aniseikonia

Summary

Summary: A condition in which the ocular image of an object as seen by one eye differs in size and shape from that seen by the other.

Top Publications

  1. Corliss D, Rutstein R, Than T, Hopkins K, Edwards C. Aniseikonia testing in an adult population using a new computerized test, "the Aniseikonia Inspector". Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2005;20:205-15; discussion 216 pubmed
    To determine the measurement characteristics of a new computerized test, the Aniseikonia Inspector Version 1, on a sample of clinic patients.
  2. Antona B, Barra F, Barrio A, Gonzalez E, Sanchez I. The validity and repeatability of the New Aniseikonia Test. Optom Vis Sci. 2006;83:903-9 pubmed
    b>Aniseikonia has been traditionally measured using the New Aniseikonia Test (NAT) based on red/green anaglyphs. This study was designed to establish whether the NAT is a valid and reliable test.
  3. Katsumi O, Miyajima H, Ogawa T, Hirose T. Aniseikonia and stereoacuity in pseudophakic patients. Unilateral and bilateral cases. Ophthalmology. 1992;99:1270-7 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of intraocular lens (IOL) implant procedures, analyzing visual function of the operated eyes and the resulting binocular vision...
  4. Lubkin V, Kramer P, Meininger D, Shippman S, Bennett G, Visintainer P. Aniseikonia in relation to strabismus, anisometropia and amblyopia. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 1999;14:203-7 pubmed
    ..To study the interrelationships among these four entities which are critical to binocular vision and its precision...
  5. Ugarte M, Williamson T. Aniseikonia associated with epiretinal membranes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89:1576-80 pubmed
    To determine whether the computerised version of the new aniseikonia test (NAT) is a valid, reliable method to measure aniseikonia and establish whether aniseikonia occurs in patients with epiretinal membranes (ERM) with preserved good ..
  6. Winn B, Ackerley R, Brown C, Murray F, Prais J, St John M. Reduced aniseikonia in axial anisometropia with contact lens correction. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1988;8:341-4 pubmed
    b>Aniseikonia, although present in isometropia, is associated principally with anisometropia and is widely thought to be the result of differences in the retinal image size presented to each eye...
  7. Langenbucher A, Szentmary N. [Anisometropia and aniseikonia--unsolved problems of cataract surgery]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2008;225:763-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Aniseikonia is one of the relevant unsolved problems of modern cataract surgery and may cause severe functional problems such as deteriorated binocular vision, diplopia or headaches...
  8. Bastian G, Hiss P. [IOL and aniseikonia calculation combined with documentation of surgical data and IOL inventory]. Ophthalmologe. 1992;89:352-8 pubmed
    ..Selection of the suitable IOL model is facilitated by the link between the calculation of IOL power and the IOL stock list. In special cases the IOL power can be changed to obtain less aniseiconia. ..
  9. Schrooyen M. [The correction of pseudophakia]. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol. 1997;264:127-32 pubmed
    Correction of the pseudophakic patient must consider the possibility of anisometropia with aniseikonia as a consequence. Particular attention has to be brought with young unilateral pseudophakic patient without presbyopia.

More Information

Publications86

  1. Remole A. Effect of induced aniseikonia on fixation performance. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1988;65:49-55 pubmed
    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent induced aniseikonia affects fixation performance. Aniseikonia was induced in the vertical meridian only, whereas fixation alignment was monitored in the horizontal meridian...
  2. Thill Schwaninger M, Pittke E, Heist D. [Correction of unilateral aphakia in children, adolescents, and adults at an age when accommodation is still possible]. Ophthalmologica. 1988;197:7-13 pubmed
    ..While taking stereopsis and aniseikonia into consideration, each patient was corrected with the combination of contact lens and spectacles to achieve ..
  3. Fujikado T, Ohji M, Saito Y, Hayashi A, Tano Y. Visual function after foveal translocation with scleral shortening in patients with myopic neovascular maculopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;125:647-56 pubmed
    ..Diplopia and aniseikonia occurred but resolved over time as suppression developed...
  4. De Wit G, Muraki C. Field-dependent aniseikonia associated with an epiretinal membrane a case study. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:58-62 pubmed
    b>Aniseikonia is a binocular anomaly in which the two eyes perceive images of different sizes and/or shapes. It is usually assumed to be constant as a function of visual field angle (VFA) (i.e., angular distance from the line of sight)...
  5. Olsen T. Pre- and postoperative refraction after cataract extraction with implantation of standard power IOL. Br J Ophthalmol. 1988;72:231-5 pubmed
    ..8 D, SD 3.3. As a measure of the aniseikonia induced at surgery, the ocular magnification was calculated to increase 2.7%, SD 4...
  6. Krause K, Gerding H, Timmermann M, Kauffmann T. [Aniseikonia reduces binocular summation in the VECP]. Ophthalmologe. 1995;92:132-6 pubmed
    ..b>Aniseikonia of 7 to 52% was generated by means of small Galilei telescopes...
  7. Achiron L, Witkin N, Ervin A, Broocker G. The effect of relative spectacle magnification on aniseikonia. J Am Optom Assoc. 1998;69:591-9 pubmed
    ..is to study the effects of modifying relative spectacle magnification to determine what effect this has on aniseikonia, binocularity, and visual comfort. A prospective analysis of 34 aniseikonic patients was undertaken...
  8. Esser J. [A new simple test for quantitative determination of near aniseikonia]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1991;198:228-30 pubmed
    A quantitative test for the measurement of near distance aniseikonia is presented which is easy to handle...
  9. Van Der Steen J, Bruno P. Unequal amplitude saccades produced by aniseikonic patterns: effects of viewing distance. Vision Res. 1995;35:3459-71 pubmed
    ..The time-course of disconjugate vertical saccades was much slower, with mostly postsaccadic vergence. Nearby viewing enhanced the disconjugacy of vertical saccades. ..
  10. Lakshminarayanan V, Enoch J, Knowles R. Residual aniseikonia among patients fitted with one or two intraocular lenses (pseudophakic corrections). Optom Vis Sci. 1993;70:107-10 pubmed
    ..occurring or developmental anisometropia (due to a tumescent cataract) some induced or residual refractive aniseikonia is usually encountered. We wish to call this problem to the attention of the optometric practitioner...
  11. Evans B. Orthoptic indications for contact lens wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2006;29:175-81; quiz 211 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that there are orthoptic anomalies where contact lenses are the preferred mode of correction. It is in patients' best interest for practitioners to discuss contact lenses in these cases. ..
  12. Kramer P, Lubkin V, Pavlica M, Covin R. Symptomatic aniseikonia in unilateral and bilateral pseudophakia. A projection space eikonometer study. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 1999;14:183-90 pubmed
    To determine the incidence of aniseikonia and aniseikonic symptoms in pseudophakia (intraocular lens implantation after cataract extraction)...
  13. Hengerer F. [Intraocular lens explantation and secondary implantation of a light-adjustable lens. Video article]. Ophthalmologe. 2016;113:344-8 pubmed publisher
    ..to exchange previously implanted intraocular lenses (IOL) because of deviation from the target refraction with aniseikonia and anisometropia, in cases of contact lens intolerance, dissatisfaction with the IOL due to side effects and ..
  14. Bourdy C, James Y. [Electronic eikonometer: Measurement tests displayed on stereoscopic screen]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2016;39:449-58 pubmed publisher
    ..to each eye, according to active or passive stereoscopic screen technology: (1) Ogle Spatial Test to measure aniseikonia; (2) Fixation Disparity test: binocular nonius; (3) retinal correspondence test evaluated by nonius horopter; (..
  15. Lachenmayr B. [Pitfalls in the determination of distance glasses]. Ophthalmologe. 2011;108:318-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Special considerations have to be taken into account in cases of high unilateral congenital or acquired astigmatism as well as in case of congenital or acquired anisometropia or aniseiconia. ..
  16. Sharma P, Prakash P. Effect of aniseikonia on fusion. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1991;39:170-3 pubmed
    Physiological aniseikonia is the basis of stereopsis but beyond certain limits it becomes an obstacle to fusion. It is not well established as to how much aniseikonia can be tolerated by the fusional mechanism...
  17. MacKenzie G. Compensation of aniseikonia in astigmatic pseudophakic eyes. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2005;25:576-81 pubmed
    A recently published manuscript addressed the problem of compensating for aniseikonia between pseudophakic astigmatic eyes using a least-squares calculation scheme...
  18. Okamoto F, Sugiura Y, Moriya Y, Murakami T, Okamoto Y, Hiraoka T, et al. Aniseikonia and Foveal Microstructure in Patients with Idiopathic Macular Hole. Ophthalmology. 2016;123:1926-32 pubmed publisher
    To quantify the severity of aniseikonia in patients undergoing vitrectomy for idiopathic macular hole (MH) and to examine any relationship between aniseikonia and the foveal microstructure...
  19. Eckardt U, Thielert U, de Decker W. [Effect of traumatic iris defects on spatial perception]. Ophthalmologe. 1995;92:71-5 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that severe iris defects are especially likely to impair stereoscopic vision, more so than traumatic loss of lens alone without an accompanying iris defect. ..
  20. Hirai T, Sato M, Piao C, Miyake S, Terasaki H, Ohyagi W, et al. Dynamic aniseikonia measurement: prismatic effect appears on the hess chart. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2004;19:234-45 pubmed
    To determine if aniseikonia appears on the Hess [Screen] Chart and if it can be measured thereby; and to compare such measurement to the standard Awaya New Aniseikonia Test in both artificial and pathologic aniseikonia...
  21. Spiritus M. [How to correct anisometropia?]. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol. 1997;264:57-61 pubmed
    Anisometropia may be responsible for aniseikonia. and anisophoria. In children, aniseikonia may create amblyopia. It is of utmost importance to distinguish axial from refractive anisometropia...
  22. Fullard R, Rutstein R, Corliss D. The evaluation of two new computer-based tests for measurement of Aniseikonia. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:1093-100 pubmed
    To evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of size lens induced aniseikonia measurement with the Aniseikonia Inspector Version 1 and a newer customized version of the Aniseikonia Inspector, Version 2.
  23. Remole A. New developments in the application of the multimeridional apparent frontoparallel plane. Optom Vis Sci. 1992;69:193-207 pubmed
    ..publication that introduced the multimeridional apparent frontoparallel plane (MAFPP) as a method of measuring aniseikonia. As the term implies, apparent frontoparallel plane (AFPP) responses are obtained not only in the horizontal ..
  24. Migneco M. Contact lens management of aniseikonia and photophobia induced by trauma. Eye Contact Lens. 2005;31:252-3 pubmed
    To describe a case of a contact lens fitting to relieve aniseikonia and photophobia resulting from trauma.
  25. de Wit G. Retinally-induced aniseikonia. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2007;22:96-101 pubmed
    To show that retinally-induced aniseikonia may vary as a function of visual field angle (i.e., field-dependent aniseikonia), how this could be explained, and what implications this has for managing the aniseikonia.
  26. de Wit G. The evaluation of two new computer-based tests for measurement of aniseikonia: discussion. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2008;23:76-8 pubmed
    ..To discuss the clinical relevance of the article with the same name by authors R.J. Fullard, R.P. Rutstein and D.A. Corliss...
  27. Kapoula Z, Eggert T, Bucci M. Immediate saccade amplitude disconjugacy induced by unequal images. Vision Res. 1995;35:3505-18 pubmed
    ..For horizontal saccades a secondary conditioning of monocular depth cues by the disparity would also be involved...
  28. Simons H, Grisham J. Binocular anomalies and reading problems. J Am Optom Assoc. 1987;58:578-87 pubmed
    ..The evidence is positive for exophoria at near, fusional vergence reserves, aniseikonia, anisometropia, convergence insufficiency, and fixation disparity...
  29. Rutstein R. Retinally induced aniseikonia: a case series. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:e50-5 pubmed
    To report the clinical findings for patients with binocular vision difficulties attributed to retinally induced aniseikonia.
  30. Bourdy C. [Features of the electronic eikonometer for the study of binocular function]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2013;36:418-30 pubmed publisher
    ..a list of available tests in the test library and their parametric characteristics: Ogle Spatial Test for Aniseikonia, Fixation Disparity Test: binocular nonius, and Linear and Random stereoscopic tests...
  31. Remole A, Robertson K, Johnson B. The multimeridional apparent frontoparallel plane: introduction of the induced effect. Optom Vis Sci. 1993;70:792-803 pubmed
    ..It permits the determination of aniseikonia in oblique as well as horizontal meridians...
  32. Schwaninger Thill M, Guzi Z. [Effect of visual acuity and changes in refraction following retinal surgery on binocular function]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1989;195:68-71 pubmed
    ..Visual acuity, refraction, steropsis, fusion and aniseikonia were determined. Visual acuity in the eyes operated on was between 0.1 and 1...
  33. Lubkin V, Shippman S, Bennett G, Meininger D, Kramer P, Poppinga P. Aniseikonia quantification: error rate of rule of thumb estimation. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 1999;14:191-6 pubmed
    To find the error rate in quantifying aniseikonia by using "Rule of Thumb" estimation in comparison with proven space eikonometry.
  34. Bharadwaj S, Candy T. The effect of lens-induced anisometropia on accommodation and vergence during human visual development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:3595-603 pubmed publisher
    ..This study determined the impact of transiently induced anisometropia on accommodative and vergence performance of the typically developing human visual system...
  35. Yoshida M, Sato M, Awaya S. [Evaluation of the clinical usefulness of the New Aniseikonia Tests]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 1997;101:718-22 pubmed
    We performed the following experiments to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the New Aniseikonia Tests (NAT).
  36. Romano P, von Noorden G. Knapp's law and unilateral axial high myopia. 1970. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 1999;14:215-22 pubmed
    ..The advent of ocular ultrasonic echography and axial biometry permits us to now test this Law...
  37. Remole A. Anisophoria and aniseikonia. Part I. The relation between optical anisophoria and aniseikonia. Optom Vis Sci. 1989;66:659-70 pubmed
    Part I of this publication demonstrates and explains the close relation between aniseikonia and anisophoria induced by spectacles...
  38. Remole A. Anisophoria and aniseikonia. Part II. The management of optical anisophoria. Optom Vis Sci. 1989;66:736-46 pubmed
    Part I of this publication dealt with the simultaneous occurrence of aniseikonia and optical anisophoria when anisometropic spectacles are worn. Part II deals with the correction and management of spectacle-induced anisophoria...
  39. Pittke E. [Random dot stereograms and the limits of their detectability]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1988;192:329-36 pubmed
    The influence of contrast reduction combined with aniseikonia on disparities in the TNO test was investigated with monocular induced refractive errors by spherical convex and concave lenses...
  40. Lu C, Smith G. Optical performance of the super-reversed intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1992;18:293-300 pubmed
    We compared the aniseikonia, Seidel aberrations, spot diagrams, and peripheral refractive power errors of a schematic eye with a super-reversed intraocular lens (IOL) and with conventional IOLs...
  41. Remole A. Effect of induced dynamic aniseikonia on fixation performance during oblique gaze. Optom Vis Sci. 1990;67:13-8 pubmed
    This is a sequel to other papers dealing with the effect of induced aniseikonia and optical anisophoria on fixation eccentricity during bifixation...
  42. Shipley T, Shore H. Neurological implications of aniseikonic tilts and stereoscopic completions through homogeneous visual space. Int J Neurosci. 1990;54:209-20 pubmed
    ..That aniseikonic tilts may also be generated over this same range confirms the fact that global neurointegrative processes are of critical importance in all facets of stereovision, and in texture vision in general...
  43. Ale J, Manns F, Ho A. Magnifications of single and dual element accommodative intraocular lenses: paraxial optics analysis. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2011;31:7-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential clinical implications of the results arising from pseudophakic accommodation were also considered...
  44. Weise K, Marsh Tootle W, Corliss D. Evaluation of computer-based testing for aniseikonia in children. Optom Vis Sci. 2010;87:883-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the ability of children to perform computer-based matching and to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of size lens induced aniseikonia measurement using the Aniseikonia Inspector version 1.
  45. Oguchi Y, Mashima Y. The influence of aniseikonia on the VEP by random-dot stereogram. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1989;67:127-30 pubmed
    ..In subjects with normal binocular function, different levels of artificial aniseikonia (from 2% to 15%) were established by placing several levels of size lenses in front of one eye...
  46. Langenbucher A, Reese S, Huber S, Seitz B. Compensation of aniseikonia with toric intraocular lenses and spherocylindrical spectacles. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2005;25:35-44 pubmed
    Magnification disparity between the two eyes (aniseikonia) is one of the major unresolved problems in modern cataract surgery, potentially degrading binocular visual function or causing diplopia...
  47. Bourdy C, Cottin F, James Y. [Binocular functional exploration: fundamental aspects and analysis by the Fusio-Test]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 1988;11:441-51 pubmed
    ..available in the test library made it possible to study in particular depth perception or stereoacuity, aniseikonia and fixation disparity, using the most suitable preprogrammed psychophysical procedure such as the limit method,..
  48. Momose A, Shen A. Eleven-year experience with radial keratotomy. Yan Ke Xue Bao. 1994;10:6-12 pubmed
    ..45D to -3. 85D. Anisometropia after surgery became clinically and physically acceptable and aniseikonia was significantly improved. No vision threatening complications occurred...
  49. Katsumi O, Miyanaga Y, Hirose T, Okuno H, Asaoka I. Binocular function in unilateral aphakia. Correlation with aniseikonia and stereoacuity. Ophthalmology. 1988;95:1088-93 pubmed
    b>Aniseikonia and stereoacuity were measured in patients with unilateral aphakia, most of whom were postoperative senile cataract cases...
  50. Remole A. Effect of induced static aniseikonia on fixation performance during oblique gaze. Optom Vis Sci. 1990;67:237-42 pubmed
    In a previous study, it was found that oblique gaze and the prismatic effect inherent in dynamic aniseikonia combine to affect the ability to fixate centrally...
  51. Snead M, Lea S, Rubinstein M, Reynolds K, Haworth S. Aniseikonia: a method of objective assessment in pseudophakia using geometric optics. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1991;11:109-12 pubmed
    There have been various reports in the literature regarding the limits that separate acceptable from disturbing aniseikonia. A criterion value of 5% is often quoted but actual values in pseudophakia may vary from 2% to 10%, depending on ..
  52. Haring G, Gronemeyer A, Hedderich J, de Decker W. Stereoacuity and aniseikonia after unilateral and bilateral implantation of the Array refractive multifocal intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1999;25:1151-6 pubmed
    To evaluate stereoacuity and aniseikonia in eyes with unilateral and bilateral implantation of the Allergan Array refractive multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL).
  53. Currie D. Partial correction of irregular aniseikonia secondary to retinal traction. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:1081-6 pubmed publisher
    This case report presents the management of symptomatic retinally induced aniseikonia and a short review of the literature pertaining to two clinical tests used in the measurement and management of aniseikonia...
  54. Enoch J, Schwartz A, Chang D, Hirose H. Aniseikonia, metamorphopsia and perceived entoptic pattern: some effects of a macular epiretinal membrane, and the subsequent spontaneous separation of the membrane. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1995;15:339-43 pubmed
    ..The epiretinal membrane had spontaneously separated from the fovea. Repeated measurements of aniseikonia were obtained before cataract surgery, and after cataract surgery both prior to, and after the separation of ..
  55. Kehler L, Fraine L, Lu P. Evaluation of the aniseikonia inspector version 3 in school-aged children. Optom Vis Sci. 2014;91:528-32 pubmed publisher
    ..in retinal image size in the presence of anisometropia and therefore do not display clinically significant aniseikonia. However, given that early methods of eikonometry were not child-friendly, the prevalence of this condition in ..
  56. Bucci M, Gomes M, Paris S, Kapoula Z. Disconjugate oculomotor learning caused by feeble image-size inequality: differences between secondary and tertiary positions. Vision Res. 2001;41:625-37 pubmed
    ..The small disparity created by the image-size inequality is thus compensated by the oculomotor system rather than tolerated by the sensory system (e.g. by enlarging the Panum's area)...
  57. Steinhorst U, Haase W, Alten C. [Post-concussion decrease in aniseikonia tolerance]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1990;197:436-7 pubmed
    ..Part function of sensory fusion is tolerance to sphaerical and meridional aniseikonia. We will present a patient, whose aniseikonia tolerance decreased after a brain concussion.
  58. Pia Bucci M, Kapoula Z, Eggert T. Saccade amplitude disconjugacy induced by aniseikonia: role of monocular depth cues. Vision Res. 1999;39:3109-22 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the monocular depth cues modulate the disconjugacy of saccades stimulated by the disparity of aniseikonic images...
  59. Hisada H, Awaya S. [Aniseikonia of central serous chorioretinopathy]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 1992;96:369-74 pubmed
    ..However very little is known about micropsia of CRS, because of the difficulty to measure "aniseikonia" in terms of micropsia...
  60. Kramer P, Shippman S, Bennett G, Meininger D, Lubkin V. A study of aniseikonia and Knapp's law using a projection space eikonometer. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 1999;14:197-201 pubmed
    ..To test these findings using space eikonometry and to further elucidate this Law's clinical applicability, the following study was conducted...
  61. Achiron L, Witkin N, Primo S, Broocker G. Contemporary management of aniseikonia. Surv Ophthalmol. 1997;41:321-30 pubmed
    The diagnosis and management of aniseikonia has become a lost art. Refractive surgery and intraocular lens implantation has created a new patient population of anisometropia...
  62. Katsumi O, Hirose T, Tanino T, Uemura Y. Pattern reversal VER as a tool for evaluating unbalanced visual inputs between the two eyes. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1988;32:86-97 pubmed
    ..lens, the binocular VER displayed larger amplitudes than those of the monocular VER (binocular summation) in aniseikonia equal to or less than 3.0%. At 5...
  63. Krumeich J, Daniel J, Gast R. Closed-system technique for implantation of iris-supported negative-power intraocular lens. J Refract Surg. 1996;12:334-40 pubmed
    The iris-supported claw lens can reversibly correct a wide range of ametropia and aniseikonia with excellent predictability and stability...
  64. Duling K, Wick B. Binocular vision complications after radial keratotomy. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1988;65:215-23 pubmed
    ..The treatment considerations and final solutions for each are discussed. In the presence of RK-induced anisometropia, aniseikonia can be a particularly debilitating binocular vision problem for some patients.
  65. Westheimer G. First description of aniseikonia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:6 pubmed
  66. Wang K, Lu W, Zhang F. [Determination of visual function after implantation of intraocular lens]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 1996;32:288-90 pubmed
    ..To understand whether the binocular visual function could be restored after posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation...
  67. Remole A. Aniseikonia and fixation performance: effect of retinal stimulus location. Optom Vis Sci. 1989;66:160-6 pubmed
    It has been shown previously that induced aniseikonia amplifies any latent fixation eccentricity associated with binocular fusion stress. This study determines if the retinal location of the stimulus plays a part in this effect...
  68. Kapoula Z, Bucci M, Lavigne Tomps F, Zamfirescu F. Disconjugate memory-guided saccades to disparate targets: evidence for 3D sensitivity. Exp Brain Res. 1998;122:413-23 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the saccadic system has access to a 3D representation of targets and is gifted with 3D short-term memory and learning capacity...
  69. Remole A. Determining exact prismatic deviations in spectacle corrections. Optom Vis Sci. 1999;76:783-95 pubmed
    ..The article demonstrates how exact prismatic effects can be determined from the spectacle-generated images and the angles they subtend at the ocular rotation centers...
  70. De Wit G. Comparison of aniseikonia as measured by the aniseikonia inspector and the space eikonometer. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:535-6; author reply 536-7 pubmed
  71. Boissonnot M, Risse J, Ingrand P. [Aniseikonia. A clinical study of 51 unilateral pseudophakic patients and practical applications]. Ophtalmologie. 1990;4:213-4 pubmed
    ..So error of intra-ocular lens power calculation less than 7.5 diopters may be accepted...
  72. Jiménez J, Ponce A, Anera R. Induced aniseikonia diminishes binocular contrast sensitivity and binocular summation. Optom Vis Sci. 2004;81:559-62 pubmed
    To study the effect on binocular contrast sensitivity and binocular summation of aniseikonia induced by size (afocal) lenses.
  73. Romano P. There are better ways today to measure and manage aniseikonia than only a gross-gross estimation based on the refraction. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2003;18:72 pubmed
  74. Pittke E. [Fusion amplitude and aniseikonia. Experimental studies of aniseikonia tolerance in unilateral aphakia]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1987;191:462-72 pubmed
    The fusion amplitude of image pairs with aniseikonia was measured using the synoptophore. Aniseikonia was produced in five subjects by alteration of slide drawings...
  75. Awaya S, Romano P. Aniseikonia tests: valid = "true" but "true" is not equal to p < or =.05 or p anything. The NAT is useful. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2003;18:69-71 pubmed
  76. Hou C, Zeng L, Yan M, Fang Q, Shou T. [The detection of disparity evoked potentials in anisometropes]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2000;36:278-81 pubmed
    ..To investigate the affection of anisometropia on stereopsis and its mechanism...
  77. Drews R. The determination of lens implant power. Ophthalmic Surg. 1989;20:625-37 pubmed
    ..Suggestions are made for wise use...