trabeculectomy: outcomes in exfoliation versus primary open-angle glaucoma. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2012;38:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare outcomes in exfoliation glaucoma versus primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) after ab interno trabeculectomy alone (Trabectome) or in combination with cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation...
  12. Tanito M, Minami M, Akahori M, Kaidzu S, Takai Y, Ohira A, et al. LOXL1 variants in elderly Japanese patients with exfoliation syndrome/glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma, and cataract. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1898-905 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the association of lysyl oxidase like 1 (LOXL1) gene variants in Japanese patients with open-angle glaucoma...
  13. Stein J, Pasquale L, Talwar N, Kim D, Reed D, Nan B, et al. Geographic and climatic factors associated with exfoliation syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:1053-60 pubmed publisher
    To identify geographic and climatic risk factors associated with exfoliation syndrome (ES).
  14. Malukiewicz G, Lesiewska Junk H, Linkowska K, Mielnik M, Grzybowski T, Sulima N. Analysis of LOXL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Polish population with pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011;89:e64-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the possible association of lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene variants with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) in Polish population...
  15. Sawada H, Fukuchi T, Tanaka T, Abe H. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in the aqueous humor of patients with glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:903-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in the aqueous humor of patients with glaucoma, including correlations with glaucoma subtypes and intraocular pressure...
  16. Cimetta D, Cimetta A. Intraocular pressure changes after clear corneal phacoemulsification in nonglaucomatous pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2008;18:77-81 pubmed
    ..To present a prospective, nonrandomized study of intraocular pressure (IOP) after clear corneal phacoemulsification in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome...
  17. Fan B, Pasquale L, Grosskreutz C, Rhee D, Chen T, DeAngelis M, et al. DNA sequence variants in the LOXL1 gene are associated with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in a U.S. clinic-based population with broad ethnic diversity. BMC Med Genet. 2008;9:5 pubmed publisher
  18. Howell K, Vrabel A, Chowdhury U, Stamer W, Fautsch M. Myocilin levels in primary open-angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma human aqueous humor. J Glaucoma. 2010;19:569-75 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the concentration of myocilin in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG) aqueous humor...
  19. Yang X, Zabriskie N, Hau V, Chen H, Tong Z, Gibbs D, et al. Genetic association of LOXL1 gene variants and exfoliation glaucoma in a Utah cohort. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:521-4 pubmed
    ..After a standard eye examination protocol we genotyped SNPs rs2165241and rs3825942 in 62 XFG or exfoliation syndrome (XFS) patients and 170 normal controls...
  20. Ozaki M, Lee K, Vithana E, Yong V, Thalamuthu A, Mizoguchi T, et al. Association of LOXL1 gene polymorphisms with pseudoexfoliation in the Japanese. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:3976-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to test this association in Japanese subjects with XFS/XFG...
  21. Erdurmus M, Yagci R, Atis O, Karadag R, Akbas A, Hepsen I. Antioxidant status and oxidative stress in primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. Curr Eye Res. 2011;36:713-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to establish the antioxidant status and oxidative stress in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEG)...
  22. Prata T, Rozenbaum I, De Moraes C, Lima V, Liebmann J, Ritch R. Retinal vascular occlusions occur more frequently in the more affected eye in exfoliation syndrome. Eye (Lond). 2010;24:658-62 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular occlusions (RVOs) and exfoliation syndrome (XFS) in a cohort of patients with the two conditions.
  23. Wolf C, Gramer E, Muller Myhsok B, Pasutto F, Gramer G, Wissinger B, et al. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 gene polymorphisms in German patients with normal tension glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma and exfoliation glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2010;19:136-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the association between lysyl-oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene polymorphisms and exfoliation glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma and normal tension glaucoma in a case-control cohort of German patients...
  24. Aström S, Lindén C. Incidence and prevalence of pseudoexfoliation and open-angle glaucoma in northern Sweden: I. Baseline report. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2007;85:828-31 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) among 66-year-old people in the municipality of Skellefteå in northern Sweden...
  25. Puska P, Harju M. Optic nerve head topography in nonglaucomatous, normotensive patients with unilateral exfoliation syndrome. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;247:1111-7 pubmed publisher
    Optic nerve head damage may result from high intraocular pressure (IOP) associated with the exfoliation syndrome (EXS). At equal IOP levels, eyes with EXS may suffer damage more easily than eyes without EXS...
  26. Challa P. Genetics of pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2009;20:88-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this review is to discuss the inheritance patterns and recent genetic advances in the study of this disorder...
  27. Ferreira S, Lerner S, Brunzini R, Evelson P, Llesuy S. Antioxidant status in the aqueous humour of patients with glaucoma associated with exfoliation syndrome. Eye (Lond). 2009;23:1691-7 pubmed publisher
    To establish the antioxidant status of the aqueous humour in glaucoma associated with exfoliation syndrome (XFG) and to compare it to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and cataract patients.
  28. Fingert J, Alward W, Kwon Y, Wang K, Streb L, Sheffield V, et al. LOXL1 mutations are associated with exfoliation syndrome in patients from the midwestern United States. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:974-975 pubmed
  29. Koliakos G, Befani C, Mikropoulos D, Ziakas N, Konstas A. Prooxidant-antioxidant balance, peroxide and catalase activity in the aqueous humour and serum of patients with exfoliation syndrome or exfoliative glaucoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;246:1477-83 pubmed publisher
    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathobiology of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliative glaucoma (XFG).
  30. Yazdani S, Tousi A, Pakravan M, Faghihi A. Sensorineural hearing loss in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:425-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine hearing thresholds at sound frequencies important for speech comprehension in subjects with ocular pseudoexfoliation and to compare them with that of age- and sex-matched controls without pseudoexfoliation...
  31. Streho M, Rohart C, Guigui B, Fajnkuchen F, Chaine G. [Pseudoexfoliation syndrome in cataract surgery. Retrospective study of 37 cases]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2008;31:11-5 pubmed
    ..To analyze the clinical features of pseudoexfoliation syndrome and to determine complications in cataract surgery in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome compared with eyes without this syndrome...
  32. Shakya S, Dulal S, Maharjan I. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome in various ethnic population of Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J. 2008;10:147-50 pubmed
    ..8% in Kathmandu valley while 12.0% in Ghandruk. Tamangs were affected very rarely by this disease accounting only for 0.3%. Gurungs are at higher risk of developing Pseudoexfoliation syndrome than any others in Nepal...
  33. Philip S, John S, Simha A, Jasper S, Braganza A. Ocular clinical profile of patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome in a tertiary eye care center in South India. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2012;19:231-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the clinical profile of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome in a hospital setting...
  34. Kim S, Kim Y. Variations in LOXL1 associated with exfoliation glaucoma do not affect amine oxidase activity. Mol Vis. 2012;18:265-70 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the impact of the R141L and G153D variations on the amine oxidase activity of LOXL1, we generated four different haplotypes of LOXL1 with R141L and G153D and assessed the amine oxidase activity of the LOXL1 variant proteins...
  35. Sagong M, Gu B, Cha S. Association of lysyl oxidase-like 1 gene polymorphisms with exfoliation syndrome in Koreans. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2808-17 pubmed
    To evaluate the association of the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Korean population with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and to investigate the association between the SNPs and phenotypes of XFS.
  36. Fan B, Pasquale L, Rhee D, Li T, Haines J, Wiggs J. LOXL1 promoter haplotypes are associated with exfoliation syndrome in a U.S. Caucasian population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2372-8 pubmed publisher
    LOXL1 is a major genetic risk factor for exfoliation syndrome (ES) and exfoliation glaucoma (EG)...
  37. Yilmaz A, Ayaz L, Tamer L. Selenium and pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;151:272-6.e1 pubmed publisher
  38. Mossbock G, Renner W, Faschinger C, Schmut O, Wedrich A, Weger M. Lysyl oxidase-like protein 1 (LOXL1) gene polymorphisms and exfoliation glaucoma in a Central European population. Mol Vis. 2008;14:857-61 pubmed
    b>Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is characterized by an accumulation of abnormal extracellular material in the anterior part of the eye that frequently leads to increased intraocular pressure and glaucomatous optic neuropathy...
  39. Williams S, Whigham B, Liu Y, Carmichael T, Qin X, Schmidt S, et al. Major LOXL1 risk allele is reversed in exfoliation glaucoma in a black South African population. Mol Vis. 2010;16:705-12 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether variants in the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene are associated with exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in an ancestral population from South Africa...
  40. Rao K, Ritch R, Dorairaj S, Kaur I, Liebmann J, Thomas R, et al. Exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma-associated LOXL1 variations are not involved in pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1254-62 pubmed
    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LOXL1 gene have been implicated in exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG)...
  41. Mabuchi F, Sakurada Y, Kashiwagi K, Yamagata Z, Iijima H, Tsukahara S. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with primary open angle glaucoma and exfoliation syndrome. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1303-8 pubmed
    To assess whether lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) polymorphisms are associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and exfoliation syndrome (XFS).
  42. Trantow C, Mao M, Petersen G, Alward E, Alward W, Fingert J, et al. Lyst mutation in mice recapitulates iris defects of human exfoliation syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1205-14 pubmed publisher
    Human eyes with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) exhibit a distinctive pattern of iris transillumination defects that are recapitulated in Lyst mutant mice carrying the beige allele...
  43. Grammenandi E, Detorakis E, Pallikaris I, Tsilimbaris M. Differences between Goldmann Applanation Tonometry and Dynamic Contour Tonometry in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;38:444-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate differences between Goldmann Applanation Tonometry (GAT) and Dynamic Controur Tonometry (DCT) in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX)...
  44. Krumbiegel M, Pasutto F, Mardin C, Weisschuh N, Paoli D, Gramer E, et al. Apolipoprotein E genotypes in pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2010;19:561-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we therefore investigated whether APOE alleles are associated with PEX syndrome and/or PEX glaucoma (PEXG) in 2 large cohorts of German and Italian origin...
  45. Abu Amero K, Morales J, Mohamed G, Osman M, Bosley T. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms in Arab glaucoma patients. Mol Vis. 2008;14:425-30 pubmed
    ..In humans, GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion genotypes (T0M1, T1M0, and T0M0) are associated with a variety of pathologic processes including certain ophthalmologic diseases...
  46. Traboulsi E, Sarfarazi M. The use of microarray technology in deciphering the cause of genetic eye diseases: LOXL1 and exfoliation syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:391-3 pubmed publisher
  47. Sekeroglu M, Bozkurt B, Irkec M, Ustunel S, Orhan M, Saracbasi O. Systemic associations and prevalence of exfoliation syndrome in patients scheduled for cataract surgery. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2008;18:551-5 pubmed
    To study the frequency of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and its association with intraocular pressure (IOP) and systemic diseases in patients with age-related cataract scheduled for surgery.
  48. Schlötzer Schrehardt U, Hammer C, Krysta A, Hofmann Rummelt C, Pasutto F, Sasaki T, et al. LOXL1 deficiency in the lamina cribrosa as candidate susceptibility factor for a pseudoexfoliation-specific risk of glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:1832-43 pubmed publisher
  49. Liu Y, Whigham B, Wheeler J, Williams S, Rautenbach R, Ziskind A, et al. The role of lysyl oxidase-like 1 DNA copy number variants in exfoliation glaucoma. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2976-81 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether DNA copy number variants (CNVs) in the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene are associated with exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) in black South Africans...
  50. Sharma S, Chataway T, Burdon K, Jonavicius L, Klebe S, Hewitt A, et al. Identification of LOXL1 protein and Apolipoprotein E as components of surgically isolated pseudoexfoliation material by direct mass spectrometry. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:479-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, additional as yet unknown components are present in pathological PEX deposits and mass spectrometry of "isolated" PEX material is an effective strategy for their identification...
  51. Damji K. Progress in understanding pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation-associated glaucoma. Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42:657-8 pubmed
  52. Ozcura F, Aydin S, Dayanir V. Central corneal thickness and corneal curvature in pseudoexfoliation syndrome with and without glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2011;20:410-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal curvature (CC) in pseudoexfoliative (PE) eyes with and without glaucoma...
  53. Akinci A, Batman C, Zilelioglu O. Phacoemulsification in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Ophthalmologica. 2008;222:112-6 pubmed publisher