epiretinal membrane

Summary

Summary: A membrane on the vitreal surface of the retina resulting from the proliferation of one or more of three retinal elements: (1) fibrous astrocytes; (2) fibrocytes; and (3) retinal pigment epithelial cells. Localized epiretinal membranes may occur at the posterior pole of the eye without clinical signs or may cause marked loss of vision as a result of covering, distorting, or detaching the fovea centralis. Epiretinal membranes may cause vascular leakage and secondary retinal edema. In younger individuals some membranes appear to be developmental in origin and occur in otherwise normal eyes. The majority occur in association with retinal holes, ocular concussions, retinal inflammation, or after ocular surgery. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p291)

Top Publications

  1. Rispoli M, Le Rouic J, Lesnoni G, Colecchio L, Catalano S, Lumbroso B. Retinal surface en face optical coherence tomography: a new imaging approach in epiretinal membrane surgery. Retina. 2012;32:2070-6 pubmed publisher
    ..approach: en face spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the retinal surface before and after epiretinal membrane (ERM) and internal limiting membrane peeling...
  2. Falkner Radler C, Glittenberg C, Binder S. Spectral domain high-definition optical coherence tomography in patients undergoing epiretinal membrane surgery. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2009;40:270-6 pubmed
    ..Cirrus HD-OCT improved the preoperative evaluation of ERMs, offered a topographic reconstruction of the vitreomacular interface, and improved identification of retinal structures. ..
  3. Chang S, Gregory Roberts E, Park S, Laud K, Smith S, Hoang Q. Double peeling during vitrectomy for macular pucker: the Charles L. Schepens Lecture. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..a retrospective analysis to investigate the effects of "single peeling," in which only the epiretinal membrane was peeled, and "double peeling," in which the internal limiting membrane was also stained and ..
  4. Henrich P, Priglinger S, Haritoglou C, Schumann R, Strauss R, Schneider U, et al. Quantification of contrast recognizability in sequential epiretinal membrane removal and internal limiting membrane peeling in trypan blue-assisted macular surgery. Retina. 2013;33:818-24 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the selectivity and strength of intraoperative trypan blue staining during removal of epiretinal membranes (ERMs) and the internal limiting membrane...
  5. Okamoto F, Okamoto Y, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Effect of vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane on visual function and vision-related quality of life. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;147:869-74, 874.e1 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) in patients undergoing vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal and to investigate the relationship between VR-QOL and the severity of pre/postoperative metamorphopsia...
  6. Kim J, Chhablani J, Chan C, Cheng L, Kozak I, Hartmann K, et al. Retinal adherence and fibrillary surface changes correlate with surgical difficulty of epiretinal membrane removal. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153:692-7, 697.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    To correlate surgical difficulty of epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal with characteristics of ERM adherence seen by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Prospective observational case series...
  7. Kohno R, Hata Y, Kawahara S, Kita T, Arita R, Mochizuki Y, et al. Possible contribution of hyalocytes to idiopathic epiretinal membrane formation and its contraction. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1020-6 pubmed publisher
    To address the cellular components and the contractile mechanisms of the idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM)...
  8. Arichika S, Hangai M, Yoshimura N. Correlation between thickening of the inner and outer retina and visual acuity in patients with epiretinal membrane. Retina. 2010;30:503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..between thickening of the inner and outer retinal layers and visual acuity in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane. We examined 30 eyes of 30 patients and 25 eyes of 25 healthy volunteers as age-matched normal control ..
  9. Fujiwara A, Shiragami C, Fukuda K, Nomoto H, Shirakata Y, Shiraga F. [Changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness of epiretinal membrane and macular hole before and after microincision vitrectomy surgery]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2012;116:1080-5 pubmed
    To evaluate the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) of the epiretinal membrane (ERM) and macular hole (MH) both before and after microincision vitrectomy surgery. A total of 104 eyes of 104 subjects (64 ERM, 40 MH, mean age 68...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Rasouli M, Steed S, Tennant M, Rudnisky C, Hinz B, Greve M, et al. The 1-year incidence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment post 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. Can J Ophthalmol. 2012;47:262-3 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 1-year incidence of retinal tear or retinal detachment following 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for epiretinal membrane (ERM), macular hole (MH), or vitreomacular traction (VMT).
  2. Dayani P, Maldonado R, Farsiu S, Toth C. Intraoperative use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging in macular surgery. Retina. 2009;29:1457-68 pubmed publisher
    ..After removal of the internal limiting membrane or the epiretinal membrane, repeat intraoperative imaging was obtained...
  3. Tan H, Mura M, de Smet M. Iatrogenic retinal breaks in 25-gauge macular surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;148:427-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the incidence and characteristics of iatrogenic retinal breaks in 25-gauge macular surgery...
  4. Ng C, Cheung N, Wang J, Islam A, Kawasaki R, Meuer S, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for epiretinal membranes in a multi-ethnic United States population. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:694-9 pubmed publisher
    To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for epiretinal membrane (ERM) in a multi-ethnic population and to evaluate possible racial or ethnic differences. Cross-sectional study...
  5. Abu El Asrar A, Missotten L, Geboes K. Expression of advanced glycation end products and related molecules in diabetic fibrovascular epiretinal membranes. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;38:57-64; quiz 87 pubmed publisher
  6. Sayegh R, Georgopoulos M, Geitzenauer W, Simader C, Kiss C, Schmidt Erfurth U. High-resolution optical coherence tomography after surgery for vitreomacular traction: a 2-year follow-up. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:2010-7, 2017.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the morphologic changes in vitreomacular traction (VMT) before and after surgery using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) and to identify patterns relevant to visual function...
  7. Oster S, Mojana F, Brar M, Yuson R, Cheng L, Freeman W. Disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment layer on spectral domain-optical coherence tomography is a predictor of poor visual acuity in patients with epiretinal membranes. Retina. 2010;30:713-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Yazici A, Alagoz N, Celik H, Bozkurt E, Alagoz C, Cakir M, et al. Idiopathic and secondary epiretinal membranes: do they differ in terms of morphology? An optical coherence tomography-based study. Retina. 2011;31:779-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to define the morphologic differences in idiopathic and secondary epiretinal membranes (ERMs) using a time domain optical coherence tomography...
  9. Michalewska Z, Michalewski J, Odrobina D, Nawrocki J. Non-full-thickness macular holes reassessed with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Retina. 2012;32:922-9 pubmed publisher
  10. Koh V, Cheung C, Wong W, Cheung C, Wang J, Mitchell P, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of epiretinal membrane in Asian Indians. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:1018-22 pubmed publisher
    To describe the prevalence of epiretinal membrane (ERM) and its risk factors in an Indian population and compare the findings with other populations.
  11. Glittenberg C, Krebs I, Falkner Radler C, Zeiler F, Haas P, Hagen S, et al. Advantages of using a ray-traced, three-dimensional rendering system for spectral domain Cirrus HD-OCT to visualize subtle structures of the vitreoretinal interface. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2009;40:127-34 pubmed
    ..To create a ray-traced, three-dimensional display system for Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA) that improves the visualization of subtle structures of the vitreoretinal interface...
  12. Zhao F, Gandorfer A, Haritoglou C, Scheler R, Schaumberger M, Kampik A, et al. Epiretinal cell proliferation in macular pucker and vitreomacular traction syndrome: analysis of flat-mounted internal limiting membrane specimens. Retina. 2013;33:77-88 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe new details of epiretinal cell proliferation in flat-mounted internal limiting membrane specimens...
  13. Edwards M, McLeod D, Grebe R, Heng C, Lefebvre O, Lutty G. Lama1 mutations lead to vitreoretinal blood vessel formation, persistence of fetal vasculature, and epiretinal membrane formation in mice. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:60 pubmed publisher
    ..These mutants have a persistence of the fetal vasculature of vitreous (FVV) but lack a primary retinal vascular plexus. The present study provides a detailed analysis of astrocyte and vascular development in these Lama1 mutants...
  14. Ritter M, Sacu S, Matt G, Dunavölgyi R, Buhl W, Prünte C, et al. Use of systemic steroid after successful macular surgery in eyes with epiretinal membrane: a randomized, controlled clinical study. Eye (Lond). 2011;25:1284-93 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the functional and morphological outcomes of postoperative systemic steroid therapy after successful macular surgery in eyes with macular edema due to idiopathic macular epiretinal membranes (ERMs)...
  15. Ghosh S, Issa S, El Ghrably I, Stannard K. Subretinal migration of trypan blue during macular hole and epiretinal membrane peel: an observational case series. Is there a safer method?. Eye (Lond). 2010;24:1724-7 pubmed publisher
    To report the inadvertent subretinal migration and effect of trypan blue (TB) during staining of the epiretinal membrane (ERM) for macular pucker, and internal limiting membrane during macular hole (MH) surgery, and to suggest ..
  16. Dong Z, Kase S, Ando R, Fukuhara J, Saito W, Kanda A, et al. Alphab-crystallin expression in epiretinal membrane of human proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Retina. 2012;32:1190-6 pubmed publisher
    To examine the expression of alphaB-crystallin and its colocalization with vascular endothelial growth factor in the epiretinal membrane of human proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
  17. Lai C, Wang N, Wu W, Yeung L, Hwang Y, Chen K, et al. The long-term anatomical and visual effect of intravitreal triamcinolone injection during vitrectomy for the treatment of idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2011;30:292-7 pubmed publisher
    To compare the long-term anatomical and visual outcomes of patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) removed by vitrectomy and membrane peeling with or without the use of intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA).
  18. Hwang J, Sohn J, Moon B, Joe S, Lee J, Kim J, et al. Assessment of macular function for idiopathic epiretinal membranes classified by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:3562-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the functional changes in various morphologic types of idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
  19. Okamoto F, Sugiura Y, Okamoto Y, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Associations between metamorphopsia and foveal microstructure in patients with epiretinal membrane. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:6770-5 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the relationship between the severity of metamorphopsia and the foveal microstructure measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM).
  20. Zhang X, Dong F, Dai R, Yu W. Surgical management of epiretinal membrane in combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Retina. 2010;30:305-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcome of combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in five patients...
  21. Yoshida S, Ogura A, Ishikawa K, Yoshida A, Kohno R, Yamaji Y, et al. Gene expression profile of fibrovascular membranes from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:795-801 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to generate a profile of genes expressed in preretinal fibrovascular membranes (FVMs) from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy...
  22. Hattenbach L, Hohn F, Fulle G, Mirshahi A. [Preoperative assessment of topographic features in macular pucker using high-definition optical coherence tomography]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2009;226:649-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we sought to investigate whether the surgical removal of macular pucker can be facilitated by the preoperative assessment of topographic features using high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT)...
  23. Bringmann A, Wiedemann P. Involvement of Müller glial cells in epiretinal membrane formation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;247:865-83 pubmed publisher
    ..regarding the role of Müller cells in periretinal membrane formation, especially in the early steps of epiretinal membrane formation, which involve an interaction of inflammatory and glial cells, and gives a survey of the factors ..
  24. Gomes N, Corcostegui I, Fine H, Chang S. Subfoveal pigment changes in patients with longstanding epiretinal membranes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;147:865-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize subfoveal changes in patients with longstanding epiretinal membranes (ERM)...
  25. Ramkissoon Y, Aslam S, Shah S, Wong S, Sullivan P. Risk of iatrogenic peripheral retinal breaks in 20-G pars plana vitrectomy. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:1825-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate the frequency and risk factors for entry site and other peripheral iatrogenic retinal breaks in eyes undergoing standard 20-G 3-port pars plana vitrectomy...
  26. Gaudric A, Aloulou Y, Tadayoni R, Massin P. Macular pseudoholes with lamellar cleavage of their edge remain pseudoholes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013;155:733-42, 742.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To reappraise macular pseudohole characteristics using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and characteristics and postoperative outcomes of macular pseudoholes...
  27. Abu El Asrar A, Struyf S, Opdenakker G, Van Damme J, Geboes K. Expression of stem cell factor/c-kit signaling pathway components in diabetic fibrovascular epiretinal membranes. Mol Vis. 2010;16:1098-107 pubmed
  28. Pollreisz A, Funk M, Breitwieser F, Parapatics K, Sacu S, Georgopoulos M, et al. Quantitative proteomics of aqueous and vitreous fluid from patients with idiopathic epiretinal membranes. Exp Eye Res. 2013;108:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is a first step, 'discovery phase' towards revealing and quantitating the protein content in the aqueous and vitreous fluid in human eyes with iERM...
  29. Schumann R, Gandorfer A, Priglinger S, Kampik A, Haritoglou C. Vital dyes for macular surgery: a comparative electron microscopy study of the internal limiting membrane. Retina. 2009;29:669-76 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze and compare the ultrastructure of the retinal cleavage plane of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) removed during dye-assisted macular surgery...
  30. Bottoni F, Deiro A, Giani A, Orini C, Cigada M, Staurenghi G. The natural history of lamellar macular holes: a spectral domain optical coherence tomography study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013;251:467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the evolution of lamellar macular holes (LMHs) using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)...
  31. Gandorfer A, Haritoglou C, Scheler R, Schumann R, Zhao F, Kampik A. Residual cellular proliferation on the internal limiting membrane in macular pucker surgery. Retina. 2012;32:477-85 pubmed publisher
    To provide pathology data on the completeness of epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling.
  32. Schumann R, Eibl K, Zhao F, Scheerbaum M, Scheler R, Schaumberger M, et al. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural evidence of glial cells and hyalocytes in internal limiting membrane specimens of idiopathic macular holes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7822-34 pubmed publisher
    ..To provide new information on epiretinal cell proliferation and the cells' origin in idiopathic macular holes and to overcome the effects of embedding and sectioning preparation procedures on cell-distribution patterns...
  33. Henrich P, Priglinger S, Haritoglou C, Josifova T, Ferreira P, Strauss R, et al. Quantification of Contrast Recognizability during Brilliant Blue G- and Indocyanine Green-Assisted Chromovitrectomy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:4345-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the potential of brilliant blue G (BBG) and indocyanine green (ICG) for intraoperative staining of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) with respect to perceivable contrast...
  34. von Jagow B, Höing A, Gandorfer A, Rudolph G, Kohnen T, Kampik A, et al. Functional outcome of indocyanine green-assisted macular surgery: 7-year follow-up. Retina. 2009;29:1249-56 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the long-term functional results after surgery for macular pucker and macular holes with indocyanine green (ICG) staining of the internal limiting membrane...
  35. Guidry C, King J, Mason J. Fibrocontractive Müller cell phenotypes in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1929-39 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate Müller cells as a potential source of fibrocontractive cells in proliferative diabetic retinopathy...
  36. Nazari H, Dustin L, Heussen F, Sadda S, Rao N. Morphometric spectral-domain optical coherence tomography features of epiretinal membrane correlate with visual acuity in patients with uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;154:78-86.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify visually significant spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of epiretinal membranes (ERM) in patients with uveitis...
  37. Watanabe K, Tsunoda K, Mizuno Y, Akiyama K, Noda T. Outer retinal morphology and visual function in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:172-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine the relationship between the morphology of the fovea and visual acuity in patients with an untreated idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM).
  38. Shimozono M, Oishi A, Hata M, Matsuki T, Ito S, Ishida K, et al. The significance of cone outer segment tips as a prognostic factor in epiretinal membrane surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153:698-704, 704.e1 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the prognostic value of the cone outer segment tips (COST) and other features using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients undergoing epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery.
  39. Duan X, Liang Y, Friedman D, Sun L, Wei W, Wang J, et al. Prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in a rural Chinese adult population: the Handan Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2018-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence and association of epiretinal membranes (ERMs), as assessed by retinal photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT), in a Chinese population...
  40. Brar M, Yuson R, Kozak I, Mojana F, Cheng L, Bartsch D, et al. Correlation between morphologic features on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and angiographic leakage patterns in macular edema. Retina. 2010;30:383-9 pubmed publisher
    ..edema using simultaneous colocalization of fluorescein angiography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in diabetes, epiretinal membrane, uveitic and pseudophakic cystoid macular edema, and vein occlusion.
  41. Chen C, Wu P, Liu Y. Intravitreal bevacizumab injection therapy for persistent macular edema after idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane surgery. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011;27:287-92 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab (ivBe) injection in patients with persistent macular edema after macular epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal.
  42. Falkner Radler C, Glittenberg C, Hagen S, Benesch T, Binder S. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for monitoring epiretinal membrane surgery. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:798-805 pubmed publisher
    To assess prognostic factors in epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery using spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT).
  43. Inoue M, Morita S, Watanabe Y, Kaneko T, Yamane S, Kobayashi S, et al. Inner segment/outer segment junction assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;150:834-9 pubmed publisher
    ..segment (IS/OS) junction before and after surgery by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients undergoing idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery and to correlate these features with the functional outcomes.
  44. Abu El Asrar A, Struyf S, Verbeke H, Van Damme J, Geboes K. Circulating bone-marrow-derived endothelial precursor cells contribute to neovascularization in diabetic epiretinal membranes. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011;89:222-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the presence of bone-marrow-derived endothelial precursor cells and the expression of the chemotactic pathway SDF-1 ?CXCL12)CXCR4 in PDR epiretinal membranes...
  45. Dugas B, Ouled Moussa R, Lafontaine P, Guillaubey A, Berrod J, Hubert I, et al. Idiopathic epiretinal macular membrane and cataract extraction: combined versus consecutive surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149:302-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the functional and anatomic outcomes of cataract and idiopathic epiretinal macular membrane extraction in combined and consecutive surgeries...
  46. Huang L, Xu Y, Yu W, Li Y, Chu L, Dong J, et al. Effect of Robo1 on retinal pigment epithelial cells and experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3193-204 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to determine whether Robo1 is expressed in the retina of patients with proliferative retinal disease and whether it has a pathobiological role in the disease...
  47. Watanabe A, Arimoto S, Nishi O. Correlation between metamorphopsia and epiretinal membrane optical coherence tomography findings. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1788-93 pubmed publisher
    To examine the retinal morphologic features of metamorphopsia caused by epiretinal membrane (ERM) and to determine whether spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) correlated with metamorphopsia.
  48. Kenawy N, Wong D, Stappler T, Romano M, Das R, Hebbar G, et al. Does the presence of an epiretinal membrane alter the cleavage plane during internal limiting membrane peeling?. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:320-3.e1 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the presence of a clinically and/or microscopically detectable epiretinal membrane (ERM) alters the cleavage plane during internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling.
  49. Shimada H, Nakashizuka H, Hattori T, Mori R, Mizutani Y, Yuzawa M. Double staining with brilliant blue G and double peeling for epiretinal membranes. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1370-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare methods of removing epiretinal membranes (ERM) and evaluate the usefulness of the double brilliant blue G (BBG) staining and double-peeling method...
  50. Scott I, Flynn H, Acar N, Dev S, Shaikh S, Mittra R, et al. Incidence of endophthalmitis after 20-gauge vs 23-gauge vs 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011;249:377-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare endophthalmitis rates after 20-gauge versus 23-gauge versus 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in 2007-2008, and compare the rates with those of 2005-2006...
  51. Lee J, Kim I. Outcomes of idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane removal with and without internal limiting membrane peeling: a comparative study. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2010;54:129-34 pubmed publisher
    To compare visual acuity and macular morphology after epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling.
  52. Rizzo S, Belting C, Genovesi Ebert F, Di Bartolo E. Incidence of retinal detachment after small-incision, sutureless pars plana vitrectomy compared with conventional 20-gauge vitrectomy in macular hole and epiretinal membrane surgery. Retina. 2010;30:1065-71 pubmed publisher
    ..retinal detachment (RD) after a small-incision, sutureless vitrectomy compared with conventional 20-gauge vitrectomy in macular hole and epiretinal membrane surgery and to investigate the clinical features and possible causative agents.
  53. Kifuku K, Hata Y, Kohno R, Kawahara S, Mochizuki Y, Enaida H, et al. Residual internal limiting membrane in epiretinal membrane surgery. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1016-9 pubmed publisher
    To examine the degree of the residual internal limiting membrane (ILM) after epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling.
  54. Suh M, Seo J, Park K, Yu H. Associations between macular findings by optical coherence tomography and visual outcomes after epiretinal membrane removal. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;147:473-480.e3 pubmed publisher
    To identify characteristics measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) that are correlated with visual outcome after epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV).
  55. Lee C, Koh H, Lim H, Lee K, Lee S. Prognostic factors in vitrectomy for lamellar macular hole assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90:e597-602 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the association between the macular structure on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-CT) and visual outcome after vitrectomy for lamellar macular hole (LMH)...
  56. Carvounis P, Kopel A, Kuhl D, Heffez J, Pepple K, Holz E. 25-gauge vitrectomy using sulfur hexafluoride and no prone positioning for repair of macular holes. Retina. 2008;28:1188-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To report on the outcomes of 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy using sulfur hexafluoride and no prone positioning for repair of macular holes...
  57. Treumer F, Wacker N, Junge O, Hedderich J, Roider J, Hillenkamp J. Foveal structure and thickness of retinal layers long-term after surgical peeling of idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:744-50 pubmed publisher
    To better understand the long-term effect of idiopathic epiretinal membrane peeling on retinal anatomy, the foveal structure and the thickness of individual retinal layers were analyzed with frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (..
  58. Ooto S, Hangai M, Takayama K, Sakamoto A, Tsujikawa A, Oshima S, et al. High-resolution imaging of the photoreceptor layer in epiretinal membrane using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:873-81 pubmed publisher
    To compare, in eyes with an idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM), photoreceptor cell structural abnormalities identified on high-resolution images obtained by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) with the severity of ..
  59. Lee S, Jang S, Moon D, Choi K, Jung G. Long-term surgical outcomes after vitrectomy for symptomatic lamellar macular holes. Retina. 2012;32:1743-8 pubmed
    ..To determine long-term surgical findings and outcomes after vitrectomy for symptomatic lamellar macular holes...
  60. Kim J, Rhee K, Woo S, Yu Y, Chung H, Park K. Long-term temporal changes of macular thickness and visual outcome after vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;150:701-709.e1 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the long-term correlation of visual outcome and macular thickness after vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membrane and to identify prognostic factors for good visual outcome.
  61. Kawasaki R, Wang J, Sato H, Mitchell P, Kato T, Kawata S, et al. Prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in an adult Japanese population: the Funagata study. Eye (Lond). 2009;23:1045-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence and risk factors of epiretinal membranes (ERM) in a Japanese population...
  62. Figueroa M, Noval S, Contreras I. Macular structure on optical coherence tomography after lamellar macular hole surgery and its correlation with visual outcome. Can J Ophthalmol. 2011;46:491-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To report macular structure on optical coherence tomography (OCT) after lamellar macular hole surgery and its relationship with visual outcome...
  63. Lois N, Burr J, Norrie J, Vale L, Cook J, McDonald A, et al. Internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:1586-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling is effective and cost effective compared with no peeling in patients with idiopathic stage 2 or 3 full-thickness maculay hole (FTMH)...
  64. Wolf S, Wolf Schnurrbusch U. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography use in macular diseases: a review. Ophthalmologica. 2010;224:333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides offering new insights into the pathogenesis of macular abnormalities, SD-OCT is a valuable tool for monitoring macular disease...
  65. Lai C, Chuang L, Wang N, Yeung L, Chen Y, Hwang Y, et al. Trypan blue selective staining using whole blood for internal limiting membrane peeling during macular hole corrective surgery. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2009;28:114-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To prevent trypan blue (TB) retention and its potential toxicity by selectively staining the internal limiting membrane (ILM) with the aid of whole blood...
  66. Alkabes M, Salinas C, Vitale L, Burés Jelstrup A, Nucci P, Mateo C. En face optical coherence tomography of inner retinal defects after internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:8349-55 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the appearance of inner retinal defects using en face spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) after idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery, referred to as concentric macular dark spots (CMDS)...