macular edema


Summary: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)

Top Publications

  1. Beck r, Edwards A, Aiello L, Bressler N, Ferris F, Glassman A, et al. Three-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing focal/grid photocoagulation and intravitreal triamcinolone for diabetic macular edema. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..intravitreal triamcinolone compared with focal/grid photocoagulation for treatment of diabetic macular edema. Eyes with diabetic macular edema and visual acuities of 20/40 to 20/320 were randomly assigned to focal/grid ..
  2. Simo R, Hernandez C. Advances in the medical treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1556-62 pubmed publisher
  3. Elman M, Aiello L, Beck r, Bressler N, Bressler S, Edwards A, et al. Randomized trial evaluating ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:1064-1077.e35 pubmed publisher triamcinolone combined with focal/grid laser compared with focal/grid laser alone for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Multicenter, randomized clinical trial...
  4. Nathan D, Bebu I, Hainsworth D, Klein R, Tamborlane W, Lorenzi G, et al. Frequency of Evidence-Based Screening for Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:1507-1516 pubmed publisher
    ..include annual dilated retinal examinations to detect proliferative retinopathy or clinically significant macular edema, both of which require timely intervention to preserve vision...
  5. Hanhart J, Rozenman Y. Comparison of Intravitreal Ranibizumab, Aflibercept, and Dexamethasone Implant after Bevacizumab Failure in Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vascular Occlusions. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:110-118 pubmed publisher
    To compare the visual and anatomic outcomes of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion after switching from bevacizumab to ranibizumab, aflibercept, or dexamethasone implant...
  6. Lucatto L, Magalhães Júnior O, Prazeres J, Ferreira A, Oliveira R, Moraes N, et al. Incidence of anterior segment neovascularization during intravitreal treatment for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2017;80:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..incidence rates of anterior segment neovascularization (ASN) and neovascular glaucoma (NVG) in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO)...
  7. Minami Y, Nagaoka T, Ishibazawa A, Yoshida A. Correlation between short- and long-term effects of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy on macular edema after branch retinal vein occlusion: a prospective observational study. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:90 pubmed publisher
    The correlation between the short- and long-term effects of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) on macular edema after branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) remains unclear...
  8. Wai Ch ng S, Padroni S, Banerjee S. Anterior vitreous displacement of the intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex). Eye (Lond). 2014;28:238-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Kupersmith M, Sibony P, Dave S. Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Induced Retinal Folds and Deformations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4286-4291 pubmed publisher
    ..the presence of peripapillary fluid (PPF), peripapillary wrinkles (PPW), RF, choroidal folds (CF), creases, macular edema, and vitreous traction on the optic disc...

More Information


  1. Todokoro D, Hoshino J, Yo A, Makimura K, Hirato J, Akiyama H. Scedosporium apiospermum infectious scleritis following posterior subtenon triamcinolone acetonide injection: a case report and literature review. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:40 pubmed publisher
    ..subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (STTA) injection is a standard therapy for intraocular inflammation and macular edema. We report a case of Scedosporium apiospermum infectious scleritis after a posterior STTA injection...
  2. Jain P, Sheth J, Anantharaman G, Gopalakrishnan M. Real-world evidence of safety profile of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in an Indian scenario. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:596-602 pubmed publisher
    ..on a pro re nata basis for various indications such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). The mean age of the patients was 61.8 ± 11.59 years. A total of 59...
  3. Bhavsar K, Mukkamala L, Freund K. Multimodal imaging in a severe case of hydroxychloroquine toxicity. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2015;46:377-9 pubmed publisher
    ..showed bilateral retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) changes in a bull's-eye distribution associated with cystoid macular edema. A novel imaging modality, multi-spectral imaging, appeared sensitive in detecting a bull's-eye pattern of RPE ..
  4. Wechsler D, Wechsler I. Cystoid macular oedema after selective laser trabeculoplasty. Eye (Lond). 2010;24:1113 pubmed publisher
  5. Xie J, Ikram M, Cotch M, Klein B, Varma R, Shaw J, et al. Association of Diabetic Macular Edema and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy With Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:586-593 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding whether patients with type 2 diabetes and severe stages of DR (diabetic macular edema [DME] and proliferative diabetic retinopathy [PDR]) have a higher risk of CVD will allow physicians to more ..
  6. Kimura K, Orita T, Kobayashi Y, Matsuyama S, Fujimoto K, Yamauchi K. Concentration of acute phase factors in vitreous fluid in diabetic macular edema. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2017;61:479-483 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured the concentrations of acute phase factors in vitreous fluid of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) and examined their relations to visual acuity and central retinal thickness (CRT) both before and after ..
  7. Mahalingam P, Topiwalla T, Ganesan G. Drug-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcal endophthalmitis following dexamethasone intravitreal implant. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:634-636 pubmed publisher
    A 60-year-old female came to our hospital with defective vision due to persistent diabetic macular edema and was treated with intravitreal ozurdex implant in the right eye...
  8. Huang Q, Chen R, Lin X, Xiang Z. Efficacy of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in management of cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa: A meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186180 pubmed publisher
    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) are often used in the treatment of cystoid macular edema (CME) in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients...
  9. Noma H, Mimura T, Yasuda K, Motohashi R, Kotake O, Shimura M. Aqueous Humor Levels of Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor and Inflammatory Factors in Diabetic Macular Edema. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:81-88 pubmed publisher
    ..growth factor receptor (sVEGFR) and inflammatory factors were measured in 35 patients (37 eyes) with diabetic macular edema (DME) receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy...
  10. Ehlers J, Kim S, Yeh S, Thorne J, Mruthyunjaya P, Schoenberger S, et al. Therapies for Macular Edema Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2017;124:1412-1423 pubmed publisher
    ..available evidence on the ocular safety and efficacy of current therapeutic alternatives for the management of macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO)...
  11. Guo J, Tang W, Ye X, Wu H, Xu G, Liu W, et al. Predictive multi-imaging biomarkers relevant for visual acuity in idiopathic macular telangiectasis type 1. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:69 pubmed publisher
    ..CMT, SCP density, total area of EZ disruption, and lengths of EZ and ELM disruption within the 1-mm-diameter central region were strongly associated with VA. ..
  12. Hong E, Ahn S, Lim H, Lee B. The effect of oral acetazolamide on cystoid macular edema in hydroxychloroquine retinopathy: a case report. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:124 pubmed publisher
    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy can accompany other retinal complications such as cystoid macular edema (CME), which leads to central visual loss...
  13. Sugimoto M, Ichio A, Nunome T, Kondo M. Two year result of intravitreal bevacizumab for diabetic macular edema using treat and extend protocol. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6406 pubmed publisher
    ..the efficacy of the treat and extend (TAE) protocol with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) for managing diabetic macular edema (DME).Retrospective, single-center study...
  14. Chen Y, Chang P, Wang J. Intravitreal Aflibercept for Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema Refractory to Bevacizumab or Ranibizumab: Analysis of Response to Aflibercept. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila). 2017;6:250-255 pubmed publisher
    ..the short-term efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept in a case series of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) refractory to ranibizumab or bevacizumab. A retrospective chart review...
  15. Virgili G, Parravano M, Evans J, Gordon I, Lucenteforte E. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular oedema: a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;6:CD007419 pubmed publisher
    ..We found no signals of differences in overall safety between the three antiangiogenic drugs that are currently available to treat DMO, but our estimates are imprecise for cardiovascular events and death. ..
  16. Klimscha S, Waldstein S, Schlegl T, Bogunovic H, Sadeghipour A, Philip A, et al. Spatial Correspondence Between Intraretinal Fluid, Subretinal Fluid, and Pigment Epithelial Detachment in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4039-4048 pubmed publisher
    ..These morphological associations may contribute to our understanding of functional deficits in nAMD. ..
  17. Govetto A, Su D, Farajzadeh M, Megerdichian A, Platner E, Ducournau Y, et al. Microcystoid Macular Changes in Association With Idiopathic Epiretinal Membranes in Eyes With and Without Glaucoma: Clinical Insights. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;181:156-165 pubmed publisher
    ..In glaucomatous eyes, pars plana vitrectomy with epiretinal and internal limiting membrane peel was ineffective in the treatment of microcystoid macular changes. ..
  18. Banerjee P, Petrou P, Zvobgo T, Charteris D. Spontaneous relocation of a trapped retrolenticular slow-release dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) in a silicone oil-filled eye of a pseudophakic patient. Eye (Lond). 2014;28:1036-7 pubmed publisher
  19. Ou W, Brown D, Payne J, Wykoff C. Relationship Between Visual Acuity and Retinal Thickness During Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy for Retinal Diseases. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;180:8-17 pubmed publisher
    ..6 prospective clinical trials for management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO) were evaluated by Pearson correlation and linear regression...
  20. Fraser Bell S, Lim L, Campain A, Mehta H, Aroney C, Bryant J, et al. Bevacizumab or Dexamethasone Implants for DME: 2-year Results (The BEVORDEX Study). Ophthalmology. 2016;123:1399-401 pubmed publisher
  21. Gale R, Scanlon P, Evans M, Ghanchi F, Yang Y, Silvestri G, et al. Action on diabetic macular oedema: achieving optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease. Eye (Lond). 2017;31:S1-S20 pubmed publisher
    ..The recommendations are based on round table presentations and discussions held in London, UK, September 2016. ..
  22. Cai S, Bressler N. Aflibercept, bevacizumab or ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema: recent clinically relevant findings from Protocol T. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2017;28:636-643 pubmed publisher
    ..When visual acuity loss is moderate or worse, aflibercept is more likely to improve visual acuity. ..
  23. Afshar A, Loh A, Pongsachareonnont P, Schwartz D, Stewart J. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant trapped at the macula in a silicone oil-filled eye. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:2748-2749.e1 pubmed publisher
  24. Uddin M, Jayagopal A, McCollum G, Yang R, Penn J. In Vivo Imaging of Retinal Hypoxia Using HYPOX-4-Dependent Fluorescence in a Mouse Model of Laser-Induced Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3818-3824 pubmed publisher
    ..HYPOX-4 is an efficient probe capable of imaging retinal hypoxia in vivo, in RVO mice. Future studies will focus on its use in correlating retinal hypoxia to the onset and progression of ischemic vasculopathies. ..
  25. Poornachandra B, Kumar V, Jayadev C, Dorelli S, Yadav N, Shetty R. Immortal Ozurdex: A 10-month follow-up of an intralenticular implant. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:255-257 pubmed publisher
    ..Irvine, CA, USA) 15 days back for recalcitrant diabetic macular edema in the left eye came to us for a second opinion...
  26. Brazier J, Muston D, Konwea H, Power G, Barzey V, Lloyd A, et al. Evaluating the Relationship Between Visual Acuity and Utilities in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema Enrolled in Intravitreal Aflibercept Studies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4818-4825 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between visual acuity and utility (health-related quality of life) in diabetic macular edema (DME) using intravitreal aflibercept data.
  27. Tsuboi K, Ishida Y, Kamei M. Gap in Capillary Perfusion on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Associated With Persistent Macular Edema in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:2038-2043 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate correlations between persistent macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and the macular perfusion status in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) using optical ..
  28. Cunha Vaz J, Ribeiro L, Costa M, Simo R. Diabetic Retinopathy Phenotypes of Progression to Macular Edema: Pooled Analysis From Independent Longitudinal Studies of up to 2 Years' Duration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:BIO206-BIO210 pubmed publisher
    To test the risk of progression to macular edema (ME) of different phenotypes of mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR)...
  29. Pershing S, Enns E, Matesic B, Owens D, Goldhaber Fiebert J. Cost-effectiveness of treatment of diabetic macular edema. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:18-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Macular edema is the most common cause of vision loss among patients with diabetes. To determine the cost-effectiveness of different treatments of diabetic macular edema (DME). Markov model. Published literature and expert opinion...
  30. Vujosevic S, Torresin T, Berton M, Bini S, Convento E, Midena E. Diabetic Macular Edema With and Without Subfoveal Neuroretinal Detachment: Two Different Morphologic and Functional Entities. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;181:149-155 pubmed publisher
    To assess specific morphologic and functional characteristics in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) with subfoveal neuroretinal detachment (SND+) vs DME without SND (SND-). Cross-sectional, prospective, comparative case series...
  31. McCafferty S, Harris A, Kew C, Kassm T, LANE L, Levine J, et al. Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema prevention and risk factors; prospective study with adjunctive once daily topical nepafenac 0.3% versus placebo. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:16 pubmed publisher topical steroid use after uncomplicated phacoemulsification for the prevention of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) using a prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study...
  32. Lee K, Lee E, Kim T, Kim H. Pseudophakic Macular Edema in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Prospective Study Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;179:97-109 pubmed publisher
    To determine the incidence of and risk factors for pseudophakic macular edema (PME) after uncomplicated cataract surgery in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Cohort study...
  33. Mehta H, Fraser Bell S, Yeung A, Campain A, Lim L, Quin G, et al. Efficacy of dexamethasone versus bevacizumab on regression of hard exudates in diabetic maculopathy: data from the BEVORDEX randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2016;100:1000-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..Distance from the foveal centre as well as total area of macular HEX should be assessed when evaluating treatments for foveal-threatening HEX. NCT01298076; Post-results. ..
  34. Jakobsen N, Larsen D, Bek T. Binocular Fixation Reduces Fixational Eye Movements in the Worst Eye of Patients with Center-Involving Diabetic Macular Edema. Ophthalmic Res. 2017;58:142-149 pubmed publisher
    ..In 57 eyes from 29 diabetic patients with clinically significant macular edema, fixational eye movements were recorded using the iView X™ video-based eye tracker, and quantitative ..
  35. Kim S, Kim M, Wee W. Additive Effect of Oral Steroid with Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug for Preventing Cystoid Macular Edema after Cataract Surgery in Patients with Epiretinal Membrane. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31:394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..the additive effect of oral steroid with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) on cystoid macular edema (CME) in patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM) after cataract surgery...
  36. Sallam A, Taylor S, Habot Wilner Z, Elgohary M, Do H, McCluskey P, et al. Repeat intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injections in uveitic macular oedema. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90:e323-5 pubmed publisher
  37. Zhang X, Yang J, Zhong Y, Xu L, Wang O, Huang P, et al. Association of Bone Metabolic Markers With Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema in Elderly Chinese Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Am J Med Sci. 2017;354:355-361 pubmed publisher
    ..The association of bone metabolic markers with the risk of DR and diabetic macular edema (DME) is unclear...
  38. Wolfson Y, Applegate C, Strauss R, Han I, Scholl H. CRB1-Related Maculopathy With Cystoid Macular Edema. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133:1357-60 pubmed publisher
  39. Juthani V, Clearfield E, Chuck R. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs versus corticosteroids for controlling inflammation after uncomplicated cataract surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;7:CD010516 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the included studies reported the proportion of eyes with cystoid macular edema (CME) at one week postoperatively...
  40. Pak K, Choi B, Park S, Byon I, Lee J. Comparison of vitrectomized with nonvitrectomized eyes after subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide to treat diabetic macular edema: Retrospective comparative Analysis of an interventional case series. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:488-492 pubmed publisher
    Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is an alternative option for diabetic macular edema thanks to its cost-benefit ratio and unique delivery route...
  41. Ito T, Deguchi K, Yoshii K, Kashii M. [A Case of Cystoid Macular Edema Secondary to Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel Therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2017;44:599-602 pubmed
    ..On admission, her visual acuity was decreased, and optical coherence tomography(OCT)revealed a cystoid macular edema(CME)only in her left eye. She discontinued the nab-PTX therapy immediately...
  42. Haj Najeeb B, Simader C, Deak G, Vass C, Gamper J, Montuoro A, et al. The Distribution of Leakage on Fluorescein Angiography in Diabetic Macular Edema: A New Approach to Its Etiology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3986-3990 pubmed publisher
    ..clinically protective role of astrocytes against damage to the inner blood retinal barrier (iBRB) in diabetic macular edema (DME). A consecutive case series of 87 eyes of 87 patients with DME was included...
  43. Sheu S, Lee Y. Early Response to Ranibizumab Is Associated with 12-Month Outcome in Diabetic Macular Edema after Prior Macular Laser Therapy. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:139-146 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy of ranibizumab in persistent or recurrent diabetic macular edema (DME) after previous laser therapy...
  44. Medić A, Jukic T, Matas A, Vukojevic K, Sapunar A, Znaor L. Effect of preoperative topical diclofenac on intraocular interleukin-12 concentration and macular edema after cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy: a randomized controlled trial. Croat Med J. 2017;58:49-55 pubmed
    ..drug (NSAID) lowers the concentration of intraocular interleukin (IL)-12 and the incidence of postoperative macular edema in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy undergoing cataract surgery...
  45. Park J, Lee M. Short-term effects and safety of an acute increase of intraocular pressure after intravitreal bevacizumab injection on corneal endothelial cells. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:17 pubmed publisher
    ..5 mg/0.1 ml bevacizumab because of central serous chorioretinopathy or diabetic macular edema were included in this study...
  46. Eibenberger K, Schmetterer L, Rezar Dreindl S, Wozniak P, Told R, Mylonas G, et al. Effects of Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implants on Retinal Oxygen Saturation, Vessel Diameter, and Retrobulbar Blood Flow Velocity in ME Secondary to RVO. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5022-5029 pubmed publisher
    ..7 mg dexamethasone implants (Ozurdex) on arterial and venous oxygen saturation, retinal vessel diameter, and retrobulbar blood flow velocity in patients with macular edema (ME) due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO).
  47. Makri O, Tsapardoni F, Plotas P, Ifantis N, Xanthopoulou P, Georgakopoulos C. Cystoid macular edema associated with preservative-free latanoprost after uncomplicated cataract surgery: case report and review of the literature. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10:127 pubmed publisher
    Cystoid macular edema associated with latanoprost administration has been reported in patients after complicated cataract surgery with coexisting risk factors...
  48. Chae J, Joe S, Yang S, Lee J, Kim J, Yoon Y. An increase in intraocular pressure after intravitreal steroid injection facilitates reduction of macular edema. Eye (Lond). 2012;26:479-80 pubmed publisher
  49. Rothova A, Suttorp van Schulten M, Frits Treffers W, Kijlstra A. Causes and frequency of blindness in patients with intraocular inflammatory disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996;80:332-6 pubmed
    ..Ocular toxoplasmosis was the most frequent cause of unilateral visual loss. Cystoid macular oedema is the most frequent complication of uveitis and its occurrence plays a decisive role in the visual outcome of this disease. ..
  50. van der Wijk A, Hughes J, Klaassen I, Van Noorden C, Schlingemann R. Is leukostasis a crucial step or epiphenomenon in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy?. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;102:993-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..abnormalities that are specific for the early stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR), which culminate in diabetic macular edema, proliferative DR, and vision loss in humans...
  51. Minami Y, Nagaoka T, Ishibazawa A, Yoshida A. Short-term effects of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy on diabetic macular edema. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:28 pubmed publisher
    The short-term effects of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) on diabetic macular edema (DME) remains unclear. We assessed the short-term effects of IVR on DME...
  52. Cohen S, Gardner T. Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema. Dev Ophthalmol. 2016;55:137-46 pubmed publisher
    Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema result from chronic damage to the neurovascular structures of the retina. The pathophysiology of retinal damage remains uncertain but includes metabolic and neuroinflammatory insults...
  53. Klein R, Klein B. Are individuals with diabetes seeing better?: a long-term epidemiological perspective. Diabetes. 2010;59:1853-60 pubmed publisher