retinal vasculitis


Summary: Inflammation of the retinal vasculature with various causes including infectious disease; LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC; MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS; BEHCET SYNDROME; and CHORIORETINITIS.

Top Publications

  1. Samuel M, Equi R, Chang T, Mieler W, Jampol L, Hay D, et al. Idiopathic retinitis, vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis (IRVAN): new observations and a proposed staging system. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1526-1529.e1 pubmed
    ..To review the clinical features, disease progression, and effects of treatment on idiopathic retinitis, vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis (IRVAN)...
  2. Walton R, Ashmore E. Retinal vasculitis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2003;14:413-9 pubmed
    b>Retinal vasculitis represents a group of diseases characterized by inflammation affecting the retinal vasculature...
  3. Cruz B, Reis D, Araujo C. Refractory retinal vasculitis due to sarcoidosis successfully treated with infliximab. Rheumatol Int. 2007;27:1181-3 pubmed
    ..In this report, the authors describe two patients with multi-systemic sarcoidosis and refractory retinal vasculitis who experienced an excellent response to infliximab...
  4. Therese K, Deepa P, Therese J, Bagyalakshmi R, Biswas J, Madhavan H. Association of mycobacteria with Eales' disease. Indian J Med Res. 2007;126:56-62 pubmed
    ..chelonae could be associated with Eales' disease. We therefore undertook this study to detect DNA of these RGNTM and also of M. tuberculosis in vitreous fluids (VFs) from patients with Eales' disease and non-Eales' disease...
  5. Rajesh M, Ramesh A, Ravi P, Balakrishnamurthy P, Coral K, Punitham R, et al. Accumulation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and its relationship with antioxidant parameters in patients with Eales' disease: implications for antioxidant therapy. Curr Eye Res. 2003;27:103-10 pubmed
    ..Hence the aim of the present study was to determine the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and to correlate it with the antioxidant and oxidant parameters in patients with ED and healthy control subjects...
  6. Sato M, Kawamura T, Hase S, Katsumata S, Oshika T. A case of bilateral retinal vasculitis associated with Sweet syndrome. Retina. 2005;25:800-2 pubmed
  7. Selvi R, Angayarkanni N, Bharathselvi M, Sivaramakrishna R, Anisha T, Jyotirmoy B, et al. Increase in Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio and iron-induced oxidative stress in Eales disease and presence of ferrous iron in circulating transferrin. Curr Eye Res. 2007;32:677-83 pubmed
    ..Circulating transferrin in blood did contain ferrous iron. Binding of ferrous iron to transferrin was confirmed by estimating iron-binding capacity using ferrous ammonium sulphate...
  8. Cheema R, Al Askar E, Cheema H. Infliximab therapy for idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysm, and neuroretinitis syndrome. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011;27:407-10 pubmed publisher
    We report our experience in treating 2 patients of idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysm, and neuroretinitis (IRVAN) syndrome with antitumor necrosis factor agent, infliximab, who showed a very favorable response to treatment.
  9. Wallace G, Farmer I, Church A, Graham E, Stanford M. Serum levels of chemokines correlate with disease activity in patients with retinal vasculitis. Immunol Lett. 2003;90:59-64 pubmed
    b>Retinal vasculitis (RV) is characterised pathologically by migration of leucocytes across the blood-retinal barrier leading to oedema and photoreceptor cell dysfunction...

More Information


  1. Karagiannis D, Soumplis V, Georgalas I, Kandarakis A. Ranibizumab for idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis: favorable results. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010;20:792-4 pubmed
    ..We report a case of IRVAN treated with ranibizumab as an adjunctive treatment of IRVAN...
  2. Tomita M, Matsubara T, Yamada H, Takahashi K, Nishimura T, Sho K, et al. Long term follow up in a case of successfully treated idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis (IRVAN). Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:302-3 pubmed
  3. Habibullah M, Uddin M, Islam S. Association of tuberculosis with vasculitis retinae. Mymensingh Med J. 2008;17:129-33 pubmed
    b>Retinal vasculitis is one of the common causes of blindness among the young adult in this subcontinent. Causes of retinal vasculitis are variable and it is one of the common ocular manifestations of tuberculosis...
  4. Gedik S, Yilmaz G, Akca S, Akova Y. An atypical case of idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis (IRVAN) syndrome. Eye (Lond). 2005;19:469-71 pubmed
  5. El Asrar A, Herbort C, Tabbara K. A clinical approach to the diagnosis of retinal vasculitis. Int Ophthalmol. 2010;30:149-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinal vasculitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory eye condition that involves the retinal vessels. Detection of retinal vasculitis is made clinically, and is confirmed with the help of fundus fluorescein angiography...
  6. Saxena S, Srivastava P, Kumar D, Khanna V, Seth P. Decreased platelet membrane fluidity in retinal periphlebitis in Eales' disease. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2006;14:113-6 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken, for the first time, to investigate membrane fluidity in the platelets of patients with Eales' disease...
  7. El Asrar A, Al Kharashi S. Full panretinal photocoagulation and early vitrectomy improve prognosis of retinal vasculitis associated with tuberculoprotein hypersensitivity (Eales' disease). Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:1248-51 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to determine whether visual prognosis of Eales' disease could be improved by appropriate medical and surgical treatment...
  8. Sadreddini S, Noshad H, Molaeefard M, Noshad R. Treatment of retinal vasculitis in Behçet's disease with rituximab. Mod Rheumatol. 2008;18:306-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Up to now, there are some problems in treatment of the retinal vasculitis due to Behçet's disease...
  9. Murugeswari P, Shukla D, Rajendran A, Kim R, Namperumalsamy P, Muthukkaruppan V. Proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and eales' disease. Retina. 2008;28:817-24 pubmed publisher
  10. Yeshurun I, Recillas Gispert C, Navarro López P, Arellanes García L, Cervantes Coste G. Extensive dynamics in location, shape, and size of aneurysms in a patient with idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis (IRVAN) syndrome. Idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:118-20 pubmed
    To describe an unusual case of idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis (IRVAN) syndrome with rapid dynamics in the number and appearance of the aneurysms.
  11. Teitelbaum B, Newman T, Tresley D. Occlusive retinal vasculitis in a patient with West Nile virus. Clin Exp Optom. 2007;90:463-7 pubmed
    ..Age and diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported to be associated risk factors for the more severe forms of the systemic disease. Only seven cases of occlusive retinal vasculitis have been reported in patients with WNV infection.
  12. Mili Boussen I, Letaief I, Zbiba W, Trabelsi O, Ben Younes N, Abid J, et al. [Retinal vasculitis. Epidemiological, clinical and etiological features]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2010;33:529-37 pubmed publisher
    To study the epidemiological and clinical features of noninfectious retinal vasculitis (NIRV).
  13. Rosenbaum J, Ku J, Ali A, Choi D, Suhler E. Patients with retinal vasculitis rarely suffer from systemic vasculitis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2012;41:859-65 pubmed publisher
    Systemic vasculitis is often mistakenly assumed to be a common cause of retinal vasculitis. We sought to determine the relationship between retinal vasculitis and systemic vasculitis.
  14. Singh R, Toor P, Parchand S, Sharma K, Gupta V, Gupta A. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in so-called Eales' disease. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2012;20:153-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To report mycobacterial load in the vitreous of patients labeled as having Eales' disease...
  15. Rajesh M, Sulochana K, Coral K, Punitham R, Biswas J, Babu K, et al. Determination of carbonyl group content in plasma proteins as a useful marker to assess impairment in antioxidant defense in patients with Eales' disease. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2004;52:139-44 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the intensity of free radical reactions in patients with Eales' disease, an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the retina...
  16. Rajesh M, Sulochana K, Ramakrishnan S, Biswas J, Manoharan P. Iron chelation abrogates excessive formation of hydroxyl radicals and lipid peroxidation products in monocytes of patients with Eales' disease: direct evidence using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Curr Eye Res. 2004;28:399-407 pubmed
    Eales' disease (ED) is an idiopathic retinal vasculitis condition, which affects the retina of young adult males. Retinal changes include perivasculitis, non-perfusion and neovascularization...
  17. Saurabh K, Das R, Biswas J, Kumar A. Profile of retinal vasculitis in a tertiary eye care center in Eastern India. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2011;59:297-301 pubmed publisher
    To provide a fact file on the etiology, clinical presentations and management of retinal vasculitis in Eastern India.
  18. Rajesh M, Sulochana K, Punitham R, Biswas J, Lakshmi S, Ramakrishnan S. Involvement of oxidative and nitrosative stress in promoting retinal vasculitis in patients with Eales' disease. Clin Biochem. 2003;36:377-85 pubmed
    Eales' disease (ED) is an idiopathic retinal vasculitis condition, which affects retina of young adult males...
  19. Hickman R, Denniston A, Yee C, Toescu V, Murray P, Gordon C. Bilateral retinal vasculitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and its remission with rituximab therapy. Lupus. 2010;19:327-9 pubmed publisher
    Severe retinal vasculitis is a rare, but potentially blinding, complication of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  20. Caron J, Rolain J, Mura F, Guillot B, Raoult D, Bessis D. Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae infection and retinal vasculitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:683-4 pubmed publisher
  21. Papadaki T, Zacharopoulos I, Papaliodis G, Iaccheri B, Fiore T, Foster C. Plasmapheresis for lupus retinal vasculitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124:1654-6 pubmed
  22. Venkatesh P, Verghese M, Davde M, Garg S. Primary vascular occlusion in IRVAN (idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, neuroretinitis) syndrome. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2006;14:195-6 pubmed
    ..We herein report a patient with a primary vascular occlusion in a patient with IRVAN and suggest that such patients may already have a natural predisposition to develop a vascular occlusion...
  23. Skolik S, Willermain F, Caspers L. Rifabutin-associated panuveitis with retinal vasculitis in pulmonary tuberculosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2005;13:483-5 pubmed
    ..Only a few poorly documented cases of rifabutin-induced panuveitis with retinal vasculitis have been reported. Here, we report four cases of rifabutin-associated panuveitis with retinal vasculitis.
  24. Abu El Asrar A, Herbort C, Tabbara K. Retinal vasculitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2005;13:415-33 pubmed
    b>Retinal vasculitis is a sight-threatening intraocular inflammation affecting the retinal vessels...
  25. Levy Clarke G, Nussenblatt R. Retinal vasculitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2005;45:99-113 pubmed
  26. Emad Y, Basaffar S, Ragab Y, Zeinhom F, Gheita T. A case of polyarteritis nodosa complicated by left central retinal artery occlusion, ischemic optic neuropathy, and retinal vasculitis. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:814-6 pubmed
    ..The patient received pulse cyclophosphamide IV infusion (0.6 g/m2) on the fourth day. One week after receiving therapy, the patient progressed from having light perception to counting of fingers from a distance of 1 m...
  27. Lee M, Hooper L, Kump L, Hayashi K, Nussenblatt R, Hooks J, et al. Interferon-beta and adhesion molecules (E-selectin and s-intracellular adhesion molecule-1) are detected in sera from patients with retinal vasculitis and are induced in retinal vascular endothelial cells by Toll-like receptor 3 signalling. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;147:71-80 pubmed
    b>Retinal vasculitis is a major component of ocular inflammation that plays a role in retinal tissue damage in patients with idiopathic uveitis and Behçet's disease...
  28. Nakao K, Ohba N. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated retinal vasculitis in children. Retina. 2003;23:197-201 pubmed
    To describe predominant retinal vasculitis in children carrying human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1).
  29. Saxena S, Pant A, Khanna V, Agarwal A, Singh K, Kumar D, et al. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha: novel targets for immunotherapy in Eales disease. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2009;17:201-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors evaluated interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the serum of patients with Eales disease stages for the first time...
  30. Merle H, Donnio A, Gonin C, Jean Charles A, Panelatti G, Plumelle Y. Retinal vasculitis caused by adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:41-5 pubmed
    To report a case of lymphomatous infiltration and bilateral retinal vasculitis observed among 83 cases of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) treated in the University Hospital Center in Fort-de-France (Martinique, French West Indies) between ..
  31. Tabbara K, Al Hemidan A. Infliximab effects compared to conventional therapy in the management of retinal vasculitis in Behçet disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:845-50.e1 pubmed publisher
    To assess the outcome of retinal vasculitis in patients with Behçet disease treated with infliximab compared to treatment with conventional therapy.
  32. Yokoi M, Kase M. Retinal vasculitis due to secondary syphilis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2004;48:65-7 pubmed
    b>Retinal vasculitis is one of the manifestations of ocular syphilis.
  33. Martín Varillas J, Calvo Río V, Beltran E, Sánchez Bursón J, Mesquida M, Adan A, et al. Successful Optimization of Adalimumab Therapy in Refractory Uveitis Due to Behçet's Disease. Ophthalmology. 2018;125:1444-1451 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine efficacy, intraocular inflammation (anterior chamber cells, vitritis, and retinal vasculitis), macular thickness, visual acuity, and the sparing effect of glucocorticoids were assessed...
  34. Menezo V, Lobo A, Yeo T, du Bois R, Lightman S. Ocular features in neurosarcoidosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2009;17:170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigations should include MRI scan of the brain and orbits and lumbar puncture in selected cases. Tissue biopsy should be attempted when clinically accessible lesions are available i.e., conjunctiva or lacrimal gland. ..
  35. Abu el Asrar A, Al Obeidan S, Abdel Gader A. Retinal periphlebitis resembling frosted branch angiitis with nonperfused central retinal vein occlusion. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2003;13:807-12 pubmed
    ..To report the unusual association between severe retinal periphlebitis resembling frosted branch angiitis and nonperfused central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO)...
  36. Davatchi F, Shams H, Rezaipoor M, Sadeghi Abdollahi B, Shahram F, Nadji A, et al. Rituximab in intractable ocular lesions of Behcet's disease; randomized single-blind control study (pilot study). Int J Rheum Dis. 2010;13:246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of rituximab. Inclusion criteria were retinal vasculitis and edema, resistant to cytotoxic drugs...
  37. Basu S, Nayak S, Padhi T, Das T. Progressive ocular inflammation following anti-tubercular therapy for presumed ocular tuberculosis in a high-endemic setting. Eye (Lond). 2013;27:657-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary diagnoses in these patients were: anterior uveitis (n=1), intermediate uveitis (n=9), retinal vasculitis (n=3), serpiginous-like choroiditis (n=7), multifocal choroiditis (n=2), and pan-uveitis (n=4)...
  38. Poulaki V, Iliaki E, Mitsiades N, Mitsiades C, Paulus Y, Bula D, et al. Inhibition of Hsp90 attenuates inflammation in endotoxin-induced uveitis. FASEB J. 2007;21:2113-23 pubmed
    ..17-AAG has demonstrated a favorable safety profile in clinical trials in cancer patients and represents a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory eye diseases. ..
  39. Krause L, Altenburg A, Pleyer U, Köhler A, Zouboulis C, Foerster M. Longterm visual prognosis of patients with ocular Adamantiades-Behçet's disease treated with interferon-alpha-2a. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:896-903 pubmed
    ..In our series, 92% of all eyes showed stable or improved visual acuity in longterm followup. Longterm remission of ocular inflammation can be achieved with the combination of IFN-alpha and low-dose corticosteroids. ..
  40. Aizman A, Johnson M, Olsen T, Ho A, Davis J. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. High grade fever and bronchitis. Retina. 2006;26:345-51 pubmed
  41. Miller M, Lenci L, Reddy C, Russell S. Postoperative hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis associated with intracameral vancomycin prophylaxis during cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2016;42:1676-1680 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient subsequently developed bilateral hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis, resulting in profound vision loss in both eyes...
  42. Lo Monaco A, Govoni M, Zelante A, Rinaldi R, Scorrano A, Di Stefano M, et al. Whipple disease: unusual presentation of a protean and sometimes confusing disease. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2009;38:403-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A 39-year-old man with sudden bilateral blurred vision due to retinal vasculitis and concomitant rapidly evolving symmetrical neurosensory bilateral hearing loss as initial features of WD ..
  43. Selvi R, Angayarkanni N, Biswas J, Ramakrishnan S. Total antioxidant capacity in Eales' disease, uveitis & cataract. Indian J Med Res. 2011;134:83-90 pubmed
    ..This method is a good substitute for assay of individual antioxidants as it clearly gives the status of the oxidative stress in the disease process. ..
  44. Ogata N, Koike N, Yoshikawa T, Takahashi K. Human herpesvirus 6-associated uveitis with optic neuritis diagnosed by multiplex PCR. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2011;55:502-505 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of unilateral optic disc edema and retinal vasculitis associated with HHV-6 infection. A healthy 63-year-old man noted a decrease in the vision of his left eye...
  45. Bali T, Saxena S, Kumar D, Nath R. Response time and safety profile of pulsed oral methotrexate therapy in idiopathic retinal periphlebitis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:374-8 pubmed
    ..Low dose oral methotrexate pulse therapy (at a dose of 12.5 mg/week) is clinically effective within 4 weeks, and is associated with an acceptable safety profile. ..
  46. Lehoang P, Sterkers M, Thillaye B, de Kozak Y, Coscas G, Faure J. Primate model of uveoretinitis and vasculitis/experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis induced in cynomolgus monkeys by retinal s antigen. Ophthalmic Res. 2008;40:181-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A single systemic injection of pure human retinal S antigen could induce a chronic and recurrent ocular disease similar to human retinal vasculitis.
  47. Thomas R, Puranik P, Kalal B, Britto C, Kamalesh S, Rego S, et al. Five-year analysis of rickettsial fevers in children in South India: Clinical manifestations and complications. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2016;10:657-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevalence of malnutrition was high (45% of children were underweight and 28% had stunting). Retinal vasculitis was seen in 13.7% (36/262), and the risk appeared higher in females...
  48. Hua M, Blaise P, de Leval L, Rakic J. Frosted branch angiitis with undiagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:310-3 pubmed
    ..To report the case of a patient with bilateral frosted branch angiitis and undiagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma...
  49. Fawzy R, Said E, Mohamed S, Fouad N, Akl E. Serum Interleukin-33 in Behcet's Disease: Its Relation to Disease Activity and Clinical Manifestations. Egypt J Immunol. 2015;22:1-8 pubmed
    ..increased in BD patients with skin lesions (Erythema nodosum & Acneiform lesions) and ocular lesions (retinal vasculitis) (P<0.05), and a positive correlation was found between BDCAF score and IL-33serum levels (r=0.9, P<0...
  50. Sen A, Paine S, Chowdhury I, Mondal L, Mukherjee A, Biswas A, et al. Association of interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphisms with occurrence and severity of Eales' disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:171-8 pubmed publisher
    Eales' disease (ED) is an idiopathic retinal vasculitis characterized by capillary nonperfusion and neovascularization...
  51. Lee S, Lee H, Kim D, Kim J, Chung H, Yoon Y. Ocular sarcoidosis in a Korean population. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:413-9 pubmed publisher
    ..eyes had isolated anterior uveitis, 12 (31%) eyes had intermediate uveitis, 6 eyes (15%) had panuveitis with retinal vasculitis, and 5 (13%) eyes had panuveitis with punched multifocal choroiditis...
  52. Stoffelns B, Kramann C, Schoepfer K. [Eales' disease--10 years experience with a rare disease]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2009;226:299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Eales' disease is an uncommon vasoproliferative retinal disease affecting otherwise healthy young men. We report on our treatment results in a large patients group with long-term follow-up...
  53. Kaburaki T, Araki F, Takamoto M, Okinaga K, Yoshida A, Numaga J, et al. Best-corrected visual acuity and frequency of ocular attacks during the initial 10 years in patients with Behçet's disease. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;248:709-14 pubmed publisher
  54. Chan W, Lim E, Liu D, Law R, Lam D. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for choroidal granuloma in sarcoidosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139:1116-8 pubmed
    ..To report the clinical course of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide on choroidal granuloma secondary to sarcoidosis that was refractory to systemic prednisolone..
  55. Diaz Valle D, Diaz Rodriguez E, Díaz Valle T, Benitez del Castillo J, Toledano N, Fernandez Acenero M. Frosted branch angiitis and late peripheral retinochoroidal scar in a patient with acquired toxoplasmosis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2003;13:726-8 pubmed
    ..To report a case of acute frosted branch angiitis associated with acquired toxoplasmosis in which a late peripheral chorioretinal scar developed...
  56. Koevary S. Ocular involvement in patients infected by the West Nile virus. Optometry. 2005;76:609-12 pubmed
    ..may experience ocular complications that include pain, vitreous inflammation, nonrelapsing chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, chorioretinal scarring, optic neuritis, and retinal hemorrhages...
  57. Rihova E, Sišková A, Kovarik Z, Birndtová E. [The frosted retinal vascular branch syndrome]. Cesk Slov Oftalmol. 2004;60:98-104 pubmed
    ..In Czech ophthalmologic literature, we did not find any article referring to frosted branch angiitis, so we took the liberty of offering the Czech term "syndrom omrzlých v?tví retinálních cév"...
  58. Cai S, Su G, Li H, Xie B, Luo J. Profiling of human leukocyte antigens in Eales disease and tuberculosis. Int Ophthalmol. 2013;33:475-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the frequency distribution of susceptible genes of Eales disease and pulmonary tuberculosis in a population of Han nationals from Zunyi City in Guizhou Province, China showed no significant difference...
  59. Yalcindag F, Kahraman S, Batioglu F, Ozdemir O. Occlusive retinal vasculitis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:733-5 pubmed
  60. Deuter C, Kotter I, Günaydin I, Zierhut M, Stubiger N. Behçet's disease: visual acuity after 5 years in patients with alpha-interferon treatment. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;528:525-8 pubmed
  61. Patwardhan S, Azad R, Shah B, Sharma Y. Role of intravitreal bevacizumab in Eales disease with dense vitreous hemorrhage: a prospective randomized control study. Retina. 2011;31:866-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the role of intravitreal bevacizumab in Eales disease with dense vitreous hemorrhage...
  62. Geng S, Ye J, Liu L, Xu H, Wang W, Wang S. [Diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases associated with HIV infection and AIDS]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2009;45:1093-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate the manifestations and treatment principles of ocular diseases associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)...
  63. Boura P, Tselios K, Kamali S, Skendros P, Sarantopoulos A, Topouzis F. Concurrent relapsing central nervous system and ocular involvement in a case of life-threatening Adamantiades-Behçet Disease (ABD). Neurol Sci. 2006;27:432-5 pubmed
    ..Maintenance therapy included cyclosporine A, azathioprine and corticosteroids. Case individualities are discussed, focusing on scepticism concerning treatment of NBD relapses in the long term...
  64. Roh Y, Woo S, Ahn J, Park K, Hwang J. Pulmonary tuberculosis associated retinal vasculitis presenting as xanthopsia. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:121-3 pubmed publisher
    To report a patient presenting with unilateral xanthopsia who was diagnosed as having retinal vasculitis with pulmonary tuberculosis.
  65. Balaskas K, Sergentanis T, Giulieri S, Guex Crosier Y. Analysis of significant factors influencing visual acuity in ocular syphilis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011;95:1568-72 pubmed publisher
  66. Chen Y, Vaughan R, Kondeatis E, Fortune F, Graham E, Stanford M, et al. Chemokine gene polymorphisms associate with gender in patients with uveitis. Tissue Antigens. 2004;63:41-5 pubmed
    ..CCL5 (-403 and -28) in patients with Behçet's disease (BD), a systemic form of uveitis, and patients with retinal vasculitis (RV), an organ-specific form of disease. We report that there was no association between any SNP and disease...
  67. Dougherty G, Johnson M, Wiers M. Measurement of retinal vascular tortuosity and its application to retinal pathologies. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2010;48:87-95 pubmed publisher
    ..images of normal and diseased vessels exhibiting background diabetic retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa and retinal vasculitis. We established the validity of the mean tortuosity (M) and the normalized root-mean-square tortuosity (K) ..
  68. Stasi K, Ramchandran R, Rao N, Feldon S, DiLoreto D. Retinal arteriolar spasm during transient monocular visual loss in eosinophilic vasculitis. J Neuroophthalmol. 2009;29:58-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report to capture retinal vascular changes associated with transient monocular visual loss in a patient with eosinophilic vasculitis...
  69. Suelves A, Arcinue C, González Martín J, Kruh J, Foster C. Analysis of a novel protocol of pulsed intravenous cyclophosphamide for recalcitrant or severe ocular inflammatory disease. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:1201-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze the success rate of pulsed intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide (CyP) for noninfectious ocular inflammatory disease and to identify risk factors for failure of therapy...
  70. Wickremasinghe S, Ling C, Stawell R, Yeoh J, Hall A, Zamir E. Syphilitic punctate inner retinitis in immunocompetent gay men. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1195-200 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the features of an unusual syphilitic uveitis syndrome in a cluster of homosexual patients...
  71. Agrawal S, Agrawal J, Agrawal T. Frosted branch angiitis. Eye (Lond). 2005;19:931-2; author reply 932 pubmed
  72. Fardeau C. [Interferon and retinal vasculitis]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2006;29:392-7 pubmed
    ..Interferon alpha has been shown to be effective in Behçet's disease. The efficacy of interferon needs to be evaluated in other etiologies of retinal vasculitis through randomized studies.