Summary: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.

Top Publications

  1. Northstone K, Guggenheim J, Howe L, Tilling K, Paternoster L, Kemp J, et al. Body stature growth trajectories during childhood and the development of myopia. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:1064-73.e1 pubmed publisher the age of 10 years, shared growth mechanisms contribute to scaling of eye and body size but minimally to the development of myopia. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
  2. Ivarsen A, Asp S, Hjortdal J. Safety and complications of more than 1500 small-incision lenticule extraction procedures. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:822-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the safety and complications of small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE)...
  3. French A, Morgan I, Mitchell P, Rose K. Risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren: the Sydney adolescent vascular and eye study. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:2100-8 pubmed publisher
    To examine the risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren.
  4. Xie H, Xie Z, Zhou F, Hu L. [Myopia prevalence and influencing factor analysis of primary and middle school students in our country]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013;93:999-1002 pubmed
    To explore the situation and the affect factors of myopia and scientificalness and effectiveness of eye exercises about primary and middle school students.
  5. He L, Frost M, Siegwart J, Norton T. Gene expression signatures in tree shrew choroid during lens-induced myopia and recovery. Exp Eye Res. 2014;123:56-71 pubmed publisher
    Gene expression in tree shrew choroid was examined during the development of minus-lens induced myopia (LIM, a GO condition), after completion of minus-lens compensation (a STAY condition), and early in recovery (REC) from induced myopia (..
  6. Morgan I, Ashby R, Nickla D. Form deprivation and lens-induced myopia: are they different?. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013;33:355-61 pubmed publisher
    In the following point-counterpoint article, internationally-acclaimed myopia researchers were challenged to defend the two opposing sides of the topic defined by the title; their contributions, which appear in the order Point followed by ..
  7. Backhouse S, Collins A, Phillips J. Influence of periodic vs continuous daily bright light exposure on development of experimental myopia in the chick. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013;33:563-72 pubmed publisher
    In children, time spent outdoors has a protective effect against myopia development. In animal models, bright light reduces the development of experimental myopia...
  8. Norton T, Siegwart J. Light levels, refractive development, and myopia--a speculative review. Exp Eye Res. 2013;114:48-57 pubmed publisher
    Recent epidemiological evidence in children indicates that time spent outdoors is protective against myopia. Studies in animal models (chick, macaque, tree shrew) have found that light levels (similar to being in the shade outdoors) that ..
  9. Rosman M, Hall R, Chan C, Ang A, Koh J, Htoon H, et al. Comparison of efficacy and safety of laser in situ keratomileusis using 2 femtosecond laser platforms in contralateral eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2013;39:1066-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the efficacy, predictability, and refractive outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using 2 femtosecond platforms for flap creation...

More Information


  1. Riau A, Angunawela R, Chaurasia S, Lee W, Tan D, Mehta J. Reversible femtosecond laser-assisted myopia correction: a non-human primate study of lenticule re-implantation after refractive lenticule extraction. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67058 pubmed publisher
    LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) is a common laser refractive procedure for myopia and astigmatism, involving permanent removal of anterior corneal stromal tissue by excimer ablation beneath a hinged flap...
  2. Xiang F, He M, Zeng Y, Mai J, Rose K, Morgan I. Increases in the prevalence of reduced visual acuity and myopia in Chinese children in Guangzhou over the past 20 years. Eye (Lond). 2013;27:1353-8 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the prevalence of myopia based on reduced unaided visual acuity (VA) in Chinese school children over the past 20 years.
  3. Feng Y, Zhang Y, Zha Y, Huang J, Cai J. Association of Lumican gene polymorphism with high myopia: a meta-analysis. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:1321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs3759223, C?T) in Lumican gene and high myopia risk in the Chinese population. However, the results have been inconsistent...
  4. Fang F, Pan M, Yan T, Tao Y, Wu H, Liu X, et al. The role of cGMP in ocular growth and the development of form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:7887-902 pubmed publisher
    Development of myopia is associated with remodeling of the sclera, a tissue composed principally of collagen...
  5. Ma Y, He X, Zou H, Lu L, Qu X, Zhu J. Myopia screening: combining visual acuity and noncycloplegic autorefraction. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:1479-85 pubmed publisher
    To explore the effectiveness of combining uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and noncycloplegic autorefraction (NCAR) for large-scale myopia screening in schoolchildren with a high prevalence of myopia.
  6. Price H, Allen P, Radhakrishnan H, Calver R, Rae S, Theagarayan B, et al. The Cambridge Anti-myopia Study: variables associated with myopia progression. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:1274-83 pubmed publisher
    To identify variables associated with myopia progression and to identify any interaction between accommodative function, myopia progression, age, and treatment effect in the Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study.
  7. Kamiya K, Shimizu K, Igarashi A, Kobashi H. Visual and refractive outcomes of femtosecond lenticule extraction and small-incision lenticule extraction for myopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;157:128-134.e2 pubmed publisher
    To compare the visual and refractive outcomes of femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in eyes with myopia.
  8. Wen G, Tarczy Hornoch K, McKean Cowdin R, Cotter S, Borchert M, Lin J, et al. Prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in non-Hispanic white and Asian children: multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:2109-16 pubmed publisher
    To determine the age-, gender-, and ethnicity-specific prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Asian preschool children.
  9. Khor C, Miyake M, Chen L, Shi Y, Barathi V, Qiao F, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies ZFHX1B as a susceptibility locus for severe myopia. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:5288-94 pubmed publisher
    Severe myopia (defined as spherical equivalent < -6.0 D) is a predominant problem in Asian countries, resulting in substantial morbidity...
  10. Choi J, Han K, Park Y, La T. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with myopia in Korean adolescents. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:2041-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the relationship between serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and refractive error in Korean adolescents...
  11. McBrien N, Stell W, Carr B. How does atropine exert its anti-myopia effects?. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013;33:373-8 pubmed publisher
    In the following point-counterpoint article, internationally-acclaimed myopia researchers were challenged to defend the two opposing sides of the topic defined by the title; their contributions, which appear in the order, Point followed ..
  12. Aldahmesh M, Khan A, Alkuraya H, Adly N, Anazi S, Al Saleh A, et al. Mutations in LRPAP1 are associated with severe myopia in humans. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;93:313-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Myopia is an extremely common eye disorder but the pathogenesis of its isolated form, which accounts for the overwhelming majority of cases, remains poorly understood...
  13. Mohamed Noriega K, Riau A, Lwin N, Chaurasia S, Tan D, Mehta J. Early corneal nerve damage and recovery following small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:1823-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared early corneal nerve changes after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)...
  14. Awadein A, Habib A. ICL versus Veriflex phakic IOL for treatment of moderately high myopia: randomized paired-eye comparison. J Refract Surg. 2013;29:445-52 pubmed publisher
    To compare the objective and subjective outcome of implantable collamer lenses (ICLs; Staar Surgical, Monrovia, CA) versus Veriflex lenses (AMO, Santa Ana, CA) for the correction of moderately high myopia.
  15. Miyake M, Yamashiro K, Nakanishi H, Nakata I, Akagi Kurashige Y, Tsujikawa A, et al. Insulin-like growth factor 1 is not associated with high myopia in a large Japanese cohort. Mol Vis. 2013;19:1074-81 pubmed
    To investigate whether genetic variations in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene are associated with high myopia in Japanese.
  16. Park H, Tan C, Faulkner A, Jabbar S, Schmid G, Abey J, et al. Retinal degeneration increases susceptibility to myopia in mice. Mol Vis. 2013;19:2068-79 pubmed
    ..instance, retinitis pigmentosa, a disease characterized by severe photoreceptor degeneration, is associated with myopia; however, the underlying link between these conditions is not known...
  17. Cho Y, Huang W, Nishimura E. Myopic refractive shift represents dense nuclear sclerosis and thin lens in lenticular myopia. Clin Exp Optom. 2013;96:479-85 pubmed publisher
    It is not rare to meet unilateral nuclear sclerotic cataracts with myopic refractive changes (lenticular myopia) compared with the fellow eye in the ophthalmic examination of patients with decreased visual acuity...
  18. Verhoeven V, Buitendijk G, Rivadeneira F, Uitterlinden A, Vingerling J, Hofman A, et al. Education influences the role of genetics in myopia. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013;28:973-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Myopia is a complex inherited ocular trait resulting from an interplay of genes and environmental factors, most of which are currently unknown...
  19. Chon B, Qiu M, Lin S. Myopia and glaucoma in the South Korean population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:6570-7 pubmed publisher
    To examine the association between myopia and glaucoma, visual field defects, optic disc structural damage, and IOP in a population with a high prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG).
  20. Cheng S, Lam C, Yap M. Prevalence of myopia-related retinal changes among 12-18 year old Hong Kong Chinese high myopes. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013;33:652-60 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of myopia-related retinal changes in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with high myopia.
  21. Lee J, Jee D, Kwon J, Lee W. Prevalence and risk factors for myopia in a rural Korean population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:5466-71 pubmed publisher
    To assess the prevalence and risk factors of myopia in 19-year-old males in Jeju, a rural area of Korea.
  22. Fadlallah A, Dirani A, El Rami H, Cherfane G, Jarade E. Safety and visual outcome of Visian toric ICL implantation after corneal collagen cross-linking in keratoconus. J Refract Surg. 2013;29:84-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the safety and clinical outcome of phakic Visian toric implantable collamer lens (ICL) (STAAR Surgical, Monrovia, CA) insertion after corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in progressive keratoconus...
  23. Sia R, Coe C, Edwards J, Ryan D, Bower K. Visual outcomes after Epi-LASIK and PRK for low and moderate myopia. J Refract Surg. 2012;28:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..patients aged ?21 years, 145 (290 eyes) underwent epi-LASIK and 149 (298 eyes) underwent PRK for low to moderate myopia or myopic astigmatism...
  24. Dong F, Zhi Z, Pan M, Xie R, Qin X, Lu R, et al. Inhibition of experimental myopia by a dopamine agonist: different effectiveness between form deprivation and hyperopic defocus in guinea pigs. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2824-34 pubmed
    ..025 to 2.5 ng/µl inhibited form deprivation myopia in a concentration-dependent manner. By contrast, the APO treatment ranged from 0...
  25. Wang Q, Zhao G, Xing S, Zhang L, Yang X. Role of bone morphogenetic proteins in form-deprivation myopia sclera. Mol Vis. 2011;17:647-57 pubmed
    To clarify the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2,-4,-5) in sclera remodeling during myopia induction and their effect on sclera fibroblasts in cell culture.
  26. Jiang L, Long K, Schaeffel F, Zhang S, Zhou X, Lu F, et al. Disruption of emmetropization and high susceptibility to deprivation myopia in albino guinea pigs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6124-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, deprivation myopia was induced in 36 age-matched albino (18 AH and 18 AM) and 36 pigmented (18 PH and 18 PM) guinea pigs by diffusers ..
  27. Schmid K, Strasberg G, Rayner C, Hartfield P. The effects and interactions of GABAergic and dopaminergic agents in the prevention of form deprivation myopia by brief periods of normal vision. Exp Eye Res. 2013;110:88-95 pubmed publisher
    ..dopamine agonists and brief periods of normal vision have been shown separately to inhibit form-deprivation myopia (FDM)...
  28. Gao Y, Wang P, Li S, Xiao X, Jia X, Guo X, et al. Common variants in chromosome 4q25 are associated with myopia in Chinese adults. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2012;32:68-73 pubmed publisher
    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of high myopia found that five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4q25 were associated with high myopia. The original study suggested replication studies were needed to validate these results...
  29. Ang M, Chaurasia S, Angunawela R, Poh R, Riau A, Tan D, et al. Femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx): clinical results, interface evaluation, and intraocular pressure variation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:1414-21 pubmed publisher
    ..001). These results suggest that FLEx is predictable and effective in treating myopia and myopic astigmatism. Experimental studies support the early clinical results and safety of this procedure.
  30. Kim M, Zhao D, Kim W, Lim D, Song Y, Guallar E, et al. Heritability of myopia and ocular biometrics in Koreans: the healthy twin study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:3644-9 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the heritabilities of myopia and ocular biometrics among different family types among a Korean population. We studied 1508 adults in the Healthy Twin Study...
  31. Chen K, Hsi E, Hu C, Chou W, Liang C, Juo S. MicroRNA-328 may influence myopia development by mediating the PAX6 gene. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:2732-9 pubmed publisher
    ..SNP) rs662702 in PAX6 may be located in a microRNA-328 binding site that causes susceptibility to high myopia. Our study was done to elucidate the role of PAX6 and its relationship with microRNA-328 in myopia...
  32. Kamiya K, Shimizu K, Kobashi H, Igarashi A, Komatsu M. Three-year follow-up of posterior chamber toric phakic intraocular lens implantation for moderate to high myopic astigmatism. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56453 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the 3-year clinical outcomes of toric phakic intraocular lens (Visian ICL™; STAAR Surgical) implantation for moderate to high myopic astigmatism...
  33. Flitcroft D. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012;31:622-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Myopia is the commonest ocular abnormality but as a research topic remains at the margins of mainstream ophthalmology. The concept that most myopes fall into the category of 'physiological myopia' undoubtedly contributes to this position...
  34. Chen Y, Hocking P, Wang L, Povazay B, Prashar A, To C, et al. Selective breeding for susceptibility to myopia reveals a gene-environment interaction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:4003-11 pubmed publisher
    Purpose. To test whether the interanimal variability in susceptibility to visually induced myopia is genetically determined. Methods. Monocular deprivation of sharp vision (DSV) was induced in outbred White Leghorn chicks aged 4 days...
  35. Fadlallah A, Fahed D, Khalil K, Dunia I, Menassa J, El Rami H, et al. Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy: clinical results. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011;37:1852-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Haze was significantly less in the study group (P<.01). Transepithelial PRK for mild to moderate myopia with or without astigmatism was safe and easier to perform than conventional PRK, and patients had less pain, less ..
  36. Rydzanicz M, Nowak D, Karolak J, Frajdenberg A, Podfigurna Musielak M, Mrugacz M, et al. IGF-1 gene polymorphisms in Polish families with high-grade myopia. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2428-39 pubmed
    ..has suggested that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene polymorphisms are genetically linked with high-grade myopia (HM), which is a complex-trait eye disorder in which numerous candidate loci and genes are thought to play a role...
  37. Zhang Z, Jin H, Suo Y, Patel S, Montes Mico R, Manche E, et al. Femtosecond laser versus mechanical microkeratome laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia: Metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011;37:2151-9 pubmed publisher
    ..changes in aberrations between femtosecond and mechanical microkeratome laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai First People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, ..
  38. Shi Y, Qu J, Zhang D, Zhao P, Zhang Q, Tam P, et al. Genetic variants at 13q12.12 are associated with high myopia in the Han Chinese population. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:805-813 pubmed publisher
    High myopia, which is extremely prevalent in the Chinese population, is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Genetic factors play a critical role in the development of the condition...
  39. Suh Y, Oh J, Kim H, Cho Y, Song J. Three-dimensional display-induced transient myopia and the difference in myopic shift between crossed and uncrossed disparities. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:5029-32 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether three-dimensional (3D) images cause nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) more than 2D images and whether there is any difference between 3D images with crossed and uncrossed disparities in the development of ..
  40. Jin H, Auffarth G, Guo H, Zhao P. Corneal power estimation for intraocular lens power calculation after corneal laser refractive surgery in Chinese eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2012;38:1749-57 pubmed publisher
    ..To develop and evaluate an algorithm for corneal power estimation in intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation after corneal laser refractive surgery in Chinese eyes...
  41. Jones D, Luensmann D. The prevalence and impact of high myopia. Eye Contact Lens. 2012;38:188-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Myopia has gained increasing interest in recent years, particularly because of its increase in prevalence across populations worldwide...
  42. Sankaridurg P, Holden B, Smith E, Naduvilath T, Chen X, de la Jara P, et al. Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:9362-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether a novel optical treatment using contact lenses to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia can slow the rate of progress of myopia.
  43. Barathi V, Kwan J, Tan Q, Weon S, Seet L, Goh L, et al. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor (M2) plays a crucial role in the development of myopia in mice. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:1146-58 pubmed publisher
    b>Myopia is a huge public health problem worldwide, reaching the highest incidence in Asia. Identification of susceptible genes is crucial for understanding the biological basis of myopia...
  44. Guo Y, Lin H, Lin L, Cheng C. Self-reported myopia in Taiwan: 2005 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Eye (Lond). 2012;26:684-9 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of self-reported myopia nationwide in Taiwan and its association with degrees of urbanization and education levels...
  45. Chen S, Feng Y, Stojanovic A, Jankov M, Wang Q. IntraLase femtosecond laser vs mechanical microkeratomes in LASIK for myopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Refract Surg. 2012;28:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and predictability of IntraLase (Abbott Medical Optics) femtosecond laser-assisted compared to microkeratome-assisted myopic LASIK...
  46. Frost M, Norton T. Alterations in protein expression in tree shrew sclera during development of lens-induced myopia and recovery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:322-36 pubmed publisher
    During the development of, and recovery from, negative lens-induced myopia there is regulated remodeling of the scleral extracellular matrix (ECM) that controls the extensibility of the sclera...
  47. Wojciechowski R. Nature and nurture: the complex genetics of myopia and refractive error. Clin Genet. 2011;79:301-20 pubmed publisher
    The refractive errors, myopia and hyperopia, are optical defects of the visual system that can cause blurred vision. Uncorrected refractive errors are the most common causes of visual impairment worldwide. It is estimated that 2...
  48. Guo Y, Liu L, Xu L, Lv Y, Tang P, Feng Y, et al. Outdoor activity and myopia among primary students in rural and urban regions of Beijing. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:277-83 pubmed publisher
    To assess associations among outdoor activity, ocular biometric parameters, and myopia among grade 1 and grade 4 primary students in Beijing. School-based, cross-sectional study...
  49. Borchert M, Varma R, Cotter S, Tarczy Hornoch K, McKean Cowdin R, Lin J, et al. Risk factors for hyperopia and myopia in preschool children the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1966-73 pubmed publisher
    To describe the risk factors associated with hyperopia and myopia among children 6 to 72 months of age.
  50. Zhao J, Qu X, Qi Y, Zhou W, Liu X. Study on retinal dopamine transporter in form deprivation myopia using the radiopharmaceutical tracer 99mTc-TRODAT-1. Nucl Med Commun. 2010;31:910-5 pubmed publisher form deprivation myopia retina...
  51. Blum M, Kunert K, Engelbrecht C, Dawczynski J, Sekundo W. [Femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) - Results after 12 months in myopic astigmatism]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2010;227:961-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that one patient presented with a corneal ectasia demonstrates that one general problem of refractive corneal surgery persists with this new fs technology. ..
  52. Nickla D. Ocular diurnal rhythms and eye growth regulation: where we are 50 years after Lauber. Exp Eye Res. 2013;114:25-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Interest in the potential influence of light cycles and ambient lighting in human myopia development has been spurred by a recent study showing a positive association between the amount of time that ..
  53. Dorronzoro E, Santos Bueso E, Vico Ruiz E, Saenz Frances F, Argaya J, Gegúndez Fernández J. [Myopia and retinal striae induced by topiramate]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2011;86:24-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the cycloplegic refraction, RE showed -4.25 and LE -4.50. Retinal striae could be seen in the macula of both eyes. The alterations ceased 48hours after the drug treatment was interrupted...
  54. Wang Q, Gao Y, Wang P, Li S, Jia X, Xiao X, et al. Replication study of significant single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with myopia from two genome-wide association studies. Mol Vis. 2011;17:3290-9 pubmed
    Two previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of high myopia in a Japanese population found several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the disease...
  55. Huo L, Cui D, Yang X, Wan W, Liao R, Trier K, et al. A retrospective study: form-deprivation myopia in unilateral congenital ptosis. Clin Exp Optom. 2012;95:404-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between unilateral congenital ptosis in patients older than eight years and their refractive state and spherical equivalent refraction (SER)...
  56. Meng W, Butterworth J, Bradley D, Hughes A, Soler V, Calvas P, et al. A genome-wide association study provides evidence for association of chromosome 8p23 (MYP10) and 10q21.1 (MYP15) with high myopia in the French Population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:7983-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Myopia is a complex trait affected by both genetic and environmental factors. High myopia is associated with increased risk of sight threatening eye disorders such as retinal detachment...
  57. Hashemian S, Soleimani M, Foroutan A, Joshaghani M, Ghaempanah J, Jafari M. Toric implantable collamer lens for high myopic astigmatism in keratoconic patients after six months. Clin Exp Optom. 2013;96:225-32 pubmed publisher
    The aim was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, stability and predictability of posterior chamber collagen copolymer phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation to correct myopia and myopic astigmatism associated with keratoconus.
  58. Angunawela R, Riau A, Chaurasia S, Tan D, Mehta J. Refractive lenticule re-implantation after myopic ReLEx: a feasibility study of stromal restoration after refractive surgery in a rabbit model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:4975-85 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the potential of refractive lenticule (RL) storage and re-implantation in vivo as a method for reversing RL extraction (ReLEx) and restoring corneal stromal volume...
  59. Pan C, Ramamurthy D, Saw S. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2012;32:3-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Myopia, the most common type of refractive error, is a complex trait including both genetic and environmental factors. Numerous studies have tried to elucidate the aetiology of myopia...
  60. Yi J, Li R. [Influence of near-work and outdoor activities on myopia progression in school children]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2011;13:32-5 pubmed
    To study the influence of near-work and outdoor activities on myopia progression in school children.
  61. Kunert K, Blum M, Duncker G, Sietmann R, Heichel J. Surface quality of human corneal lenticules after femtosecond laser surgery for myopia comparing different laser parameters. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011;249:1417-24 pubmed publisher
    To determine the surface characteristics of human corneal lenticules after femtosecond laser surgery for myopia.
  62. Chen B, Wang C, Chen W, Ma J. Altered TGF-?2 and bFGF expression in scleral desmocytes from an experimentally-induced myopia guinea pig model. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013;251:1133-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine changes in expression of transforming growth factor ?-2 (TGF-?2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in scleral desmocytes from anterior and posterior portions of experimentally-induced myopic eyes of guinea pigs...
  63. Amedo A, Norton T. Visual guidance of recovery from lens-induced myopia in tree shrews (Tupaia glis belangeri). Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2012;32:89-99 pubmed publisher
    To examine, in tree shrews, the visual guidance of recovery from negative lens-induced myopia by measuring the effect of wearing low-power negative or positive lenses during recovery...
  64. Jones Jordan L, Sinnott L, Cotter S, Kleinstein R, Manny R, Mutti D, et al. Time outdoors, visual activity, and myopia progression in juvenile-onset myopes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:7169-75 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the association between myopia progression and time spent outdoors and in various visual activities.
  65. Peponis V, Chalkiadakis S, Nikas S, Makris N, Ladas I, Karagiannis D. Bilateral central serous retinopathy following laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011;37:778-80 pubmed publisher
    ..white man who experienced bilateral central serous chorioretinopathy following laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia. Postoperatively, the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes...
  66. Dirani M, Couper T, Yau J, Ang E, Islam F, Snibson G, et al. Long-term refractive outcomes and stability after excimer laser surgery for myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2010;36:1709-17 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the long-term refractive outcomes of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia.
  67. McAlinden C, Skiadaresi E, Moore J. Visual and refractive outcomes following myopic laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy with a flying-spot excimer laser. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011;37:901-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the visual and refractive outcomes following laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) surgery with a flying-spot excimer laser...
  68. Siegwart J, Norton T. Binocular lens treatment in tree shrews: Effect of age and comparison of plus lens wear with recovery from minus lens-induced myopia. Exp Eye Res. 2010;91:660-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, recovery from lens-induced myopia was compared with the response to a similar amount of myopia produced with plus lenses in age-matched juvenile ..
  69. Xiang F, He M, Morgan I. Annual changes in refractive errors and ocular components before and after the onset of myopia in Chinese children. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:1478-84 pubmed publisher
    To examine annual changes in refraction and ocular components around the onset of myopia in Chinese children.
  70. Wu P, Yang Y, Fang P. The long-term results of using low-concentration atropine eye drops for controlling myopia progression in schoolchildren. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011;27:461-6 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of a low-concentration (LC) atropine eye drop regimen (0.05%-0.1%) for controlling myopia progression in schoolchildren.
  71. Lu B, Jiang D, Wang P, Gao Y, Sun W, Xiao X, et al. Replication study supports CTNND2 as a susceptibility gene for high myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:8258-61 pubmed publisher
    The CTNND2 gene is located in the linkage interval of high myopia locus MYP16 and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs6885224 and rs12716080) in CTNND2 were recently shown to associate with high myopia...
  72. Chen Z, Wang I, Liao Y, Shih Y, Lin L. Polymorphisms in steroidogenesis genes, sex steroid levels, and high myopia in the Taiwanese population. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2297-310 pubmed
    To evaluate the relationship among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in steroidogenesis enzyme genes, serum levels of sex steroids, and high myopia in Taiwanese male and female populations.
  73. Hiraoka T, Kakita T, Okamoto F, Takahashi H, Oshika T. Long-term effect of overnight orthokeratology on axial length elongation in childhood myopia: a 5-year follow-up study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:3913-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our prospective study was conducted to compare axial length elongation in myopic children receiving long-term overnight orthokeratology (OK) treatment to those wearing spectacles as controls...
  74. Fang Y, Chou Y, Pu C, Lin P, Liu T, Huang N, et al. Prescription of atropine eye drops among children diagnosed with myopia in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007: a nationwide study. Eye (Lond). 2013;27:418-24 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to examine the atropine eye drop prescription trend for children diagnosed with myopia, and to determine the factors associated with the prescription of atropine eye drops.
  75. Penha A, Schaeffel F, Feldkaemper M. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin receptor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression in the chick eye and their regulation with imposed myopic or hyperopic defocus. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1436-48 pubmed
    ..The differential regulation of IR and IGF-1R in the RPE, choroid, and fibrous sclera is consistent with their involvement in a signaling cascade for emmetropization...
  76. Alfonso J, Baamonde B, Fernandez Vega L, Fernandes P, Gonzalez Meijome J, Montes Mico R. Posterior chamber collagen copolymer phakic intraocular lenses to correct myopia: five-year follow-up. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011;37:873-80 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of posterior chamber collagen copolymer phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation to correct myopia.
  77. Hayashi H, Yamashiro K, Nakanishi H, Nakata I, Kurashige Y, Tsujikawa A, et al. Association of 15q14 and 15q25 with high myopia in Japanese. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:4853-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether there are associations of genetic variations in chromosome 15q14 and 15q25, recently shown to confer risk of refractive error and myopia in Caucasians, with high myopia in Japanese.
  78. Smith E, Hung L, Arumugam B, Huang J. Negative lens-induced myopia in infant monkeys: effects of high ambient lighting. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:2959-69 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether high light levels, which have a protective effect against form-deprivation myopia, also retard the development of lens-induced myopia in primates.
  79. Barathi V, Beuerman R. Molecular mechanisms of muscarinic receptors in mouse scleral fibroblasts: Prior to and after induction of experimental myopia with atropine treatment. Mol Vis. 2011;17:680-92 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of atropine on the development of spectacle lens induced myopia in the mouse and to determine if the level of mRNAs for the muscarinic receptor subtypes (M(1) - M(5)) is affected by atropine treatment.
  80. Morgan I, Ohno Matsui K, Saw S. Myopia. Lancet. 2012;379:1739-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Myopia has emerged as a major health issue in east Asia, because of its increasingly high prevalence in the past few decades (now 80-90% in school-leavers), and because of the sight-threatening pathologies associated with high myopia, ..
  81. Mitry D, Williams L, Charteris D, Fleck B, Wright A, Campbell H. Population-based estimate of the sibling recurrence risk ratio for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2551-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of genetic predisposition on nonsyndromic primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude of genetic risk for RRD...
  82. Yip S, Li C, Yiu W, Hung W, Lam W, Lai M, et al. A novel missense mutation in the NYX gene associated with high myopia. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013;33:346-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Myopia is a complex eye disorder. The X-linked form of complete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1A) is usually associated with moderate to high myopia, and is caused by mutations in the NYX gene...
  83. Arumugam B, McBrien N. Muscarinic antagonist control of myopia: evidence for M4 and M1 receptor-based pathways in the inhibition of experimentally-induced axial myopia in the tree shrew. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:5827-37 pubmed publisher
    The broadband muscarinic antagonist atropine is effective in stopping the progression of myopia in animals and humans...
  84. Santodomingo Rubido J, Villa Collar C, Gilmartin B, Gutiérrez Ortega R. Myopia control with orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain: refractive and biometric changes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:5060-5 pubmed publisher
    To compare axial length growth between white children with myopia wearing orthokeratology contact lenses (OK) and distance single-vision spectacles (SV) over a 2-year period.