proliferative vitreoretinopathy

Summary

Summary: Vitreoretinal membrane shrinkage or contraction secondary to the proliferation of primarily retinal pigment epithelial cells and glial cells, particularly fibrous astrocytes, followed by membrane formation. The formation of fibrillar collagen and cellular proliferation appear to be the basis for the contractile properties of the epiretinal and vitreous membranes.

Top Publications

  1. Quiram P, Gonzales C, Hu W, Gupta A, Yoshizumi M, Kreiger A, et al. Outcomes of vitrectomy with inferior retinectomy in patients with recurrent rhegmatogenous retinal detachments and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:2041-7 pubmed
    To report the anatomic and functional outcomes of patients treated with vitrectomy and inferior retinectomy for recurrent, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  2. Abu El Asrar A, Struyf S, Kangave D, Geboes K, Van Damme J. Chemokines in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2006;17:155-65 pubmed
    ..in the vitreous humor and serum, from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with no PVR (RD), and to investigate the expression of ..
  3. Kunavisarut P, Bijlsma W, Pathanapitoon K, Patikulsila D, Choovuthayakorn J, Rothova A. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;150:218-22 pubmed publisher
    To assess the prevalence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and prognosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis-related retinal detachment (RD) surgery in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  4. Lei H, Rheaume M, Kazlauskas A. Recent developments in our understanding of how platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors contribute to proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:376-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Proliferative vitreoretinopathy, a disease process occurring in the setting of a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, is thought to develop as a result of exposure of retinal cells to vitreous...
  5. Gao Q, Hui Y, Wang Y. [Effects of hypericin on traumatic proliferative vitreoretinopathy in rabbits]. Yan Ke Xue Bao. 2002;18:240-5 pubmed
    To examine the effects of hypericin on traumatic proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in rabbits.
  6. El Ghrably I, Powe D, Orr G, Fischer D, McIntosh R, Dua H, et al. Apoptosis in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:1473-9 pubmed
    ..To study the involvement of apoptosis using different apoptosis markers in PVR pathogenesis...
  7. Harada C, Harada T, Mitamura Y, Quah H, Ohtsuka K, Kotake S, et al. Diverse NF-kappaB expression in epiretinal membranes after human diabetic retinopathy and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Mol Vis. 2004;10:31-6 pubmed
    Formation of epiretinal membranes (ERMs) after proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) results in progressive deterioration of vision, but its pathogenic mechanisms are still unknown...
  8. Furino C, Micelli Ferrari T, Boscia F, Cardascia N, Recchimurzo N, Sborgia C. Triamcinolone-assisted pars plana vitrectomy for proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Retina. 2003;23:771-6 pubmed
    ..acetonide (TAAC) staining facilitates posterior hyaloid and epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  9. Sheridan C, Magee R, Hiscott P, Hagan S, Wong D, McGalliard J, et al. The role of matricellular proteins thrombospondin-1 and osteonectin during RPE cell migration in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Curr Eye Res. 2002;25:279-85 pubmed
    ..that the Matricellular proteins thrombospondin 1 (TSP1), tenascin (TN) and Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) modulate the migration of RPE cells in the epiretinal membranes of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kruger E, Nguyen Q, Ramos Lopez M, Lashkari K. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy after trauma. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2002;42:129-43 pubmed
  2. Priglinger S, Alge C, Kreutzer T, Neubauer A, Haritoglou C, Kampik A, et al. Keratinocyte transglutaminase in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:4990-7 pubmed
    b>Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is an excessive wound-healing process and the major complication in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment...
  3. Isiksoy S, Basmak H, Kasapoglu Dundar E, Ozer A. Expression of proteins associated with cell-matrix adhesion in proliferative vitreoretinopathy designed by Dispase model. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2007;17:89-103 pubmed
    ..as an extracellular and a cell surface protein; vinculin and actin/á-smooth muscle actin (alfa-SMA), as cytoskeletal elements; and the interactions of these proteins in the microenvironment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  4. Kuo H, Wu P, Yang P, Chen Y, Wu Y, Hu D. Effects of topoisomerase II inhibitors on retinal pigment epithelium and experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2007;23:14-20 pubmed
    ..commercially available topoisomerase II inhibitors on the proliferation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in vitro and to test the toxicity and efficacy of the inhibitor against experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  5. Saika S, Yamanaka O, Nishikawa Ishida I, Kitano A, Flanders K, Okada Y, et al. Effect of Smad7 gene overexpression on transforming growth factor beta-induced retinal pigment fibrosis in a proliferative vitreoretinopathy mouse model. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:647-54 pubmed
    To determine the effects of Smad7 gene transfer in the prevention of fibrogenic responses by the retinal pigment epithelium, a major cause of proliferative vitreoretinopathy after retinal detachment, in mice.
  6. Ahmadieh H, Feghhi M, Tabatabaei H, Shoeibi N, Ramezani A, Mohebbi M. Triamcinolone acetonide in silicone-filled eyes as adjunctive treatment for proliferative vitreoretinopathy: a randomized clinical trial. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1938-43 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effect of adjunctive intraocular triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in silicone-filled eyes on outcomes of vitreoretinal surgery for proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  7. Leiderman Y, Miller J. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: pathobiology and therapeutic targets. Semin Ophthalmol. 2009;24:62-9 pubmed publisher
    The cell biology and molecular mediators of proliferative vitreoretinopathy continue to be elucidated...
  8. Eibl K, Fisher S, Lewis G. Alkylphosphocholines: a new approach to inhibit cell proliferation in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Dev Ophthalmol. 2009;44:46-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Proliferative vitreoretinopathy represents the major complication in retinal detachment surgery and occurs in about 5-15% of cases resulting in a significant loss of vision despite multiple surgical procedures...
  9. Tseng J, Barile G, Schiff W, Akar Y, Vidne Hay O, Chang S. Influence of relaxing retinotomy on surgical outcomes in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:628-36 pubmed
    This study sought to determine the influence of relaxing retinotomy (RR) incisions upon surgical outcomes in the repair of recurrent retinal detachment (RD) attributable to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  10. Hollborn M, Tenckhoff S, Jahn K, Iandiev I, Biedermann B, Schnurrbusch U, et al. Changes in retinal gene expression in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: glial cell expression of HB-EGF. Mol Vis. 2005;11:397-413 pubmed
    To compare the gene expression pattern of control postmortem retinas with retinas from patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), to determine the expression of the heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-..
  11. Banerjee S, Savant V, Scott R, Curnow S, Wallace G, Murray P. Multiplex bead analysis of vitreous humor of patients with vitreoretinal disorders. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:2203-7 pubmed
    ..The study was conducted to investigate whether multiplex bead analysis could identify disease-specific profiles of these mediators in a variety of vitreoretinal diseases...
  12. Charteris D, Aylward G, Wong D, Groenewald C, Asaria R, Bunce C. A randomized controlled trial of combined 5-fluorouracil and low-molecular-weight heparin in management of established proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:2240-5 pubmed
    To determine the efficacy of a combination of 5-fluorouracil and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) to improve the outcome of surgery for established proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  13. Garcia R, Sanchez J, Arevalo J. Combined 5-fluorouracil, low-molecular-weight heparin, and silicone oil in the management of complicated retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade C. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2007;38:276-82 pubmed
    ..5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) could improve the outcome of vitreoretinal surgery with silicone oil for the management of complicated retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) grade C.
  14. Chang Y, Hu D, Wu W. Effect of oral 13-cis-retinoic acid treatment on postoperative clinical outcome of eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:440-446 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether postoperative oral 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA) treatment could improve the outcome of vitreoretinal surgery with silicone oil for the management of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  15. Lei H, Velez G, Cui J, Samad A, Maberley D, Matsubara J, et al. N-acetylcysteine suppresses retinal detachment in an experimental model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:132-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a complication that develops in 5% to 10% of patients who undergo surgery to correct a detached retina...
  16. Odrobina D, Michalewska Z, Michalewski J, Nawrocki J. High-speed, high-resolution spectral optical coherence tomography in patients after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for proliferative vitreoretinopathy retinal detachment. Retina. 2010;30:881-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to present the retinal morphology after silicone oil removal in patients after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and silicone oil tamponade for proliferative vitreoretinopathy retinal detachment.
  17. Mitamura Y, Takeuchi S, Yamamoto S, Yamamoto T, Tsukahara I, Matsuda A, et al. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in the vitreous of patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2002;46:218-21 pubmed
    To assess the potential role of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and to investigate its possible interaction with the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF).
  18. Ikuno Y, Kazlauskas A. An in vivo gene therapy approach for experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy using the truncated platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:2406-11 pubmed
    b>Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a serious problem in vitreoretinal surgeries...
  19. Abu el Asrar A, Struyf S, Van Damme J, Geboes K. Circulating fibrocytes contribute to the myofibroblast population in proliferative vitreoretinopathy epiretinal membranes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:699-704 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the presence of fibrocytes and the expression of their chemotactic pathways CCL21/CCR7 and CXCL12/CXCR4 in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) epiretinal membranes.
  20. Guo L, Yu W, Li X, Zhao G, Liang J, He P, et al. Targeting of integrin-linked kinase with a small interfering RNA suppresses progression of experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Exp Eye Res. 2008;87:551-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of ILK on development of experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR)...
  21. Riemann C, Miller D, Foster R, Petersen M. Outcomes of transconjunctival sutureless 25-gauge vitrectomy with silicone oil infusion. Retina. 2007;27:296-303 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the outcomes and complications of surgical management with 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and silicone oil (SO) tamponade in complex vitreoretinal diseases...
  22. Agrawal R, He S, Spee C, Cui J, Ryan S, Hinton D. In vivo models of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Nat Protoc. 2007;2:67-77 pubmed
    We outline current in vitro and in vivo models for experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and provide a detailed protocol of our standardized in vivo PVR model...
  23. Yu J, Liu F, Cui S, Liu Y, Song Z, Cao H, et al. Vitreous proteomic analysis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Proteomics. 2008;8:3667-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the most common cause of anatomic failure in retinal detachment surgery...
  24. Yuuki T, Kanda T, Kimura Y, Kotajima N, Tamura J, Kobayashi I, et al. Inflammatory cytokines in vitreous fluid and serum of patients with diabetic vitreoretinopathy. J Diabetes Complications. 2001;15:257-9 pubmed
    ..72 vs. 0.09+/-0.00 pg/ml, P<.001). Elevated TNF-alpha in serum then may be diagnostically useful in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. And inflammatory cytokines in vitreous may be pathogenically important in this concentration...
  25. Lee J, Park J, Kim Y, Kwon B, Kang S, Yoo Y, et al. Effect of 2'-benzoyl-oxycinnamaldehyde on RPE cells in vitro and in an experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:3117-24 pubmed
    To investigate whether 2'-benzoyl-oxycinnamaldehyde (BCA) induces apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells and has an antiproliferative effect in a proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) model in the rabbit.
  26. Dieudonné S, La Heij E, Diederen R, Kessels A, Liem A, Kijlstra A, et al. High TGF-beta2 levels during primary retinal detachment may protect against proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:4113-8 pubmed
    ..factor (TGF)-beta2 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after retinal detachment surgery...
  27. Kralinger M, Kieselbach G, Voigt M, Hayden B, Hernandez E, Fernandez V, et al. Experimental model for proliferative vitreoretinopathy by intravitreal dispase: limited by zonulolysis and cataract. Ophthalmologica. 2006;220:211-6 pubmed
    ..The intravitreal injection of dispase has been shown to be a valuable method for induction of experimental PVR. The goal of the present study was to gain additional information about potential side effects associated with this method...
  28. Charteris D, Sethi C, Lewis G, Fisher S. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy-developments in adjunctive treatment and retinal pathology. Eye (Lond). 2002;16:369-74 pubmed
    b>Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) remains a difficult management problem despite advances in vitreoretinal surgery. There is still a significant incidence of PVR in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and other forms of retinal disease...
  29. Charteris D, Downie J, Aylward G, Sethi C, Luthert P. Intraretinal and periretinal pathology in anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007;245:93-100 pubmed
    To determine the intraretinal and periretinal pathological changes in early anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy (APVR).
  30. Feron E, Veckeneer M, Parys Van Ginderdeuren R, Van Lommel A, Melles G, Stalmans P. Trypan blue staining of epiretinal membranes in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:141-4 pubmed
    To determine whether trypan blue staining facilitates epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal in proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
  31. Kumar A, Nainiwal S, Choudhary I, Tewari H, Verma L. Role of daunorubicin in inhibiting proliferative vitreoretinopathy after retinal detachment surgery. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002;30:348-51 pubmed
    To study the role of daunorubicin in inhibiting proliferative vitreoretinopathy after retinal detachment surgery.
  32. Canto Soler M, Gallo J, Dodds R, Suburo A. A mouse model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy induced by dispase. Exp Eye Res. 2002;75:491-504 pubmed
    A proliferative vitreoretinopathy-like condition induced by intravitreal dispase injection in C57BL/6J mice was studied using ophthalmoscopic and histochemical procedures...
  33. Sakamoto H, Yamanaka I, Kubota T, Ishibashi T. Indocyanine green-assisted peeling of the epiretinal membrane in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;241:204-7 pubmed
    We stained the internal limiting membrane of patients suffering from proliferative vitreoretinopathy with indocyanine green solution during proliferative vitreoretinopathy surgery to improve the visibility of the membranes, and thereby ..
  34. Dieudonné S, La Heij E, Diederen R, Kessels A, Liem A, Kijlstra A, et al. Balance of vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelial growth factor prior to development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmic Res. 2007;39:148-54 pubmed
    ..endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are imbalanced in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). It is not known whether such an imbalance is already present in early PVR stages...
  35. Rojas J, Fernandez I, Pastor J, Garcia Gutierrez M, Sanabria R, Brion M, et al. Development of predictive models of proliferative vitreoretinopathy based on genetic variables: the Retina 4 project. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2384-90 pubmed publisher
    ..learning techniques were used to identify which of 14 algorithms best predicts the genetic risk for development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in patients who are experiencing primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD).
  36. Rodriguez de la Rua E, Pastor J, Aragon J, Mayo Iscar A, Martinez V, Garcia Arumi J, et al. Interaction between surgical procedure for repairing retinal detachment and clinical risk factors for proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Curr Eye Res. 2005;30:147-53 pubmed
    To asses risk factors of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and a model for predicting it.
  37. Schiff W, Hwang J, Ober M, Olson J, Dhrami Gavazi E, Barile G, et al. Safety and efficacy assessment of chimeric ribozyme to proliferating cell nuclear antigen to prevent recurrence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:1161-7 pubmed
    ..Inc, San Diego, California), a ribozyme to proliferating cell nuclear antigen, in preventing recurrent proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in patients with established PVR who undergo vitrectomy for retinal reattachment repair.
  38. Zhou P, Zhao M, Li X, Yu W, Bian Z. siRNA targeting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) attenuates experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Curr Eye Res. 2007;32:973-84 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) specific siRNA on proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  39. Bali E, Willermain F, Caspers Velu L, Dubois C, Dehou M, Velu T, et al. IL-10 in vivo gene expression in a cell-induced animal model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Int J Mol Med. 2003;12:305-10 pubmed
    ..interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been proposed as a good candidate to treat inflammatory eye disease and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR)...
  40. Huang L, Xu Y, Yu W, Li Y, Chu L, Dong J, et al. Effect of Robo1 on retinal pigment epithelial cells and experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3193-204 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to determine whether Robo1 is expressed in the retina of patients with proliferative retinal disease and whether it has a pathobiological role in the disease...
  41. Tseng J, Schiff W, Barile G, Biscette O, Williams S, Cekic O, et al. Influence of postoperative lens status on intraocular pressure in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;147:875-85, 885.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    To determine the influence of lens status on postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes undergoing vitrectomy for repair of recurrent retinal detachment (RD) resulting from proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  42. Tsui I, Schubert H. Retinotomy and silicone oil for detachments complicated by anterior inferior proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1228-33 pubmed publisher
    To describe a subset of patients with recurrent retinal detachments caused by anterior intraretinal and subretinal proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which required greater than 180 degrees retinotomy and silicone oil tamponade.
  43. Lam R, Cheung B, Yuen C, Wong D, Lam D, Lai W. Retinal redetachment after silicone oil removal in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: a prognostic factor analysis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:527-533 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prognostic factors associated with retinal redetachment after 1300-centistokes silicone oil removal in rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RDs) associated with grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  44. Ueno A, Enaida H, Hata Y, Hisatomi T, Nakamura T, Mochizuki Y, et al. Long-term clinical outcomes and therapeutic benefits of triamcinolone-assisted pars plana vitrectomy for proliferative vitreoretinopathy: a case study. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2007;17:392-8 pubmed
    To investigate intraoperative visibility and long-term clinical outcome following triamcinolone acetonide (TA)-assisted pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  45. Sanabria Ruiz Colmenares M, Pastor Jimeno J, Garrote Adrados J, Telleria Orriols J, Yugueros Fernández M. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in retinal detachment patients with and without proliferative vitreoretinopathy: a preliminary study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2006;84:309-13 pubmed
    Cytokines and other growth factors such as interleukins play an important role in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR)...
  46. Cui J, Chiu A, Maberley D, Ma P, Samad A, Matsubara J. Stage specificity of novel growth factor expression during development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Eye (Lond). 2007;21:200-8 pubmed
    ..tissue growth factor (CTGF), platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGF-AA), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in glial and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of epiretinal membranes from proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
  47. Munir W, Pulido J, Sharma M, Buerk B. Intravitreal triamcinolone for treatment of complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Can J Ophthalmol. 2005;40:598-604 pubmed
    ..acetonide in conjunction with pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection for the treatment of complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy with tractional retinal detachment and severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
  48. Kazlauskas A. Advances in a gene therapy-based approach to treat proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2003;78:3-5 pubmed
  49. Kim I, Arroyo J. Mechanisms in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2002;15:81-6 pubmed
    The wound-healing paradigm for proliferative vitreoretinopathy has provided numerous avenues for investigation into the pathobiology of the process...
  50. Ogata N, Nishikawa M, Nishimura T, Mitsuma Y, Matsumura M. Inverse levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in the vitreous of eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;133:851-2 pubmed
    To determine the vitreous levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
  51. MacCumber M, Packo K, Civantos J, Greenberg J. Preservation of anterior capsule during vitrectomy and lensectomy for retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:329-33 pubmed
    To report a series of 15 eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) or at high risk for advanced PVR, which underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and lensectomy (PPL) with preservation of the ..
  52. Liu Q, Gao J, Chen X, Chen Y, Chen J, Wang S, et al. HBP21: a novel member of TPR motif family, as a potential chaperone of heat shock protein 70 in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and breast cancer. Mol Biotechnol. 2008;40:231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed the high expression of HBP21 in breast cancer and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) proliferative membrane and examined whether HBP21 could interact with Hsp70 using a yeast two-..
  53. Brown G, Brown M, Sharma S, Busbee B, Landy J. A cost-utility analysis of interventions for severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;133:365-72 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to report a reference case, patient preference-based, incremental, cost-utility analysis for treatments of retinal detachment associated with severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).