acute retinal necrosis syndrome

Summary

Summary: Mild to fulminant necrotizing vaso-occlusive retinitis associated with a high incidence of retinal detachment and poor vision outcome.

Top Publications

  1. Morel C, Metge F, Roman S, Scheer S, Larricart P, Monin C, et al. [Acute retinal necrosis: clinical presentation, treatment, and prognosis in a series of 22 patients]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004;27:7-13 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the clinical outcome and medical management in a series of patients diagnosed with acute retinal necrosis...
  2. Tran T, Stanescu D, Caspers Velu L, Rozenberg F, Liesnard C, Gaudric A, et al. Clinical characteristics of acute HSV-2 retinal necrosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:872-9 pubmed
    ..features and evaluate the visual outcome of eleven cases of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) related acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARN). Retrospective interventional case series...
  3. Aizman A, Johnson M, Elner S. Treatment of acute retinal necrosis syndrome with oral antiviral medications. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:307-12 pubmed
    ..We investigated the use of the oral antiviral medications valacyclovir and famciclovir as the sole treatment for patients with newly diagnosed ARN syndrome...
  4. Usui Y, Goto H. Overview and diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Semin Ophthalmol. 2008;23:275-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This knowledge can help in both the diagnosis and design of therapeutic strategy for ARN syndrome. Here we review the clinical presentation and the current advances in the diagnosis of ARN syndrome...
  5. Grover R, Ratho R, Gupta V, Mahajan R, Gupta A. Role of viral serology in the diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2002;45:269-71 pubmed
    Due to the devastating nature of acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARNS), early diagnosis is essential. 5 cases of clinically diagnosed ARNA were investigated for CMC, herpes simplex and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections...
  6. Aslanides I, De Souza S, Wong D, Giavedoni L, Altomare F, Detorakis E, et al. Oral valacyclovir in the treatment of acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Retina. 2002;22:352-4 pubmed
  7. Tada Y, Negoro K, Morimatsu M, Makino H, Nishida T. Findings in a patient with herpes simplex viral meningitis associated with acute retinal necrosis syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22:1300-2 pubmed
    We report the case of a 41-year-old man with clinical findings of viral meningitis associated with acute retinal necrosis syndrome in his right eye...
  8. Balansard B, Bodaghi B, Cassoux N, Fardeau C, Romand S, Rozenberg F, et al. Necrotising retinopathies simulating acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89:96-101 pubmed
    ..To determine an aetiological diagnosis in patients presenting with necrotising retinopathies that simulate acute retinal necrosis (ARN)...
  9. Van Gelder R, Willig J, Holland G, Kaplan H. Herpes simplex virus type 2 as a cause of acute retinal necrosis syndrome in young patients. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:869-76 pubmed
    ..To determine the causative virus in acute retinal necrosis (ARN) syndrome in a series of patients by calculation of modified Witmer coefficients...

More Information

Publications99

  1. Benz M, Glaser J, Davis J. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in immunocompetent patients treated initially for optic neuropathy with systemic corticosteroids. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:551-3 pubmed
    ..To report two cases of progressive outer retinal necrosis occurring in immunocompetent individuals after treatment with corticosteroids for presumed optic neuropathy...
  2. Cardine S, Chaze P, Bourcier F, Amara N, Prevost G, Ruhomauly H, et al. [Bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with meningoencephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus 2. A case report]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004;27:795-800 pubmed
    b>Acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARN syndrome) is a rare viral disease with a poor prognosis in most cases...
  3. Schlingemann R, Bruinenberg M, Wertheim van Dillen P, Feron E. Twenty years' delay of fellow eye involvement in herpes simplex virus type 2-associated bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;122:891-2 pubmed
    ..To describe a case of acute retinal necrosis with concurrent encephalitis and determine the causative virus. The patient had a history of presumed acute retinal necrosis in the left eye at the age of 8 years and recurrent genital herpes...
  4. Voros G, Pandit R, Snow M, Griffiths P. Unilateral recurrent acute retinal necrosis syndrome caused by cytomegalovirus in an immune-competent adult. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006;16:484-6 pubmed
    To report an immune-competent patient with unilateral recurrent acute retinal necrosis syndrome caused by cytomegalovirus, and to highlight the importance of diagnostic vitreous biopsy and specific antiviral therapy in this condition.
  5. Gain P, Chiquet C, Thuret G, Drouet E, Antoine J. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis associated with acute retinal necrosis syndrome in an immunocompetent patient. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2002;80:546-9 pubmed
    ..We report such an association in an immunocompetent patient, in whom the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was identified successively at both sites of infection...
  6. Guex Crosier Y, Meylan P. High dosage of oral valaciclovir as an alternative treatment of varicella zoster acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:247 pubmed
  7. Abe T, Sato M, Tamai M. Correlation of varicella-zoster virus copies and final visual acuities of acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1998;236:747-52 pubmed
    ..In spite of aggressive anti-viral therapy, the clinical courses and final visual acuities among these patients have varied. Our purpose was to estimate the amount of virus and compare it to final visual acuity in patients with ARN...
  8. Kezuka T, Sakai J, Usui N, Streilein J, Usui M. Evidence for antigen-specific immune deviation in patients with acute retinal necrosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:1044-9 pubmed
  9. Gariano R, Berreen J, Cooney E. Progressive outer retinal necrosis and acute retinal necrosis in fellow eyes of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132:421-3 pubmed
    ..Distinct features of acute retinal necrosis and progressive outer retinal necrosis do not necessarily reflect systemic factors, and they may be variant manifestations of the same underlying infection. ..
  10. Wang W, Ye J. [Research situation of acute retinal necrosis]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2009;45:466-71 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and recent situation in the study of treatment of acute retinal necrosis. ..
  11. Liu I, Chung Y, Chen S, Cho W. Necrotizing retinitis induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:577-9 pubmed
    ..To describe a case of bilateral necrotizing retinitis induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis...
  12. Gharai S, Venkatesh P, Garg S, Sharma S, Gharai P, Vohra R. Isolated unilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome as the initial manifestation of HIV infection. AIDS Read. 2009;19:241-4 pubmed
    We report a rare case of isolated unilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome without any history of associated herpes zoster or other conditions attributed to HIV infection as the initial manifestation of HIV infection...
  13. Zheng M, Atherton S. Cytokine profiles and inflammatory cells during HSV-1-induced acute retinal necrosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:1356-63 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that PMNs, B cells, and/or macrophages, as well as resident retinal cells, such as RPE and activated Muller cells, also play a role in the pathogenesis of HSV-1 retinitis. ..
  14. Faraj H, Schakal A, Haddad E, Duong M, Hoang Xuan T, Doan S. [Bilateral retinitis: early manifestation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. A case report]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2002;25:944-8 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis of SSPE was confirmed by brain MRI, EEG, and cerebrospinal fluid examination. The patient's neurological condition deteriorated rapidly and he died 2 months following the onset of ophthalmological manifestations. ..
  15. Asano S, Yoshikawa T, Kimura H, Enomoto Y, Ohashi M, Terasaki H, et al. Monitoring herpesvirus DNA in three cases of acute retinal necrosis by real-time PCR. J Clin Virol. 2004;29:206-9 pubmed
    ..Correlation between viral load in ocular specimens and clinical course of the disease was demonstrated in these patients. ..
  16. Toh T, Borthwick J. Acute retinal necrosis post intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34:380-2 pubmed
    ..The authors hereby report such a case in a patient who has IVTA as an adjunct to photodynamic therapy of choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration. ..
  17. Park S, Holz H, Ravage Z, Merrill P, Nguyen Q. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Acute retinal necrosis syndrom. Retina. 2008;28:660-4 pubmed publisher
  18. Bonfioli A, Eller A. Acute retinal necrosis. Semin Ophthalmol. 2005;20:155-60 pubmed
    ..To prevent fellow eye involvement, intravenous acyclovir is followed by oral acyclovir for 14 weeks. Alternatives to acyclovir include ganciclovir, foscarnet, famcyclovir, brivudine, and valgancyclovir. ..
  19. Hillenkamp J, Nölle B, Bruns C, Rautenberg P, Fickenscher H, Roider J. Acute retinal necrosis: clinical features, early vitrectomy, and outcomes. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1971-5.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the viral diagnosis and the outcome of eyes with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) treated with intravenous acyclovir and oral prednisolone alone or combined with early vitrectomy and intravitreal acyclovir lavage...
  20. Matsuo T, Nakayama T, Baba T. Same eye recurrence of acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:659-61 pubmed
    To report same eye recurrence of acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Two case reports...
  21. Ahmadieh H, Soheilian M, Azarmina M, Dehghan M, Mashayekhi A. Surgical management of retinal detachment secondary to acute retinal necrosis: clinical features, surgical techniques, and long-term results. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2003;47:484-91 pubmed
    ..Reproliferation is the most important late postvitrectomy complication necessitating multiple surgical procedures in these cases. The visual results remain unfavorable due to the destructive nature of ARN. ..
  22. Chiquet C, Thuret G, Poitevin Later F, Gain P, Najioullah F, Denis P. Herpes simplex virus acute retinal necrosis during pregnancy. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2003;13:662-5 pubmed
    ..As pregnancy is liable to modify immune response, the authors explored the immune functions of a pregnant patient with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) to ascertain whether pregnancy may promote the onset of infection...
  23. Gargiulo F, De Francesco M, Nascimbeni G, Turano R, Perandin F, Gandolfo E, et al. Polymerase chain reaction as a rapid diagnostic tool for therapy of acute retinal necrosis syndrome. J Med Virol. 2003;69:397-400 pubmed
    Herpesviruses are involved in the pathogenesis of acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARN). A rapid and accurate diagnosis of herpetic infections is crucial for prompt administration of a specific antiviral therapy...
  24. Svozilkova P, Rihova E, Diblík P, Kuthan P, Kovarík Z, Kalvodova B. Varicella zoster virus acute retinal necrosis following eye contusion: case report. Virol J. 2005;2:77 pubmed
    ..Ocular trauma could have induced and corticosteroid treatment promoted reactivation of a latent viral infection in our patient. ..
  25. Ratanasukon M, Kittantong A, Visaetsilpanonta S, Somboonthanakij S. Pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil or gas endotamponade in HIV-related rhegmatogenous retinal detachments in Thai patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90:1161-6 pubmed
    ..There were the same reattachment rate and visual results between the two tamponade groups. However, the use of gas tamponade may be effective in patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). ..
  26. Shah A, Oster S, Freeman W. Viral retinitis after intravitreal triamcinolone injection in patients with predisposing medical comorbidities. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149:433-40.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Caution with a high index of clinical suspicion and frequent follow-up is advised in patients receiving IVTA injection with potentially immune-altering conditions, even after apparent immune recovery. ..
  27. Matsuo T. Vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade as an initial surgery for retinal detachment after acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2005;13:91-4 pubmed
    ..procedure for retinal detachments with multiple tears that develop after the fulminant type of acute retinal necrosis syndrome. In a prospective noncomparative interventional case series, vitrectomy, silicone oil tamponade, and ..
  28. Preiser W, Doerr H, Buxbaum S, Rabenau H, Baatz H. Acute retinal necrosis six years after herpes simplex encephalitis: an elusive immune deficit suggested by insufficient test sensitivity. J Med Virol. 2004;73:250-5 pubmed
    ..Unless this potential problem is recognised, serious consequences might possibly result. We therefore urge virologists and clinicians to exercise great care if highly specific antibody assays based on recombinant proteins are employed. ..
  29. Torres T J, Concha V E, López G J, Cofré G J. [Acute retinal necrosis in an acute leukemia pediatric patient]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2007;24:323-6 pubmed
    ..Varicella-zoster virus was detected by PCR in the vitreous humor, in spite of previous acyclovir treatment. The contralateral vision remained undamaged. ..
  30. Meghpara B, Sulkowski G, Kesen M, Tessler H, Goldstein D. Long-term follow-up of acute retinal necrosis. Retina. 2010;30:795-800 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to report long-term visual outcome of acute retinal necrosis...
  31. Muthiah M, Michaelides M, Child C, Mitchell S. Acute retinal necrosis: a national population-based study to assess the incidence, methods of diagnosis, treatment strategies and outcomes in the UK. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:1452-5 pubmed
    ..To determine the incidence, methods of diagnosis, treatment strategies and outcomes for acute retinal necrosis (ARN) in the UK...
  32. Tran T, Bodaghi B, Rozenberg F, Cassoux N, Fardeau C, LeHoang P. [Viral cause and management of necrotizing herpetic retinopathies]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004;27:223-36 pubmed
    ..Visual prognosis is improved by intensive antiviral therapy, but remains poor if complications occur. ..
  33. Oueghlani E, Baglivo E, Durakovic O, Safran A. Varicella-zoster virus retinitis: successful evolution with a combination of antiviral therapies. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2005;222:264-6 pubmed
  34. Hershberger V, Hutchins R, Witte D, Schneider S, Harris R, McGonegle S. Epstein-Barr virus-related bilateral acute retinal necrosis in a patient with X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:1047-9 pubmed
  35. Offret H, Badarani N, Niessen F, Quillard J, Dussaix E. [Retinal lymphoma, retinal necrosis: identification of retinal viral particles and anti-herpetic antibodies in the vitreous body]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 1990;13:51-6 pubmed
    ..Clinical data and histopathologic report of the association of a retinal malignant lymphoma and acute retinal necrosis. Demonstration of virus particle and vitreous herpetic antibodies. ..
  36. Hsu C, Harlan J, Goldberg M, Dunn J. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy associated with a systemic necrotizing vasculitis. Retina. 2003;23:64-8 pubmed
  37. Zheng M, Qian H, Joshi R, Nechtman J, Atherton S. DNA microarray analysis of the uninoculated eye following anterior chamber inoculation of HSV-1. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2003;11:187-95 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest that B cells and/or macrophages play a role in the pathogenesis of HSV-1 retinitis. ..
  38. Neubauer A, Yu A, Haritoglou C, Ulbig M. Peripheral retinal changes in acute retinal necrosis imaged by ultra widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2005;83:758-60 pubmed
  39. Walters G, James T. Viral causes of the acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2001;12:191-5 pubmed
    ..This can help in both the diagnosis of atypical cases of retinitis and uveitis and directing treatment in cases of acute retinal necrosis. ..
  40. Usui Y, Takeuchi M, Yamauchi Y, Kezuka T, Okunuki Y, Mori H, et al. [Pars plana vitrectomy in patients with acute retinal necrosis syndrome: surgical results in 52 patients]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2010;114:362-8 pubmed
    ..Improvement in pharmacotherapy may help improve the prognosis. Further prospective large-scale studies to compare other treatment modalities are also required. ..
  41. Knol J, van Kooij B, de Valk H, Rothova A. Rapid progression of diabetic retinopathy in eyes with posterior uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:409-12 pubmed
    ..Our results support this hypothesis and point out a risk for rapid retinopathy development in eyes affected with posterior uveitis. ..
  42. Kezuka T. [Ocular inflammation with varicella-zoster virus and immune privilege]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2004;108:649-53 pubmed
    ..Patients with ZSH-AU also failed to display VZV-specific DH. Absence of DH reactivity to VZV antigens appears to be a concomitant feature of VZV-uveitis of high intensity. ..
  43. Chen H, Kuo H, Tsai S, Chen Y, Kao M. Acute retinal necrosis syndrome: clinical manifestations and visual outcomes. Chang Gung Med J. 2004;27:193-200 pubmed
    ..Eyes with less than grade II necrosis extension are good candidates for prophylactic peripheral retinal photocoagulation. Early detection and prompt treatment with acyclovir seems to improve the final visual outcome. ..
  44. Archin N, van den Boom L, Perelygina L, Hilliard J, Atherton S. Delayed spread and reduction in virus titer after anterior chamber inoculation of a recombinant of HSV-1 expressing IL-16. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:3066-76 pubmed
    ..IL-16 delivery vectors could be exploited to prevent or delay HSV-1 infection of the hypothalamus, allowing development of the antiviral immune response and subsequent inhibition of virus spread into the optic nerve and retina. ..
  45. Kim C, Yoon Y. Unilateral acute retinal necrosis occurring 2 years after herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 2002;33:250-2 pubmed
    ..There was no evidence of a recurrence of encephalitis. This case suggests that following encephalitis retinal neurons may function as a reservoir for latent HSV-1, that can be reactivated to cause ARN in situ several years later...
  46. Levy Clarke G, Buggage R, Shen D, Vaughn L, Chan C, Davis J. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 associated t-cell leukemia/lymphoma masquerading as necrotizing retinal vasculitis. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:1717-22 pubmed
  47. Bergua A, Schmidt B, Kuchle M. [Fulminant acute retinal necrosis 10 months after ipsilateral herpes simplex virus encephalitis - a case report]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2001;218:737-40 pubmed
    ..Cases of acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus are rare. We present here a case with a very fast progression 10 months after a primary herpetic encephalitis in an immunocompetent patient...
  48. Miserocchi E, Modorati G, Azzolini C, Foster C, Brancato R. Herpes simplex virus type 2 acute retinal necrosis in an immunocompetent patient. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2003;13:99-102 pubmed
    ..To report a case of acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus 2 in an otherwise healthy patient...
  49. Emerson G, Smith J, Wilson D, Rosenbaum J, Flaxel C. Primary treatment of acute retinal necrosis with oral antiviral therapy. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:2259-61 pubmed
    ..To explore the possibility of oral antiviral therapy in lieu of intravenous acyclovir for treating acute retinal necrosis (ARN), a necrotizing retinopathy caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2 or by varicella zoster virus...
  50. Branisteanu D, Robu M, Antohi I, Medvichi R. [Acute retinal necrosis syndrome]. Oftalmologia. 2007;51:57-64 pubmed
    We present the case of a 29 year old patient, mono-ophthalmic, diagnosed with Acute Retinal Necrosis Syndrome. The disease rapidly progressed despite the medical treatment, and the patient developed complex retinal detachment...
  51. Usui Y, Takeuchi M, Goto H, Mori H, Kezuka T, Sakai J, et al. Acute retinal necrosis in Japan. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1632-3 pubmed publisher
  52. Tsinopoulos I, Tranos P, Topouzis F, Hundal K, Brazitikos P. Atypical acute retinal necrosis (ARN) responding to late treatment. Eye (Lond). 2004;18:203; discussion 203-4 pubmed
  53. Chung G, Thulborn K, Pulido J, Merrill P, Tessler H. Magnetic resonance imaging of diffuse cerebral vasculitis associated with acute retinal necrosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122:1719-20 pubmed
  54. Shinoda K, Inoue M, Ishida S, Kawashima S, Wakabayashi T, Suzuki S, et al. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 2001;32:67-72 pubmed
  55. Arimura E, Deai T, Maruyama K, Uno N, Yamamoto H, Matsumoto C, et al. Herpes simplex virus-2 quantification by real-time polymerase chain reaction in acute retinal necrosis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:64-5 pubmed
  56. Chan C, Shen D, Tuo J. Polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of uveitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2005;45:41-55 pubmed
  57. Liu D, Chan A. Progressive outer retinal necrosis presenting with isolated optic neuropathy. Neurology. 2005;65:1682-3 pubmed
  58. Kezuka T, Sakai J, Usui N, Streilein J, Usui M. Evidence for antigen-specific immune deviation in patients with acute retinal necrosis. 2001. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2007;15:241-8 pubmed
  59. Curtis T, Mandava N. Acute retinal necrosis as a late sequela of herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis in a child. J AAPOS. 2007;11:509-10 pubmed
    ..Herein we report a child who developed acute retinal necrosis 17 months after HSV-1 encephalitis...
  60. Fardeau C, Slimane H, LeHoang P. [Herpes and retinal lesions: what's new?]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2002;50:452-9 pubmed
    ..The incidence of the CMV retinitis diminished with the highly antiretroviral therapy; however uveitis may occur with no active CMV retinitis. The various antiherpetic drugs are described with special indications...
  61. Grozdanic S, Harper M, Kecova H. Antibody-mediated retinopathies in canine patients: mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment modalities. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2008;38:361-87, vii pubmed publisher
  62. Smith L, Kurz P, Wilson D, Flaxel C, Rosenbaum J. Two patients with the von Szily reaction: herpetic keratitis and contralateral retinal necrosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:536-8 pubmed
    ..These cases have noticeable similarities to the von Szily reaction. This describes the development of a contralateral retinitis subsequent to an anterior chamber injection of herpes simplex virus (HSV)...
  63. Hellinger W, Bolling J, Smith T, Campbell R. Varicella-zoster virus retinitis in a patient with AIDS-related complex: case report and brief review of the acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 1993;16:208-12 pubmed
    Retinitis reminiscent of the acute retinal necrosis syndrome was recognized in a patient with AIDS-related complex after he had experienced several episodes of a sacral, dermatomic zosteriform eruption...
  64. Silveira C, Ferreira R, Muccioli C, Nussenblatt R, Belfort R. Toxoplasmosis transmitted to a newborn from the mother infected 20 years earlier. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:370-1 pubmed
    ..To present a case of congenital toxoplasmosis in a newborn whose mother had a 20-year history of a chorioretinal macular scar and positive serology for toxoplasmosis...
  65. Kolacny D, Stalmans P, Wouters C, Van Ranst M, Casteels I. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis in a 12-year-old girl. J AAPOS. 2005;9:599-601 pubmed
    ..It can occur in healthy individuals at any age, but reports of this condition in children are rare...
  66. Tran T, Cassoux N, Bodaghi B, Fardeau C, Caumes E, Lehoang P. Syphilitic uveitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;243:863-9 pubmed
    ..This work investigates the incidence and clinical features of syphilitic uveitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  67. Verjans G, Dings M, McLauchlan J, van der Kooi A, Hoogerhout P, Brugghe H, et al. Intraocular T cells of patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced acute retinal necrosis recognize HSV tegument proteins VP11/12 and VP13/14. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:923-7 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the data indicates that HSV-1 VP11/12 and VP13/14 are major target antigens for T cells obtained from vitreous fluid samples of the HSV-induced ARN patients studied...
  68. Kim S, Lo W. Acute retinal necrosis. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1104-5; author reply 1105-6 pubmed publisher
  69. Tanaka Kitajima N, Iwata N, Ando Y, Sakurai H, Iwami M, Tsuzuki K, et al. Acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in a 3-year-old Japanese boy. Eur J Pediatr. 2009;168:1125-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Pediatricians must be aware of this rare disease, which can affect individuals without a previous history of HSV even in a country with a low seroprevalence of HSV-2...
  70. Baclig M, Daroy M, Abano J. Molecular diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis secondary to cytomegalovirus in vitreous aspirate. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2008;39:1057-60 pubmed
    ..Since a rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial for prompt administration of antiviral therapy, PCR-based analysis of vitreous aspirate provides a valuable tool in the diagnosis of patients with retinitis caused by herpes viruses...
  71. Kaneko H, Matsuzaki S, Okazaki Y, Kudo D. Polymerase chain reaction during the treatment of acute retinal necrosis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:63-4 pubmed
  72. King J, Chung M, DiLoreto D. A 9 year-old girl with herpes simplex virus type 2 acute retinal necrosis treated with intravitreal foscarnet. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2007;15:395-8 pubmed
  73. Bischoff P, Rüesch R, Valmaggia C. [Fundus quiz 2003]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2004;221:438-41 pubmed
    ..6 cases with pathognomonic fundus pathologies are presented and discussed using multiple-choice questions...
  74. Chang S, Young L. Acute retinal necrosis: an overview. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2007;47:145-54 pubmed
  75. Peck R, Gimple S, Gregory D, Youree B. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in a 73-year-old man: treatment with valganciclovir. AIDS. 2003;17:1110-1 pubmed
  76. Foo K, Small K, Alexander D, Wellings P. Acute retinal necrosis associated with painful orbitopathy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;31:270-2 pubmed
  77. Hou C, Chen S, Ho J, Ho C. Surgical treatment of retinal detachment following acute retinal necrosis syndrome: surgical results in four patients. Chang Gung Med J. 2003;26:835-42 pubmed
    ..It is frequently complicated with retinal detachment and the visual prognosis in such patients is usually poor...
  78. Klein A, Lefebvre P. Three consecutive episodes of acute retinal necrosis due to herpes simplex-1 over twelve years following herpetic encephalitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2007;15:411-3 pubmed
    To report a case of multiple delayed recurrence of acute retinal necrosis syndrome occurring in the same eye following initial herpetic encephalitis.
  79. Shiraki K, Moriwaki M, Ataka S, Henmi K, Miki T, Kanaoka Y. Acute retinal necrosis late in the second trimester. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;125:103-4 pubmed
    ..To report treatment of a patient with acute retinal necrosis during pregnancy...
  80. Kojima M, Kimura H, Yodoi Y, Matsunaga N, Ogura Y. Preceding of optic nerve involvement in acute retinal necrosis. Retina. 2004;24:297-9 pubmed
  81. Ishida T, Sugamoto Y, Sugita S, Mochizuki M. Prophylactic vitrectomy for acute retinal necrosis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2009;53:486-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic vitrectomy for acute retinal necrosis...
  82. Ross R, Stec L, Werner J, Blumenkranz M, Glazer L, Williams G. Presumed acquired ocular toxoplasmosis in deer hunters. Retina. 2001;21:226-9 pubmed
    ..To describe acquired ocular toxoplasmosis in deer hunters...
  83. Roig Melo E, Macky T, Heredia Elizondo M, Alfaro D. Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome: successful treatment with a new combination of antiviral drugs. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2001;11:200-2 pubmed
    ..To describe a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome, successfully treated with a new combination of antiviral drugs...
  84. Tan JCH -, Byles D, Stanford M, Frith P, Graham E. Acute retinal necrosis in children caused by herpes simplex virus. Retina. 2001;21:344-7 pubmed
    To report the diagnosis, management, and outcome of acute retinal necrosis syndrome in children.
  85. Liu D, Lee V, Lam P, Lam D. Acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity in a patient with acute retinal necrosis. Hong Kong Med J. 2007;13:155-6 pubmed
    ..Systematic monitoring of renal function, urine output, and characteristic symptoms like loin pain is warranted...
  86. Mizuuchi K, Namba K, Kotake S, Ohno S. [Clinical features of acute retinal necrosis at Hokkaido University Hospital]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2008;112:136-40 pubmed
    ..To study clinical features of acute retinal necrosis (ARN) at Hokkaido University Hospital...
  87. Huang C, Park S, Castellarin A, Pieramici D, Cunningham E. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Retina. 2007;27:385-90 pubmed
  88. Abe T, Sato M, Saigo Y, Tamai M. Interferon gamma expression and clinical features in patients with acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;241:982-7 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IFN-gamma expression and the clinical course of patients with acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARN) associated with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV).
  89. Usui N. [Acute retinal necrosis due to herpesviridae infections]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;64 Suppl 3:243-51 pubmed
  90. Wong R, Pavesio C, Laidlaw D, Williamson T, Graham E, Stanford M. Acute retinal necrosis: the effects of intravitreal foscarnet and virus type on outcome. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:556-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the effects of intravitreal foscarnet and the clinical differences between varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) induced acute retinal necrosis (ARN)...