Summary: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. MacLaren R, Natkunarajah M, Riaz Y, Bourne R, Restori M, Allan B. Biometry and formula accuracy with intraocular lenses used for cataract surgery in extreme hyperopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:920-931 pubmed
    To audit intraocular lens (IOL) power predictions for cataract surgery in extreme hyperopia and to compare the accuracy across different biometry formulae and IOL types...
  2. Tai M, Lin S, Chen J, Liang C, Chou P, Lu D. Sweet hyperopia: refractive changes in acute hyperglycemia. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006;16:663-6 pubmed
    ..A prospective study was performed to evaluate refractive and ocular biometric changes in acute hyperglycemic status in patients with diabetes mellitus...
  3. Al Turki R, Baabbad R, Al Amro S. Posterior microphthalmos with uveal effusion managed by lamellar sclerotomies. Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie). 2008;40:193-6 pubmed
    ..We suggest early screening and management to prevent amblyopia especially in children of affected families...
  4. Schache M, Chen C, Dirani M, Baird P. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) gene is not associated with refractive error and ocular biometrics in a Caucasian population. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2599-605 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine if genetic variants in the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) gene are associated with refractive error and ocular biometric measures in a Caucasian cohort...
  5. Settas G, Settas C, Minos E, Yeung I. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) versus laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for hyperopia correction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD007112 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperopia, or hypermetropia (also known as long-sightedness or far-sightedness), is the condition where the unaccommodating eye brings parallel light to a focus behind the retina instead of on it...
  6. Hashemi H, Iribarren R, Morgan I, Khabazkhoob M, Mohammad K, Fotouhi A. Increased hyperopia with ageing based on cycloplegic refractions in adults: the Tehran Eye Study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:20-3 pubmed publisher
    To determine the trend in the prevalence of hyperopia in Tehran, Iran.
  7. Sankaridurg P, Holden B, Smith E, Naduvilath T, Chen X, de la Jara P, et al. Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:9362-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether a novel optical treatment using contact lenses to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia can slow the rate of progress of myopia.
  8. Veerappan S, Schache M, Pertile K, Islam F, Chen C, Mitchell P, et al. The retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) gene is not associated with myopia, hypermetropia, and ocular biometric measures. Mol Vis. 2009;15:1390-7 pubmed
    ..To test for whether RARA is associated with myopia we have undertaken a case-control study assessing for associations between RARA and myopia, hypermetropia, and ocular biometric measures...
  9. Terzi E, Wang L, Kohnen T. Accuracy of modern intraocular lens power calculation formulas in refractive lens exchange for high myopia and high hyperopia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009;35:1181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the accuracy of the Holladay 2, Hoffer Q, SRK/T, and Haigis intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulas in high myopic and high hyperopic refractive lens exchange (RLE) with hydrophobic acrylic foldable IOLs...

More Information


  1. Thomeer H, Admiraal R, Hoefsloot L, Kunst H, Cremers C. Proximal symphalangism, hyperopia, conductive hearing impairment, and the NOG gene: 2 new mutations. Otol Neurotol. 2011;32:632-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To report on 2 families with proximal symphalangism syndrome and 2 new NOG gene mutations and to report on the outcomes of exploratory tympanotomy...
  2. Khan A, Kahn A. Cycloplegic refractions in children who never wore and who always wore prescribed spectacles for refractive accommodative esotropia: exploring the natural history of this form of strabismus and the effect of treatment on their hyperopia. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2009;24:151-6 pubmed
    ..To compare cycloplegic refractions in accommodative esotropes who never and who always wore prescribed spectacles...
  3. Qasem Q, Kirwan C, O Keefe M. 5-year prospective follow-up of Artisan phakic intraocular lenses for the correction of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Ophthalmologica. 2010;224:283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the efficacy and safety of Artisan phakic intraocular lenses (IOLs) for refractive error correction...
  4. O Donoghue L, McClelland J, Logan N, Rudnicka A, Owen C, Saunders K. Refractive error and visual impairment in school children in Northern Ireland. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:1155-9 pubmed publisher
    To describe the prevalence of refractive error (myopia and hyperopia) and visual impairment in a representative sample of white school children.
  5. Durrie D, Smith R, Waring G, Stahl J, Schwendeman F. Comparing conventional and wavefront-optimized LASIK for the treatment of hyperopia. J Refract Surg. 2010;26:356-63 pubmed publisher
    To compare differences in visual outcomes and induced spherical aberration after conventional and wavefront-optimized LASIK for the treatment of hyperopia.
  6. Leone J, Mitchell P, Morgan I, Kifley A, Rose K. Use of visual acuity to screen for significant refractive errors in adolescents: is it reliable?. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:894-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To detect significant refractive error in a population-based random cluster sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren by using sensitivity and specificity of uncorrected visual acuity (VA)...
  7. Kothari K, Nayak P, Mehta B. Pseudophakic hyperopia in nanophthalmic eyes managed by a posterior chamber implantable collamer lens. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2011;59:165-6 pubmed publisher
    ..chamber implantable collamer lens (ICL) implantation post-clear lens extraction, to reduce the residual hyperopia, in a patient with nanophthalmic eyes...
  8. Mutti D, Mitchell G, Jones L, Friedman N, Frane S, Lin W, et al. Accommodation, acuity, and their relationship to emmetropization in infants. Optom Vis Sci. 2009;86:666-76 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the relationship between accommodation, visual acuity, and emmetropization in human infancy...
  9. Lu F, Zhou X, Jiang L, Fu Y, Lai X, Xie R, et al. Axial myopia induced by hyperopic defocus in guinea pigs: A detailed assessment on susceptibility and recovery. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Guinea pigs aged 3 weeks can still develop negative lens induced myopia and this myopia is reversible after removal of the lens. The myopia and recovery are mainly due to changes in vitreous length and choroidal thickness...
  10. Gao H, Frost M, Siegwart J, Norton T. Patterns of mRNA and protein expression during minus-lens compensation and recovery in tree shrew sclera. Mol Vis. 2011;17:903-19 pubmed
  11. Borchert M, Varma R, Cotter S, Tarczy Hornoch K, McKean Cowdin R, Lin J, et al. Risk factors for hyperopia and myopia in preschool children the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1966-73 pubmed publisher
    To describe the risk factors associated with hyperopia and myopia among children 6 to 72 months of age.
  12. Tomita M, Kanamori T, Waring G, Yukawa S, Yamamoto T, Sekiya K, et al. Simultaneous corneal inlay implantation and laser in situ keratomileusis for presbyopia in patients with hyperopia, myopia, or emmetropia: six-month results. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2012;38:495-506 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the safety and efficacy of simultaneous Kamra corneal inlay implantation and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for the treatment of presbyopia in emmetropic, hyperopic, or myopic patients...
  13. Wang P, Yang Z, Li S, Xiao X, Guo X, Zhang Q. Evaluation of MFRP as a candidate gene for high hyperopia. Mol Vis. 2009;15:181-6 pubmed
    ..in the membrane-type frizzled-related protein (MFRP) gene have been identified in patients with pathologic high hyperopia associated with nanophthalmos or microphthalmia...
  14. Lukenda A, Martinović Z, Kalauz M. Excimer laser correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism: past, present, and future. Acta Clin Croat. 2012;51:299-304 pubmed
    ..the domination of corneal ablative laser surgery over other refractive surgical procedures for the correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism...
  15. French A, Morgan I, Burlutsky G, Mitchell P, Rose K. Prevalence and 5- to 6-year incidence and progression of myopia and hyperopia in Australian schoolchildren. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:1482-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence, incidence, and change in refractive errors for Australian schoolchildren and examine the impact of ethnicity and sex...
  16. Smith E, Huang J, Hung L, Blasdel T, Humbird T, Bockhorst K. Hemiretinal form deprivation: evidence for local control of eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:5057-69 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether refractive development in primates is mediated by local retinal mechanisms, the authors examined the effects of hemiretinal form deprivation on ocular growth and the pattern of peripheral refractions in rhesus monkeys...
  17. Khan A. Posterior microphthalmos versus nanophthalmos. Ophthalmic Genet. 2008;29:189 pubmed publisher
  18. Mulet M, Alio J, Knorz M. Hydrogel intracorneal inlays for the correction of hyperopia: outcomes and complications after 5 years of follow-up. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1455-60, 1460.e1 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate safety and efficacy of an intracorneal inlay for the correction of hyperopia.
  19. Chayet A, Sandstedt C, Chang S, Rhee P, Tsuchiyama B, Schwartz D. Correction of residual hyperopia after cataract surgery using the light adjustable intraocular lens technology. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;147:392-397.e1 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether residual hyperopia could be corrected postoperatively using the light adjustable lens technology in patients undergoing cataract surgery and light adjustable lens implantation.
  20. Ehrlich J, Manche E. Regression of effect over long-term follow-up of conductive keratoplasty to correct mild to moderate hyperopia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009;35:1591-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the long-term efficacy and stability of conductive keratoplasty (CK) for low to moderate hyperopia.
  21. Polat S, Can C, Ilhan B, Mutluay A, Zilelioglu O. Laser in situ keratomileusis for treatment of fully or partially refractive accommodative esotropia. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:733-7 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in partially refractive accommodative esotropia (pRAE) and fully refractive accommodative esotropia (fRAE)...
  22. Wen G, Tarczy Hornoch K, McKean Cowdin R, Cotter S, Borchert M, Lin J, et al. Prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in non-Hispanic white and Asian children: multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:2109-16 pubmed publisher
    To determine the age-, gender-, and ethnicity-specific prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Asian preschool children.
  23. Veerappan S, Pertile K, Islam A, Schache M, Chen C, Mitchell P, et al. Role of the hepatocyte growth factor gene in refractive error. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:239-45.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Several genetic loci have been associated with myopia but none to date have been reported for hypermetropia. We investigated the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as a candidate gene influencing these 2 refractive error states...
  24. Rayner S, Bhikoo R, Gray T. Spherical implantable collamer lenses for myopia and hyperopia: 126 eyes with 1-year follow up. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;38:21-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To report on 1-year follow up of a series of 126 eyes implanted with a spherical implantable collamer lens (ICL)...
  25. Colburn J, Morrison D, Estes R, Li C, Lu P, Donahue S. Longitudinal follow-up of hypermetropic children identified during preschool vision screening. J AAPOS. 2010;14:211-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Early childhood hypermetropia is an important risk factor for the development of amblyopia and esotropia. Understanding the natural history of these complications aids in management decisions...
  26. Siegwart J, Norton T. Binocular lens treatment in tree shrews: Effect of age and comparison of plus lens wear with recovery from minus lens-induced myopia. Exp Eye Res. 2010;91:660-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6±0.6 D of hyperopia at 11 VE to 1.4±0.2 D at 24 VE and 0.8±0.4 D at 35 VE...
  27. Blum M, Kunert K, Voßmerbäumer U, Sekundo W. Femtosecond lenticule extraction (ReLEx) for correction of hyperopia - first results. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013;251:349-55 pubmed publisher
    This prospective study focused on the results of a novel method for refractive correction, femtosecond lenticule extraction (ReLEx®) in hyperopia, and reports the first 47 eyes.
  28. Karlica D, Galetović D, Bucan K, Znaor L. Retinoscopy and visual evoked potential based evaluation of the exactness of hyperopia correction in children with developmental difficulties. Acta Clin Croat. 2010;49:251-5 pubmed
    ..We examined 80 children (160 eyes) with hyperopia, divided into two groups: children that were cooperative during examination and children that could not ..
  29. Penha A, Schaeffel F, Feldkaemper M. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin receptor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression in the chick eye and their regulation with imposed myopic or hyperopic defocus. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1436-48 pubmed
    ..The differential regulation of IR and IGF-1R in the RPE, choroid, and fibrous sclera is consistent with their involvement in a signaling cascade for emmetropization...
  30. Orr A, Dube M, Zenteno J, Jiang H, Asselin G, Evans S, et al. Mutations in a novel serine protease PRSS56 in families with nanophthalmos. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1850-61 pubmed
    ..Patients suffer from severe hyperopia as a result of their markedly reduced axial lengths, but otherwise are capable of seeing well unlike other more ..
  31. Lin S, Lin P, Chang F, Tsai R. Transient hyperopia after intensive treatment of hyperglycemia in newly diagnosed diabetes. Ophthalmologica. 2009;223:68-71 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to observe the transient hyperopia during the intense glucose reduction in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes and severe hyperglycemia.
  32. Sundin O, Leppert G, Silva E, Yang J, Dharmaraj S, Maumenee I, et al. Extreme hyperopia is the result of null mutations in MFRP, which encodes a Frizzled-related protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9553-8 pubmed
    Nanophthalmos is a rare disorder of eye development characterized by extreme hyperopia (farsightedness), with refractive error in the range of +8.00 to +25.00 diopters...
  33. Klimek D, Cruz O, Scott W, Davitt B. Isoametropic amblyopia due to high hyperopia in children. J AAPOS. 2004;8:310-3 pubmed
    To identify children with isoametropic amblyopia due to moderate to high hyperopia and evaluate associated findings and visual acuity outcome. Charts from two university's pediatric ophthalmology clinics were reviewed retrospectively...
  34. Parentin F, Tonini G, Perissutti P. Refractive evaluation in children with growth defect. Curr Eye Res. 2004;28:11-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings emphasise the possible role of growth hormone in ocular development, and its interaction with the physiological process of emmetropization. ..
  35. Raju P, Ramesh S, Arvind H, George R, Baskaran M, Paul P, et al. Prevalence of refractive errors in a rural South Indian population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:4268-72 pubmed
    ..50 to +0.50 diopter sphere [DS]), myopia (SE < -0.50 DS), high myopia (SE < -5.00 DS), and hyperopia (SE > 0.50 DS) were 50.60%, 26.99%, 3.71%, and 18...
  36. Feldkaemper M, Neacsu I, Schaeffel F. Insulin acts as a powerful stimulator of axial myopia in chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..When positive lenses were worn, insulin injections (0.3; 0.03 nmol) not only blocked hyperopia but rather induced high amounts of axial myopia...
  37. Kee C, Marzani D, Wallman J. Differences in time course and visual requirements of ocular responses to lenses and diffusers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:575-83 pubmed
    ..myopia [LCM]) or diffusers (form-deprivation myopia [FDM]), whereas positive lenses cause lens-compensation hyperopia (LCH)...
  38. Khairallah M, Messaoud R, Zaouali S, Ben Yahia S, Ladjimi A, Jenzri S. Posterior segment changes associated with posterior microphthalmos. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:569-74 pubmed
    ..2 mm) with associated high hyperopia (range, +12.00--+19.00 diopters) and normal or slightly smaller than normal anterior segment dimensions...
  39. Oster J, Steinert R, Hogan R. Reduction of hyperopia associated with manual excision of Salzmann's nodular degeneration. J Refract Surg. 2001;17:466-9 pubmed
    ..A myopic shift, or reduction in hyperopia, would be expected after removal of peripheral corneal pathology with central corneal steepening...
  40. Mutti D. To emmetropize or not to emmetropize? The question for hyperopic development. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:97-102 pubmed
    ..Failure to emmetropize leaves about 2 to 8% of children with potentially clinically significant hyperopia after infancy...
  41. Güell J, Morral M, Gris O, Gaytan J, Sisquella M, Manero F. Five-year follow-up of 399 phakic Artisan-Verisyse implantation for myopia, hyperopia, and/or astigmatism. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1002-12 pubmed
    To report long-term results of Artisan-Verisyse phakic intraocular lenses (PIOLs) to correct myopia, hyperopia, and/or astigmatism and the percentage of additional keratorefractive surgery to eliminate residual refractive errors.
  42. Zhu X, Wallman J. Temporal properties of compensation for positive and negative spectacle lenses in chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The complex etiology of human myopia may reflect these temporal properties. ..
  43. Zhu X, Park T, Winawer J, Wallman J. In a matter of minutes, the eye can know which way to grow. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:2238-41 pubmed
    ..Because the refractive status changes little during the period of lens wear, the authors conclude that eyes can rapidly determine the sign of the imposed blur without resorting to a trial-and-error method. ..
  44. Norton T, Siegwart J, Amedo A. Effectiveness of hyperopic defocus, minimal defocus, or myopic defocus in competition with a myopiagenic stimulus in tree shrew eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:4687-99 pubmed
    ..However, it appears that minimal defocus is a more consistent, strong antidote to a myopiagenic stimulus in this mammal closely related to primates. ..
  45. Shankar S, Evans M, Bobier W. Hyperopia and emergent literacy of young children: pilot study. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:1031-8 pubmed
    ..The relationship between hyperopia and the poorer progress in emergent literacy is complex, and it is not clear if the relationship is causal, and ..
  46. Baumeister M, Kohnen T. Scheimpflug measurement of intraocular lens position after piggyback implantation of foldable intraocular lenses in eyes with high hyperopia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:2098-104 pubmed
    To investigate the position of 3-piece foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) after piggyback implantation for high hyperopia.
  47. Jones L, Mitchell G, Mutti D, Hayes J, Moeschberger M, Zadnik K. Comparison of ocular component growth curves among refractive error groups in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:2317-27 pubmed
    ..75 D in both meridians on at least one visit (n = 247); persistent hyperopia of at least +1.00 D in both meridians on all visits (n = 43); and emmetropizing hyperopia of at least +1...
  48. Ip J, Robaei D, Kifley A, Wang J, Rose K, Mitchell P. Prevalence of hyperopia and associations with eye findings in 6- and 12-year-olds. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:678-685.e1 pubmed
    To describe the prevalence of hyperopia and associated factors in a representative sample of Australian schoolchildren 6 and 12 years old.
  49. Farbrother J. Spectacle prescribing in childhood: a survey of hospital optometrists. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:392-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the spectacle prescribing practices of hospital optometrists for infants and young children...
  50. Hammond C, Snieder H, Gilbert C, Spector T. Genes and environment in refractive error: the twin eye study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:1232-6 pubmed
    ..A classical twin study was performed to examine the relative importance of genes and environment in refractive error...
  51. Zhu X, Wallman J. Opposite effects of glucagon and insulin on compensation for spectacle lenses in chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:24-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucagon may signal the sign of defocus. Do insulin (or IGF-1) and glucagon act oppositely in controlling eye growth, as they do in metabolic pathways and in control of retinal neurogenesis?..
  52. Fuchs J, Holm K, Vilhelmsen K, Rosenberg T, Scherfig E, Fledelius H. Hereditary high hypermetropia in the Faroe Islands. Ophthalmic Genet. 2005;26:9-15 pubmed
    ..To characterize the phenotype of two families with high hypermetropia from the Faroe Islands...
  53. Albietz J, Lenton L, McLennan S. Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia on tear film and ocular surface. J Refract Surg. 2002;18:113-23 pubmed
    To examine the effects of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for hyperopia on the tear film and ocular surface.
  54. Hlozanek M, Korynta J. [Calculation for emmetropic intraocular lenses in hypermetropia]. Cesk Slov Oftalmol. 2002;58:153-7 pubmed
    ..Authors reached following modification of A-constant in SRK formula: new A-constant = original A-constant + C, where C = 0,146*AL2 - 7,702*AL + 100,130...
  55. Hutcheson K, Ellish N, Lambert S. Weaning children with accommodative esotropia out of spectacles: a pilot study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:4-7 pubmed
    ..Many children with accommodative esotropia must continue spectacle use throughout life. This study was undertaken to determine which factors are predictive of successfully weaning children with accommodative esotropia out of spectacles...
  56. Carones F, Vigo L, Scandola E. Laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia and hyperopic and mixed astigmatism with LADARVision using 7 to 10-mm ablation diameters. J Refract Surg. 2003;19:548-54 pubmed
    To evaluate the results of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) performed to correct hyperopia, and hyperopic and mixed astigmatism using wider ablation diameters (optical zone diameter and overall ablation diameter) than those commonly ..
  57. Ingram R, Gill L, Lambert T. Emmetropisation in normal and strabismic children and the associated changes of anisometropia. Strabismus. 2003;11:71-84 pubmed
    ..36). This does not obviously support the concept that increasing hypermetropia causes accommodation to increase before convergence...
  58. Atkinson J, Anker S, Bobier W, Braddick O, Durden K, Nardini M, et al. Normal emmetropization in infants with spectacle correction for hyperopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:3726-31 pubmed
  59. Feldkaemper M, Schaeffel F. Evidence for a potential role of glucagon during eye growth regulation in chicks. Vis Neurosci. 2002;19:755-66 pubmed
    ..The glucagon antagonist inhibited hyperopia development, albeit only in a narrow concentration range, and at most by 50%, but not myopia development...
  60. Wildsoet C. Neural pathways subserving negative lens-induced emmetropization in chicks--insights from selective lesions of the optic nerve and ciliary nerve. Curr Eye Res. 2003;27:371-85 pubmed
    ..Data from previous related studies are equivocal...
  61. Rehany U, Landa E. Diode laser thermal keratoplasty to correct hyperopia. J Refract Surg. 2004;20:53-61 pubmed
    We investigated long-term efficacy, predictability, stability, and safety of diode laser thermal keratoplasty (DTK) to correct hyperopia.
  62. Fledelius H, Fuchs H, Rosenberg T. Oculometric characteristics of extreme hypermetropia in two faroese families. Optom Vis Sci. 2004;81:762-8 pubmed
    ..To describe and analyze the oculometric features of small eyes with high hypermetropia in two Faroese families, with emphasis on refractive components...
  63. Jaycock P, O Brart D, Rajan M, Marshall J. 5-year follow-up of LASIK for hyperopia. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:191-9 pubmed
    To assess the long-term efficacy and stability of LASIK for hyperopia (+0.75 to +7.00 diopters [D]).
  64. Declau F, van den Ende J, Baten E, Mattelaer P. Stapes ankylosis in a family with a novel NOG mutation: otologic features of the facioaudiosymphalangism syndrome. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26:934-40 pubmed
    ..To report the phenotype-genotype correlation in a Belgian family that was ascertained to have a novel missense mutation in the NOG gene mapping to chromosome 17q22...
  65. Pinelli R, Ortiz D, Simonetto A, Bacchi C, Sala E, Alio J. Correction of presbyopia in hyperopia with a center-distance, paracentral-near technique using the Technolas 217z platform. J Refract Surg. 2008;24:494-500 pubmed
    ..To analyze the results of hyperopic patients treated with a peripheral presbyLASIK algorithm for the correction of presbyopia...
  66. McDonald M, Hersh P, Manche E, Maloney R, Davidorf J, Sabry M. Conductive keratoplasty for the correction of low to moderate hyperopia: U.S. clinical trial 1-year results on 355 eyes. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:1978-89; discussion 1989-90 pubmed
    To document the 1-year safety, efficacy, and stability results of 355 eyes treated in the multicenter study of conductive keratoplasty (CK) used to correct low to moderate hyperopia.
  67. Salz J, Stevens C. LASIK correction of spherical hyperopia, hyperopic astigmatism, and mixed astigmatism with the LADARVision excimer laser system. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:1647-56; discussion 1657-8 pubmed
    ..of the LADARVision active tracking narrow beam excimer laser system (Alcon Surgical, Orlando, FL) using laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for correction of spherical hyperopia, hyperopic astigmatism, and mixed astigmatism.
  68. Ditzen K, Fiedler J, Pieger S. Laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism using the Meditec MEL 70 spot scanner. J Refract Surg. 2002;18:430-4 pubmed
    To evaluate safety, predictability, efficacy, and stability of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for spherical hyperopia and hyperopia with astigmatism.
  69. Metlapally R, Li Y, Tran Viet K, Bulusu A, White T, Ellis J, et al. Common MFRP sequence variants are not associated with moderate to high hyperopia, isolated microphthalmia, and high myopia. Mol Vis. 2008;14:387-93 pubmed