wet macular degeneration


Summary: A form of RETINAL DEGENERATION in which abnormal CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION occurs under the RETINA and MACULA LUTEA, causing bleeding and leaking of fluid. This leads to bulging and or lifting of the macula and the distortion or destruction of central vision.

Top Publications

  1. Chou H, Wu W, Wang N, Chuang L, Chen K, Lai C. Short-term efficacy of intravitreal Aflibercept injections for retinal angiomatous proliferation. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:104 pubmed publisher
    ..Eyes with fibrovascular PED showed poorer responses, and the presence of fibrovascular PED at baseline was negatively correlated with visual outcomes. ..
  2. Jørstad Ø, Faber R, Moe M. Two-year functional and anatomical results after converting treatment resistant eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration to aflibercept in accordance with a treat and extend protocol. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017;95:460-463 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a small decrease in mean BCVA after the second year of treatment. About half of the eyes required treatment more frequently than the recommended aflibercept label of an 8-week interval. ..
  3. Ueda Consolvo T, Hayashi A, Ozaki M, Nakamura T, Yagou T, Abe S. The relationship between vascular endothelial dysfunction and treatment frequency in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2017;61:347-353 pubmed publisher
    ..Endothelial dysfunction may affect the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy. Neovascular subtypes may also predict a larger number of injections. ..
  4. Zhao B, Wang M, Xu J, Li M, Yu Y. Identification of pathogenic genes and upstream regulators in age-related macular degeneration. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:102 pubmed publisher
    ..Especially, myogenin was associated with AMD by regulating TNC, GRP and FAP. Our finding can contribute to developing new potential biomarkers, revealing the underlying pathogenesis, and further raising new therapeutic targets for AMD. ..
  5. Cohen D. Why have UK doctors been deterred from prescribing Avastin?. BMJ. 2015;350:h1654 pubmed publisher
  6. Leandro J, Beato J, Pedrosa A, Pinheiro Costa J, Falcão M, Falcao Reis F, et al. The Charles Bonnet Syndrome in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Association With Proton Pump Inhibitors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4138-4142 pubmed publisher
    ..739). The prevalence of CBS in neovascular-AMD patients is high and mainly affects older individuals with poor visual acuity. PPIs seem to increase the risk of development of hallucinations independently of the degree of visual loss. ..
  7. Branchini L, Regatieri C, Adhi M, Flores Moreno I, Manjunath V, Fujimoto J, et al. Effect of intravitreous anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy on choroidal thickness in neovascular age-related macular degeneration using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:693-4 pubmed publisher
  8. Eandi C, Ciardella A, Parravano M, Missiroli F, Alovisi C, Veronese C, et al. Indocyanine Green Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3690-3696 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study is, to our knowledge, the largest OCTA analysis to date of CNV secondary to neovascular AMD analyzed simultaneously by ICGA and OCTA. ..
  9. Ferrara D, Silver R, Louzada R, Novais E, Collins G, Seddon J. Optical Coherence Tomography Features Preceding the Onset of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3519-3529 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insights into disease progression, and may be helpful to identify earlier endpoints for clinical studies. ..

More Information


  1. Kuehlewein L, Dustin L, Sagong M, Hariri A, Mendes T, Rofagha S, et al. Predictors of Macular Atrophy Detected by Fundus Autofluorescence in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration After Long-Term Ranibizumab Treatment. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings from this study may guide hypothesis generation for future AMD trials. ..
  2. Qiu F, Matlock G, Chen Q, Zhou K, Du Y, Wang X, et al. Therapeutic Effects of PPARα Agonist on Ocular Neovascularization in Models Recapitulating Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5065-5075 pubmed publisher
    ..Feno-FA has therapeutic effects on ocular NV in models recapitulating neovascular AMD through a PPARα-dependent mechanism. ..
  3. Vardarinos A, Gupta N, Janjua R, Iron A, Empeslidis T, Tsaousis K. 24-month clinical outcomes of a treat-and-extend regimen with ranibizumab for wet age-related macular degeneration in a real life setting. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:58 pubmed publisher
  4. Laíns I, Miller J, Park D, Tsikata E, Davoudi S, Rahmani S, et al. Structural Changes Associated with Delayed Dark Adaptation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2017;124:1340-1352 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a significant association between macular morphology evaluated by OCT and time to dark-adapt. Subretinal drusenoid deposits and ellipsoid zone changes seem to be strongly associated with impaired dark adaptation. ..
  5. Decroos F, Reed D, Adam M, Salz D, Gupta O, Ho A, et al. Treat-and-Extend Therapy Using Aflibercept for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Prospective Clinical Trial. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;180:142-150 pubmed publisher
    ..TAE therapy with aflibercept is a rational strategy to reduce treatments and clinic evaluations over 2 years with satisfactory outcomes. ..
  6. Oshima H, Iwase T, Ishikawa K, Yamamoto K, Terasaki H. Long-term results after limited macular translocation surgery for wet age-related macular degeneration. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177241 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to maintain good retinal function on the new RPE for a long period is important for future treatments of CNVs such as the transplantation of RPE cells and stem cells. ..
  7. Elshout M, Webers C, Van der Reis M, de Jong Hesse Y, Schouten J. Tracing the natural course of visual acuity and quality of life in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and quality of life study. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:120 pubmed publisher
    ..6 to 0.45 after 10 years. The natural course of nAMD in both eyes needs to be considered when informing patients. Visual acuity in the best eye decreases to below 0.5 in 4.3 years. This affects QoL significantly. ..
  8. Tuuminen R, Uusitalo Jarvinen H, Aaltonen V, Hautala N, Kaipiainen S, Laitamäki N, et al. The Finnish national guideline for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017;95:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In context of these current aspects, we aimed to set evidence-based medical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with wAMD. ..
  9. Campbell J, Bressler S, Bressler N. Impact of availability of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy on visual impairment and blindness due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:794-5 pubmed publisher
  10. Özyurt A, Kocak N, Akan P, Calan O, Ozturk T, Kaya M, et al. Comparison of macular pigment optical density in patients with dry and wet age-related macular degeneration. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:477-481 pubmed publisher
    ..Mean MPOD and maximum MPOD levels were similar in wet and dry AMD Groups. These results can be applied clinically keeping in mind that MPOD measurements with one wavelength reflectometry may not be completely reliable. ..
  11. Borrelli E, Abdelfattah N, Uji A, Nittala M, Boyer D, Sadda S. Postreceptor Neuronal Loss in Intermediate Age-related Macular Degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;181:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the concept of postreceptor retinal neuronal loss as a contributor to retinal thinning in intermediate AMD. ..
  12. Elwes F, Borooah S, Aspinall P, Sim P, Loo C, Armbrecht A, et al. Clinical outcomes of switching to aflibercept using a pro re nata treatment regimen in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration who incompletely responded to ranibizumab. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:20 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the benefits of switching were gradually lost over time with AFL PRN dosing despite an increased injection rate when compared with RBZ PRN treatment. Not applicable. ..
  13. Giocanti Aurégan A, Chbat E, Darugar A, Morel C, Morin B, Conrath J, et al. Influence of new societal factors on neovascular age-related macular degeneration outcomes. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:22 pubmed publisher
    ..034) and low vision rehabilitation (P = 0.014). Societal factors could influence functional outcomes in nAMD patients treated with anti-VEGFs. They could contribute to the healing process or sustain disease progression. ..
  14. Olsen T, Liao A, Robinson H, Palejwala N, Sprehe N. The Nine-Step Minnesota Grading System for Eyebank Eyes With Age Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Approach to Study Disease Stages. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5497-5506 pubmed publisher
    ..To refine the Minnesota Grading System (MGS) using definitions from the Age-Related Eye Disease Studies (AREDS) into a nine-step grading scale (MGS-9)...
  15. Rashno A, Nazari B, Koozekanani D, Drayna P, Sadri S, Rabbani H, et al. Fully-automated segmentation of fluid regions in exudative age-related macular degeneration subjects: Kernel graph cut in neutrosophic domain. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186949 pubmed publisher
    ..74%, respectively, with a correlation of 95% between automated and expert manual segmentations using linear regression analysis...
  16. Zhou Y, Chen C, Wang Y, Tong Y, Fang X, Li L, et al. Association between polymorphism rs11200638 in the HTRA1 gene and the response to anti-VEGF treatment of exudative AMD: a meta-analysis. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:97 pubmed publisher
    ..However, more studies are needed to further prove the conclusion of present study, especially well-designed and high quality randomised controlled trials or intervention studies. ..
  17. Schachat A. Switching anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013;156:1-2.e1 pubmed publisher
  18. Kumar S, Nakashizuka H, Jones A, Lambert A, Zhao X, Shen M, et al. Proteolytic Degradation and Inflammation Play Critical Roles in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2841-2857 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a basis for understanding the differences between PCV and choroidal neovascularization, and helps guide the design of effective therapies for PCV. ..
  19. Dugel P, Jaffe G, Sallstig P, Warburton J, Weichselberger A, Wieland M, et al. Brolucizumab Versus Aflibercept in Participants with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Randomized Trial. Ophthalmology. 2017;124:1296-1304 pubmed publisher
    ..The brolucizumab safety profile was similar to aflibercept over 56 weeks of treatment. A 12-week treatment cycle for brolucizumab may be viable in a relevant proportion of eyes. ..
  20. Helisalmi S, Immonen I, Losonczy G, Resch M, Benedek S, Balogh I, et al. ADAMTS9 locus associates with increased risk of wet AMD. Acta Ophthalmol. 2014;92:e410 pubmed publisher
  21. . The neovascular age-related macular degeneration database: multicenter study of 92?976 ranibizumab injections: report 1: visual acuity. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:1092-101 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the EMR system's potential usefulness for future phase 4 and 5 clinical trials. ..
  22. Cipriani V, Hogg R, Sofat R, Moore A, Webster A, Yates J, et al. Association of C-Reactive Protein Genetic Polymorphisms With Late Age-Related Macular Degeneration. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:909-916 pubmed publisher
    ..84-1.16). There was no association of rs3093077 and rs1800947 with late AMD or any late AMD phenotype. There were no significant findings for early AMD. Our results do not support a causal association between CRP concentrations and AMD. ..
  23. Wu W, Duan Y, Ma G, Zhou G, Park Windhol C, D Amore P, et al. AAV-CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Depletion of VEGFR2 Blocks Angiogenesis In Vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:6082-6090 pubmed publisher
    ..AAV-CRISRP/Cas9-mediated depletion of VEGFR2 is a potential therapeutic strategy for pathologic angiogenesis. ..
  24. Ozkaya A, Alkin Z, Togac M, Ahmet S, Perente I, Taskapili M. Five-year Outcomes of Ranibizumab in Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration: Real Life Clinical Experience. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31:424-430 pubmed publisher
    ..Half of the ranibizumab-treated nAMD patients maintained their vision during the 5 years of follow-up. Visit and injection numbers were found to be lower than in prospective studies, reflecting a real world clinical practice. ..
  25. Merle B, Silver R, Rosner B, Seddon J. Associations Between Vitamin D Intake and Progression to Incident Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4569-4578 pubmed publisher
    ..A diet rich in vitamin D may prevent or delay progression to advanced AMD, especially NV. Additional exploration is needed to elucidate the potential protective role of vitamin D and its contribution to reducing visual loss. ..
  26. MacLaren R. Gene therapy for age-related macular degeneration. Lancet. 2015;386:2369-70 pubmed publisher
  27. Ma L, Brelén M, Tsujikawa M, Chen H, Chu W, Lai T, et al. Identification of ANGPT2 as a New Gene for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy in the Chinese and Japanese Populations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:1076-1083 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals ANGPT2 as a new susceptibility gene for nAMD and PCV, and it may affect disease susceptibility in association with CFH. Thus, this report provides new insights into the genetic architecture of nAMD and PCV. ..
  28. Ou W, Brown D, Payne J, Wykoff C. Relationship Between Visual Acuity and Retinal Thickness During Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy for Retinal Diseases. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;180:8-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlations appear to be more complex in AMD and RVO. At the inflection point between monthly and PRN dosing, when recurrence of edema is anticipated in many patients, CRT appears strongly correlated with loss of BCVA in RVO. ..
  29. Kurt M, Cekic O, Akpolat Ç, Aslankurt M, Elçioğlu M. Comparative Retinal Vessel Size Study of Intravitreal Ranibizumab and Bevacizumab in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:147-153 pubmed publisher
    ..128, p = 0.600, and p = 0.734, respectively). These results suggest that intravitreal ranibizumab led to significant retinal arteriolar vasoconstriction in eyes with neovascular AMD. ..
  30. Schachat A, Thompson J. Optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2015;122:222-3 pubmed publisher
  31. Türksever C, Prünte C, Hatz K. Baseline Optical Coherence Tomography Findings as Outcome Predictors after Switching from Ranibizumab to Aflibercept in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration following a Treat-and-Extend Regimen. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:172-178 pubmed publisher
    ..024) and IRF at month 12 (p = 0.049). Baseline HRF presence predicted better morphological outcome, while SRF predicted a shorter RFTI and IRF a longer RFTI after switching from ranibizumab to aflibercept within a TER. ..
  32. Klimscha S, Waldstein S, Schlegl T, Bogunovic H, Sadeghipour A, Philip A, et al. Spatial Correspondence Between Intraretinal Fluid, Subretinal Fluid, and Pigment Epithelial Detachment in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4039-4048 pubmed publisher
    ..These morphological associations may contribute to our understanding of functional deficits in nAMD. ..
  33. Kawashima Y, Hata M, Oishi A, Ooto S, Yamashiro K, Tamura H, et al. Association of Vascular Versus Avascular Subretinal Hyperreflective Material With Aflibercept Response in Age-related Macular Degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;181:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Vascular SHRM persisted after treatment and was associated with failure to achieve dry macula, suggesting that vascular SHRM is predictive of lower response to anti-VEGF therapy. ..
  34. Dolz Marco R, Litts K, Tan A, Freund K, Curcio C. The Evolution of Outer Retinal Tubulation, a Neurodegeneration and Gliosis Prominent in Macular Diseases. Ophthalmology. 2017;124:1353-1367 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyzing the borders of atrophy to determine the origin of ORT provides new insights into the pathophysiology of advanced retinal disease highlighting a role for Müller cells and may inform future therapeutic strategies. ..
  35. Waizel M, Todorova M, Masyk M, Wolf K, Rickmann A, Helaiwa K, et al. Switch to aflibercept or ranibizumab after initial treatment with bevacizumab in eyes with neovascular AMD. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:79 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, even if the switch to aflibercept shows a minimal functional benefit over that to ranibizumab, visual prognosis remains limited. ..
  36. Laíns I, Wang J, Providência J, Mach S, Gil P, Gil J, et al. Choroidal Changes Associated With Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits in Age-related Macular Degeneration Using Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;180:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..003, P = .007). No significant associations were observed with mean CVD. In subjects with intermediate AMD, choroidal thickness and vessel volume are reduced in the presence of subretinal drusenoid deposits. ..
  37. Ratner M. Next-generation AMD drugs to wed blockbusters. Nat Biotechnol. 2014;32:701-2 pubmed publisher
  38. Musch D. Evidence for including lutein and zeaxanthin in oral supplements for age-related macular degeneration. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132:139-41 pubmed publisher
  39. Zheng F, Zhang Q, Motulsky E, de Oliveira Dias J, Chen C, Chu Z, et al. Comparison of Neovascular Lesion Area Measurements From Different Swept-Source OCT Angiographic Scan Patterns in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5098-5104 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared area measurements for the same neovascular lesions imaged using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) and enlarging scan patterns...
  40. Sun X, Xu X, Zhang X. Counterfeit bevacizumab and endophthalmitis. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:378-9; author reply 379 pubmed publisher