Summary: Inflammation of the choroid.

Top Publications

  1. Michel S, Ekong A, Baltatzis S, Foster C. Multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis: immunomodulatory therapy. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:378-83 pubmed
    To report our analysis of the efficacy of immunomodulatory therapy on the course of 19 patients with multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis (MCP).
  2. Cirino A, Mathura J, Jampol L. Resolution of activity (choroiditis and choroidal neovascularization) of chronic recurrent punctate inner choroidopathy after treatment with interferon B-1A. Retina. 2006;26:1091-2 pubmed
  3. Bansal R, Gupta A, Gupta V, Dogra M, Sharma A, Bambery P. Tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis presenting as multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:2334-42 pubmed publisher
    To describe the clinical features, course, and outcome in tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis.
  4. Rabinowitz R, Schneck M, Levy J, Lifshitz T. Bilateral multifocal choroiditis with serous retinal detachment in a patient with Brucella infection: case report and review of the literature. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:116-8 pubmed
  5. Vianna R, Ozdal P, Deschenes J, Burnier M. Combination of azathioprine and corticosteroids in the treatment of serpiginous choroiditis. Can J Ophthalmol. 2006;41:183-9 pubmed
    ..therapy with immunosuppressive agents is currently accepted as the best option for treating active serpiginous choroiditis (SC), there is no consensus on the most effective immunosuppressive drug to use...
  6. Sonika -, Narang S, Kochhar S, Srivastava M, Gupta R, Sood S. Posterior scleritis mimicking macular serpiginous choroiditis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2003;51:351-3 pubmed
    An unusual case of posterior scleritis mimicking macular serpiginous choroiditis is reported.
  7. Nussenblatt R, Coleman H, Jirawuthiworavong G, Davuluri G, Potapova N, Dahr S, et al. The treatment of multifocal choroiditis associated choroidal neovascularization with sirolimus (rapamycin). Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2007;85:230-1 pubmed
  8. Golchet P, Jampol L, Wilson D, Yannuzzi L, Ober M, Stroh E. Persistent placoid maculopathy: a new clinical entity. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2006;104:108-20 pubmed
    To describe a previously unreported clinical entity superficially resembling macular serpiginous choroiditis but with a distinct presentation and clinical course.
  9. Gupta V, Bansal R, Gupta A. Continuous progression of tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis after initiating antituberculosis treatment. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152:857-63.e2 pubmed publisher
    To describe the frequency, risk factors, management, and outcome of eyes with tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis showing continued progression following initiation of antituberculosis treatment.

More Information


  1. Gao C, Mithani R, Leya J, Dawravoo L, Bhatia A, Antoine J, et al. Granulomatous hepatitis, choroiditis and aortoduodenal fistula complicating intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy: Case report. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:260 pubmed publisher
    ..Complications of BCG therapy include local infections and disseminated BCG infection with multiple endorgan complications...
  2. Vossmerbaeumer U, Spandau U, V Baltz S, Wickenhaeuser A, Jonas J. Intravitreal bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularisation secondary to punctate inner choroidopathy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;36:292-4 pubmed publisher
  3. Kedhar S, Thorne J, Wittenberg S, Dunn J, Jabs D. Multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis and punctate inner choroidopathy: comparison of clinical characteristics at presentation. Retina. 2007;27:1174-9 pubmed
    To compare the clinical characteristics at presentation of multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis (MFCPU) and punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC).
  4. Mahendradas P, Kamath G, Mahalakshmi B, Shetty K. Serpiginous choroiditis-like picture due to ocular toxoplasmosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2007;15:127-30 pubmed
    To report an atypical presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis in the form of serpiginous choroiditis-like picture in an immunocompetent individual.
  5. Chanana B, Azad R, Nair S. Bilateral macular choroiditis following Chikungunya virus infection. Eye (Lond). 2007;21:1020-1 pubmed
  6. Yasuno Y, Okamoto F, Kawana K, Yatagai T, Oshika T. Investigation of multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis by three-dimensional high-penetration optical coherence tomography. J Biophotonics. 2009;2:435-41 pubmed publisher
    A single case of multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis (MFCPU) was investigated by a three-dimensional (3-D) high-penetration optical coherence tomography...
  7. Wimmersberger Y, Baglivo E. Bartonella henselae infection presenting as a unilateral acute maculopathy. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2007;224:311-3 pubmed
    ..We describe and review the clinical, laboratory, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) records of a patient with CSD...
  8. Rouvas A, Petrou P, Douvali M, Ntouraki A, Vergados I, Georgalas I, et al. Intravitreal ranibizumab for the treatment of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization. Retina. 2011;31:871-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Akpek E, Baltatzis S, Yang J, Foster C. Long-term immunosuppressive treatment of serpiginous choroiditis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2001;9:153-67 pubmed
    To determine the efficacy of immunosuppressive treatment in serpiginous choroiditis.
  10. Vianna R, Ozdal P, Deschenes J. Multifocal choroiditis--an unusual finding in Crohn's disease. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2004;14:345-9 pubmed
    To report a patient with Crohn's disease and acute decreased vision in one eye secondary to multifocal choroiditis and serous retinal detachment.
  11. Latkany P, Jabs D, Smith J, Rosenbaum J, Tessler H, Schwab I, et al. Multifocal choroiditis in patients with familial juvenile systemic granulomatosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:897-904 pubmed
    ..To document clinical features of uveitis in patients with familial juvenile systemic granulomatosis...
  12. Akpek E, Chan C, Shen D, Green W. Lack of herpes virus DNA in choroidal tissues of a patient with serpiginous choroiditis. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:2071-5 pubmed
    To investigate the role of herpes viruses in the etiology of serpiginous choroiditis.
  13. Gupta V, Gupta A, Arora S, Bambery P, Dogra M, Agarwal A. Presumed tubercular serpiginouslike choroiditis: clinical presentations and management. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:1744-9 pubmed
    b>Choroiditis, choroidal tubercles, and tuberculomas are well known ocular manifestations of systemic tuberculosis. The present series aimed to report the occurrence of serpiginouslike choroiditis of presumed tubercular origin.
  14. Rodman J, Pizzimenti J. Serpiginous choroiditis in a herpes-positive patient. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:776-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Herpes simplex virus has been implicated in a number of posterior segment conditions, including serpiginous choroiditis (SC), which has generally been described as idiopathic.
  15. Bryan R, Freund K, Yannuzzi L, Spaide R, Huang S, Costa D. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome in patients with multifocal choroiditis. Retina. 2002;22:317-22 pubmed
    Controversy exists as to whether a common causal entity is responsible for multifocal choroiditis (MFC) and multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS)...
  16. Vasconcelos Santos D, Rao P, Davies J, Sohn E, Rao N. Clinical features of tuberculous serpiginouslike choroiditis in contrast to classic serpiginous choroiditis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:853-8 pubmed publisher
    To compare distinctive clinical features of presumed tuberculous serpiginouslike choroiditis (Tb-SLC) with classic serpiginous choroiditis (SC) in patients living in a region that is nonendemic for tuberculosis.
  17. Michau T, Breitschwerdt E, Gilger B, Davidson M. Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffi as a possible cause of anterior uveitis and choroiditis in a dog. Vet Ophthalmol. 2003;6:299-304 pubmed
    ..In the case presented here, even though the PCR was negative, the clinical signs of anterior uveitis and choroiditis might reasonably be associated with B...
  18. Fine H, Zhitomirsky I, Freund K, Barile G, Shirkey B, Samson C, et al. Bevacizumab (avastin) and ranibizumab (lucentis) for choroidal neovascularization in multifocal choroiditis. Retina. 2009;29:8-12 pubmed publisher
    Multifocal choroiditis (MFC) is an inflammatory condition, occasionally associated with choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Bevacizumab (Avastin) and ranibizumab (Lucentis) are therapies that target vascular endothelial growth factor...
  19. Gupta A, Bansal R, Gupta V, Sharma A. Fundus autofluorescence in serpiginouslike choroiditis. Retina. 2012;32:814-25 pubmed publisher
    To report the fundus autofluorescence characteristics in serpiginouslike choroiditis.
  20. Shimada H, Yuzawa M, Hirose T, Nakashizuka H, Hattori T, Kazato Y. Pathological findings of multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis and punctate inner choroidopathy. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2008;52:282-288 pubmed publisher
    To compare the pathological findings between multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis (MCP) and punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC).
  21. Jordano Pérez J, Córdoba Lorenzo M, Ruiz Lomas C, Márquez Báez F, Ortega Ortiz A. [Serpiginous choroiditis in a patient with uterine cervix carcinoma]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2012;87:86-9 pubmed publisher
    We report the case of a 70-year-old patient with serpiginous choroiditis and uterine cervix carcinoma.
  22. Miyanaga M, Kawaguchi T, Miyata K, Horie S, Mochizuki M, Herbort C. Indocyanine green angiography findings in initial acute pretreatment Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease in Japanese patients. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2010;54:377-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We present standardized IA findings of initial acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease in Japanese patients before therapeutical intervention...
  23. Akpek E, Jabs D, Tessler H, Joondeph B, Foster C. Successful treatment of serpiginous choroiditis with alkylating agents. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:1506-13 pubmed
    To describe the management and long-term outcomes of patients with serpiginous choroiditis treated with alkylating agents.
  24. Mackensen F, Becker M, Wiehler U, Max R, Dalpke A, Zimmermann S. QuantiFERON TB-Gold--a new test strengthening long-suspected tuberculous involvement in serpiginous-like choroiditis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:761-6 pubmed publisher
    To obtain a diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with a specific subset of uveitis, serpiginous-like choroiditis. This subset has been suspicious for tuberculous etiology in single case reports and old textbooks.
  25. Abrez H, Biswas J, Sudharshan S. Clinical profile, treatment, and visual outcome of serpiginous choroiditis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2007;15:325-35 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to report the clinical profile and management of patients with serpiginous choroiditis in a tertiary care referral center in India...
  26. Christmas N, Oh K, Oh D, Folk J. Long-term follow-up of patients with serpinginous choroiditis. Retina. 2002;22:550-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the long-term clinical course of serpiginous choroiditis-a recurrent inflammatory disease that causes progressive visual loss-and to determine the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy.
  27. Smith J, Cunningham E. Atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2002;13:387-92 pubmed
    ..With appropriate use of antiparasitic therapy, the visual prognosis for patients with both typical and atypical forms of ocular toxoplasmosis may be good...
  28. Adan A, Sanmarti R, Burés A, Casaroli Marano R. Successful treatment with infliximab in a patient with Diffuse Subretinal Fibrosis syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:533-4 pubmed
    ..To report a case of Diffuse Subretinal Fibrosis (DSF) syndrome refractory to immunosuppressive therapy who was successfully treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-alpha monoclonal antibodies infliximab...
  29. Nóbrega M, Rosa E, Belfort R, Farah M. Anecortave may help choroidal neovascularization regression in serpiginous choroiditis. Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42:151-2 pubmed
  30. Sobaci G, Bayraktar Z, Bayer A. Interferon alpha-2a treatment for serpiginous choroiditis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2005;13:59-66 pubmed
    To describe the management and long-term outcome of patients with serpiginous choroiditis (SPC) treated with interferon (IFN) alpha-2a.
  31. Priya K, Madhavan H, Reiser B, Biswas J, Saptagirish R, Narayana K, et al. Association of herpesviruses in the aqueous humor of patients with serpiginous choroiditis: a polymerase chain reaction-based study. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2002;10:253-61 pubmed
    To determine the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the aqueous humor (AH) of patients with serpiginous choroiditis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  32. Adan A, Mateo C, Navarro R, Bitrian E, Casaroli Marano R. Intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) injection as primary treatment of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization. Retina. 2007;27:1180-6 pubmed
    ..To assess the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab injection as primary treatment of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (CNV)...
  33. Haen S, Spaide R. Fundus autofluorescence in multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:847-53 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the autofluorescence findings associated with multifocal choroiditis and panuveits (MCP), a condition that has marked potential to affect the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).
  34. Sahu D, Rawoof A, Sujatha B. Macular serpiginous choroiditis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2002;50:189-96 pubmed
    To report a variant form of serpiginous choroiditis, that initially or predominantly involved the macular area.
  35. Kuznetcova T, Sauty A, Herbort C. Uveitis with occult choroiditis due to Mycobacterium kansasii: limitations of interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) tests (case report and mini-review on ocular non-tuberculous mycobacteria and IGRA cross-reactivity). Int Ophthalmol. 2012;32:499-506 pubmed
    ..Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) is able to detect clinically silent choroiditis that, when associated with a positive IGRA test, should lead the clinician to suspect ocular tuberculosis, ..
  36. Karacorlu S, Ozdemir H, Karacorlu M. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in serpiginous choroiditis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2006;50:290-1 pubmed
  37. Ladas I, Karagiannis D, Georgalas I, Rouvas A, Moschos M, Apostolopoulos M. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with Doyne's familial choroiditis: treatment with thermal laser. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2004;14:264-8 pubmed
    To report the unusual occurrence of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in a patient with Doyne's familial honeycomb choroiditis (DFHC) and its course after laser treatment.
  38. Markomichelakis N, Halkiadakis I, Papaeythymiou Orchan S, Giannakopoulos N, Ekonomopoulos N, Kouris T. Intravenous pulse methylprednisolone therapy for acute treatment of serpiginous choroiditis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2006;14:29-33 pubmed
    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of high-dose intravenous steroid therapy (HDIST) for the acute treatment of vision-threatening serpiginous choroiditis.
  39. Atan D, Fraser Bell S, Plskova J, Kuffova L, Hogan A, Tufail A, et al. Punctate inner choroidopathy and multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis share haplotypic associations with IL10 and TNF loci. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:3573-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Two white-dot syndromes were investigated, with closely overlapping phenotypes--multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis (MFCPU) and punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC)--for differences in clinical course and genotype ..
  40. Fuentes Páez G, Celis Sánchez J, Torres J, Martínez Osorio H, Herreras J. Serpiginous choroiditis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2005;14:928-9 pubmed
  41. Spital G, Heiligenhaus A, Scheider A, Pauleikhoff D, Herbort C. ["White dot syndromes" in childhood]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2007;224:500-6 pubmed
    ..They were first described a few decades ago and our knowledge about these variable diseases is very limited, especially in regard to their overall incidence and their differential diagnostic relevance in uveitis of childhood...
  42. De Luigi G, Mantovani A, Papadia M, Herbort C. Tuberculosis-related choriocapillaritis (multifocal-serpiginous choroiditis): follow-up and precise monitoring of therapy by indocyanine green angiography. Int Ophthalmol. 2012;32:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..As the main structure involved is the choriocapillaris the most precise follow-up or monitoring is obtained with ICGA...
  43. Lim W, Buggage R, Nussenblatt R. Serpiginous choroiditis. Surv Ophthalmol. 2005;50:231-44 pubmed
    Serpiginous choroiditis is a rare, usually bilateral, chronic, progressive, recurrent inflammation of the choroid, retinal pigment epithelium, and choriocapillaris of unknown etiology...
  44. Bastion M, Kok H, Muhaya M. Multifocal choroiditis: ocular TB or side-effects of anti-TB therapy?. Med J Malaysia. 2004;59:682-4 pubmed
    ..Past medical history of inadequately treated pulmonary tuberculosis was obtained. Following initiation of anti-tuberculous therapy, the choroidal lesions resolved...
  45. Zolf R, Glacet Bernard A, Benhamou N, Mimoun G, Coscas G, Soubrane G. Imaging analysis with optical coherence tomography: relevance for submacular surgery in high myopia and in multifocal choroiditis. Retina. 2002;22:192-201 pubmed
    ..preoperative and postoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) related to high myopia and multifocal choroiditis (MFC) and to correlate these findings with surgical outcome.
  46. Gupta A, Bansal R, Gupta V, Sharma A, Bambery P. Ocular signs predictive of tubercular uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149:562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine ocular signs predictive of tubercular uveitis...
  47. Gregory M, Bhatt U, Benskin S, Banerjee S. Bilateral full thickness macular holes in association with serpiginous choroiditis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2009;17:328-9 pubmed publisher
    To report serpiginous choroiditis associated with full thickness macular holes (FTMH).
  48. Adiguzel U, Sari A, Ozmen C, Oz O. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide treatment for serpiginous choroiditis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2006;14:375-8 pubmed
    To report the efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection for acute treatment of a patient with serpiginous choroiditis.
  49. Gómez Maestra M, Francés E, Ausín E, Martínez Costa R. [Autoimmune hepatitis in a patient with serpiginous choroiditis]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2007;82:773-6 pubmed
    We report the case of a patient with serpiginous choroiditis who developed an autoimmune hepatitis.
  50. Vandenbelt S, Shaikh S, Capone A, Williams G. Multifocal choroiditis associated with West Nile virus encephalitis. Retina. 2003;23:97-9 pubmed
  51. Gebka A, Raczynska K, Ciechanowski C, Krajka Lauer J. [Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin in treating the choroidal neovascularisation secondary to multifocal choroiditis]. Klin Oczna. 2005;107:118-20 pubmed
    ..The following case report shows the results of treating the CNV secondary to multifocal choroiditis with PDT...
  52. Nayak S, Basu S, Singh M. Presumed tubercular retinal vasculitis with serpiginous-like choroiditis in the other eye. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:361-2 pubmed publisher
    ..with retinal periphlebitis in multiple quadrants of the right eye and partially active serpiginous-like choroiditis in the left eye. Tuberculin test was positive (16 mm induration), and chest X-ray showed hilar lymphadenopathy...
  53. Munteanu G, Munteanu M, Zolog I. [Serpiginous choroiditis - clinical study]. Oftalmologia. 2001;52:72-80 pubmed
    The work shows a retrospective study a period of 12 years, on a number of 34 cases of serpiginous choroiditis. The average age of the patients was 36 years (29-68). The start of the illness was juxtapapillary in 99.1% and macular on 5...