retrobulbar hemorrhage

Summary

Summary: Hemorrhage within the orbital cavity, posterior to the eyeball.

Top Publications

  1. Gilhotra J, McNab A, McKelvie P, O Donnell B. Late orbital haemorrhage around alloplastic orbital floor implants: a case series and review. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002;30:352-5 pubmed
    ..Alloplastic implants have been used to repair orbital wall fractures and correct anophthalmic enophthalmos (or volume deficiency in an anophthalmic socket). Orbital haemorrhage is a rare complication of these implants...
  2. Yip C, McCulley T, Kersten R, Kulwin D. Proptosis after hair pulling. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;19:154-5 pubmed
    ..Hair pulling can result in a subgaleal bleed with extension to the orbital subperiosteal space. When managing patients with a subgaleal hematoma, this vision-threatening complication should be considered and treated accordingly...
  3. Fong K, Kinnear P. Retrobulbar haemorrhage associated with chronic Gingko biloba ingestion. Postgrad Med J. 2003;79:531-2 pubmed
    ..A case is reported of a woman who developed this complication and was subsequently found to have been taking Gingko biloba extract tablets which may have predisposed her to developing the haemorrhage. ..
  4. Gerbino G, Ramieri G, Nasi A. Diagnosis and treatment of retrobulbar haematomas following blunt orbital trauma: a description of eight cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;34:127-31 pubmed
    ..This paper presents eight cases of retrobulbar haematoma and their follow-up, in detail. ..
  5. Shek K, Chung K, Kam C, Yau H. Acute retrobulbar haemorrhage: an ophthalmic emergency. Emerg Med Australas. 2006;18:299-301 pubmed
    ..We presented a case of acute retrobulbar haemorrhage with profound reduction of vision. Emergency surgical decompression was performed to preserve the vision. Clinical features and management are discussed...
  6. Ares C, Superstein R. Retrobulbar hemorrhage following strabismus surgery. J AAPOS. 2006;10:594-5 pubmed
    b>Retrobulbar hemorrhage, although a well-known complication of retrobulbar injection, periocular injections, and periocular surgeries, is not routinely associated with strabismus surgery...
  7. Rahman I, Ataullah S. Retrobulbar hemorrhage after sub-Tenon's anesthesia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30:2636-7 pubmed
    We present a case of retrobulbar hemorrhage from uneventful, infranasal, sub-Tenon's anesthesia before cataract surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a complication.
  8. Subbiah S, McGimpsey S, Best R. Retrobulbar hemorrhage after sub-Tenon's anesthesia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1651-2 pubmed
    We present a case of retrobulbar hemorrhage complicating sub-Tenon's anesthesia in a patient receiving oral anticoagulants. To our knowledge, this has been described only once in the literature.
  9. Kue R, Renzi F. Retrobulbar hemorrhage resulting from syncopal seizures after a dental procedure. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25:228-30 pubmed

More Information

Publications97

  1. Shaikh S, Braun M, Eliason J. Spontaneous retrobulbar hemorrhage in type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;133:422-4 pubmed
    To describe a case of spontaneous retrobulbar hemorrhage in type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, a disorder characterized by vascular fragility and associated severe bleeding problems.
  2. Vassallo S, Hartstein M, Howard D, Stetz J. Traumatic retrobulbar hemorrhage: emergent decompression by lateral canthotomy and cantholysis. J Emerg Med. 2002;22:251-6 pubmed
    Traumatic retrobulbar hemorrhage may result in acute loss of vision that is reversible when recognized and treated promptly. A case of traumatic retrobulbar hemorrhage is presented...
  3. Ezzadin E, Liu D, Al Rashed W, Jacquemin C. Bilateral orbital hemorrhage in a newborn. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;129:531-3 pubmed
    ..Magnetic resonance imaging scans are helpful in making the diagnosis of subperiosteal hemorrhage, and conservative management is advised. ..
  4. Perry M, Dancey A, Mireskandari K, Oakley P, Davies S, Cameron M. Emergency care in facial trauma--a maxillofacial and ophthalmic perspective. Injury. 2005;36:875-96 pubmed
    ..This review outlines a working approach to the identification and management of life- and sight-threatening conditions following significant facial trauma. ..
  5. Miyazaki T, Yamasaki T, Moritake K, Matsumoto Y, Akiyama Y, Nagai H, et al. Unusual progression of pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2005;45:407-10 pubmed
    ..The present case suggests that pleomorphic adenoma should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. The therapeutic strategy for lacrimal gland tumors remains controversial, so a flexible management approach is required. ..
  6. Bater M, Ramchandani P, Brennan P. Re: Bater MC, Ramchandani PL, Brennan PA. Post-traumatic eye observations. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2005;43:410-6. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;45:255 pubmed
  7. Teng C, Reddy S, Wong J, Lisman R. Retrobulbar hemorrhage nine days after cosmetic blepharoplasty resulting in permanent visual loss. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;22:388-9 pubmed
    A healthy 45-year-old man had a retrobulbar hemorrhage 9 days after cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty that resulted in permanent visual loss...
  8. Lee K, Tow S, Fong K. Visual recovery following emergent orbital decompression in traumatic retrobulbar haemorrhage. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2006;35:831-2 pubmed
    ..After a month of follow-up, the patient underwent right cataract surgery, and her best corrected visual acuity was 6/12 part. In severe acute retrobulbar haemorrhage, prompt surgical evacuation of the haematoma can reverse visual loss. ..
  9. McClenaghan F, Ezra D, Holmes S. Mechanisms and management of vision loss following orbital and facial trauma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2011;22:426-31 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no consensus as to whether enucleation or evisceration is the best treatment for irretrievable devastating globe injury. The choice of management is currently determined by surgeon preference. ..
  10. Mongardon N, Zraier S, Haouache H, Kamoun W, Slavov V, Dababi M, et al. Postoperative visual loss due to complicated mediastinal dissection and haemorrhagic shock treatment during cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2014;112:832-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute elevation of superior vena cava pressure due to vascular clamping and administration of large amounts of fluid through the central venous jugular catheter could have caused the postoperative visual loss. ..
  11. Choi Y, Lee S, Kim H, Yim J. Bilateral retrobulbar hemorrhage and visual loss following traumatic asphyxia. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2010;24:380-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Retrobulbar hemorrhage and permanent visual loss are rare presentations following traumatic asphyxia...
  12. Ghosh Y, Van Vuuren A, Aggarwal S, Dubash D. Prevention of retrobulbar hemorrhage after sub-Tenon anesthesia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008;34:347 pubmed publisher
  13. Bui Quoc E, Bonnet D, Bajolle F. [Vitamin K antagonist overdose induced blindness in an infant: an argument for a therapeutic educational program]. Arch Pediatr. 2012;19:22-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report is a strong argument in favor of an educational program for children with VKA treatment. ..
  14. Carden S, Good W, Carden P, Good R. Garlic and the strabismus surgeon. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002;30:303-4 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that unregulated naturopathic prescribing is potentially dangerous; doctors need to ask specifically about naturopathic potions. ..
  15. Richardson K, Perry M, White S. Post-traumatic eye observations M.C. Bater, P.L. Ramchandani, P.A. Brennan, Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43 (2005) 410-416. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;45:173-4 pubmed
  16. Kolodziej A, Rajagopala N, Guglin M. Retrobulbar Hematoma After Heart Transplantation: Case Report and Literature Review. Transplant Proc. 2015;47:2788-90 pubmed publisher
    Spontaneous retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare phenomenon observed after surgery not directly involving the orbit...
  17. Pavlidis M, Stupp T, Büchner T, Gerding H. [Acute visual deterioration after "alternative therapy" in Russia]. Ophthalmologe. 2005;102:902-5 pubmed
  18. Rohrich R, Coberly D, Fagien S, Stuzin J. Current concepts in aesthetic upper blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;113:32e-42e pubmed
  19. Theoret J, Sanz G, Matero D, Guth T, Erickson C, Liao M, et al. The "guitar pick" sign: a novel sign of retrobulbar hemorrhage. CJEM. 2011;13:162-4 pubmed
    b>Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare complication of blunt ocular trauma. Without prompt intervention, permanent reduction in visual acuity can develop in as little as 90 minutes...
  20. Grove J, Meyer D. Aplastic anemia presenting as spontaneous orbital hemorrhage. Orbit. 2008;27:391-3 pubmed publisher
    ..CT scan revealed a unilateral proptosis with tension on the optic nerve and accompanying diffuse retrobulbar hemorrhage. Bone marrow studies confirmed aplastic anemia...
  21. Cunneen T, Morlet N. Retro-orbital hemorrhage after thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1448-9 pubmed
  22. Oh J, Khwarg S. Orbital subperiosteal hemorrhage in a patient with factor VIII and factor XII Deficiency. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2004;41:367-8 pubmed
    ..This article describes the case of a patient with factor VIII and factor XII deficiency who had a subgaleal hemorrhage with orbital extension and optic nerve compression following head trauma. ..
  23. White W, Mundis R. Delayed orbital hemorrhage after cataract surgery in a patient with an acquired factor VIII inhibitor. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132:785-6 pubmed
    ..Despite aggressive surgical and medical intervention, the patient lost all vision in the involved eye. Delayed postoperative retrobulbar hemorrhage may cause total loss of vision in patients with acquired factor VIII antibodies.
  24. Younger J, McHenry J. Visually disabling non-traumatic orbital hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient with factor VII deficiency. J Neuroophthalmol. 2006;26:76-7 pubmed
  25. Shneck M, Oshry T, Marcus M, Lifshitz T. Attempted bilateral manual enucleation (gouging) during a physical assault. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:575-7 pubmed
    ..Partial visual recovery can be achieved after severe orbital and optic nerve trauma. A multidisciplinary approach to the assessment and management of these patients is recommended. ..
  26. Brucoli M, Stecco A, Iaquinta C, Carriero A, Benech A. Diagnosis and treatment of orbit posttraumatic subperiosteal hemorrhage in a child, associated with a subdural intracranial hemorrhage. J Craniofac Surg. 2005;16:407-10 pubmed
    ..MRI was more sensitive and specific in the evaluation of the intracranial and intraorbital complication...
  27. Winterton J, Patel K, Mizen K. Review of management options for a retrobulbar hemorrhage. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:296-9 pubmed
    This is a review of the current literature describing the different reported methods of managing a retrobulbar hemorrhage. The pathophysiology of the condition, together with its differing clinical presentations are described in length...
  28. Medina F, Pierre Filho P, Freitas H, Rodrigues F, Caldato R. Blindness after cosmetic blepharoplasty: case report. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2005;68:697-9 pubmed
    ..The etiology of retrobulbar hemorrhage following blepharoplasty, treatment, and recommendations to reduce the chance of this rare but serious ..
  29. Kim Y, Kim Y. Orbital venous anomaly presenting with orbital hemorrhage. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2009;53:408-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with acute orbital process, orbital MRI for detecting hemorrhage and a follow-up CT scan after resolution of the hemorrhage are needed to prevent unnecessary surgical intervention. ..
  30. Banlunara W, Tsuboi M, Uchida K, Kongmekee P, Ngamsuk P, Nakayama H. Retrobulbar primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). J Med Primatol. 2012;41:43-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first reported case for the retrobulbar location of primitive neuroectodermal tumor in non-human primates. ..
  31. Grand M, Walia H. HEMORRHAGIC RISK OF VITREORETINAL SURGERY IN PATIENTS MAINTAINED ON NOVEL ORAL ANTICOAGULANT THERAPY. Retina. 2016;36:299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..No eyes suffered perioperative complications of retrobulbar hemorrhage, suprachoroidal hemorrhage, or subretinal hemorrhage. Four eyes (11...
  32. Loughran C, Raisis A, Haitjema G, Chester Z. Unilateral retrobulbar hematoma following maxillary nerve block in a dog. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2016;26:815-818 pubmed publisher
    ..This clinical report details the development and successful management of a unilateral retrobulbar hemorrhage following maxillary nerve block...
  33. Thuente D, Neely D. Spontaneous medial rectus hemorrhage in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. J AAPOS. 2002;6:257-8 pubmed
  34. Xu X, Wang C, Liu S, Xiang Q. [The complications and affect factors in the surgery of orbital tumor]. Yan Ke Xue Bao. 2004;20:226-8 pubmed
    ..12%). Most complications were oculomotor apraxia (31.48%), and then were ptosis (22.22%), retrobulbar hemorrhage (18.51%), visual deterioration (12.96%), mydriasis (12.96%), injury of dura mater encephali (1.85%)...
  35. Sood V, Rejali D, Stocker J, Pagliarini S, Ahluwalia H, Mehta P. A case report of orbital haemorrhage associated with endoscopic sinus surgery and reversible sight loss: a multidisciplinary approach to management. Orbit. 2013;32:73-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the mechanisms and pathophysiology of visual loss due to orbital haemorrhage following endoscopic sinus surgery are discussed. ..
  36. Konstantatos A. Anticoagulation and cataract surgery: a review of the current literature. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2001;29:11-8 pubmed
    ..Prognosis for visual acuity with retrobulbar haemorrhage is generally good, given an experienced surgeon is present to rapidly decompress the eye...
  37. Harrahill M. A case report of traumatic eye compartment syndrome. J Emerg Nurs. 2006;32:104-5 pubmed
  38. Cass S. Ocular injuries in sports. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2012;11:11-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Nearly 90% of all sports-related eye injuries can be prevented with adequate eye protection and will be discussed in some detail in the article...
  39. Sokol J, Baron E, Lantos G, Kazim M. Orbital compression syndrome in sickle cell disease. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;24:181-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To present 3 cases of orbital compression syndrome caused by infarction of the greater wing of the sphenoid in patients with sickle cell disease...
  40. Dal D, Salman E, Basgul E. Byler's disease and anesthetic consideration. Turk J Pediatr. 2003;45:74-7 pubmed
    ..This case report describes the anesthetic features of a patient with Byler's disease in which anesthetic agents with no or minimal hepatotoxic effect should be used to avoid deterioration of liver function...
  41. Popat H, Doyle P, Davies S. Blindness following retrobulbar haemorrhage--it can be prevented. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;45:163-4 pubmed
    ..Delay in diagnosis and treatment of an elderly woman with a malar fracture that caused retrobulbar haemorrhage resulted in complete loss of vision in the right eye...
  42. Shin H, Kim S, Cha H, Han B, Nam S. Real Time Navigation-Assisted Orbital Wall Reconstruction in Blowout Fractures. J Craniofac Surg. 2016;27:370-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To avoid perioperative complications from this limitation, the authors have evaluated the usefulness of computer-assisted navigation techniques in surgical treatment of blowout fracture...
  43. Brucoli M, Arcuri F, Giarda M, Benech R, Benech A. Surgical management of posttraumatic intraorbital hematoma. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:e58-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Other procedures including transantral ethmoidectomy, transantral sphenoidectomy, and transfrontal craniotomy are described...
  44. Craiu A, Asandi R. [Complications of ocular local anesthesia]. Oftalmologia. 2008;52:41-9 pubmed
    ..Although rare, complications have been described, ranging from innocuous hemorrhage to life-threatening systemic situations...
  45. Zaia B, Briese B, Williams S, Gharahbaghian L. Use of cadaver models in point-of-care emergency ultrasound education for diagnostic applications. J Emerg Med. 2012;43:683-91 pubmed publisher
    ..As the use of bedside emergency ultrasound (US) increases, so does the need for effective US education...
  46. Mason J, Gupta S, Compton C, Frederick P, Neimkin M, Hill M, et al. Comparison of hemorrhagic complications of warfarin and clopidogrel bisulfate in 25-gauge vitrectomy versus a control group. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:543-7 pubmed publisher
  47. Tan J, Chan E, Looi A. Bilateral orbital subperiosteal hemorrhage following labor. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27:e59-63 pubmed publisher
  48. Patel A, Alford M, Carter K. Persistent visual loss following retrobulbar hemorrhage. Can J Ophthalmol. 2002;37:34-6 pubmed
  49. Dean S, Ross J, Kemp E. Bilateral spontaneous idiopathic extraocular muscle haematoma. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007;35:369-71 pubmed
    ..As far as the authors are aware, this is the first bilateral case to be reported...
  50. Guirgis M, Segal W, Lueder G. Subperiosteal orbital hemorrhage as initial manifestation of Christmas disease (factor IX deficiency). Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;133:584-5 pubmed
    ..To report a case of subperiosteal orbital and subgaleal hemorrhage with optic nerve compromise in a patient with a factor IX deficiency...
  51. Ballard S, Enzenauer R, O Donnell T, Fleming J, Risk G, Waite A. Emergency lateral canthotomy and cantholysis: a simple procedure to preserve vision from sight threatening orbital hemorrhage. J Spec Oper Med. 2009;9:26-32 pubmed
    b>Retrobulbar hemorrhage is an uncommon, but potentially devastating complication associated with facial trauma...
  52. Pelit A, Haciyakupoglu G, Zorludemir S, Mete U, Daglioglu K, Kaya M. Preventative effect of deferoxamine on degenerative changes in the optic nerve in experimental retrobulbar haematoma. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;31:66-72 pubmed
    ..Changes in the optic nerve due to the breakdown of blood elements and the effect of deferoxamine on these changes were evaluated...
  53. Peden M, Bhatti M. Subperiosteal orbital hemorrhage complicating cardiac surgery. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2004;27:294-6 pubmed
    ..A computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated a right superior SPOH. The diplopia and proptosis resolved spontaneously within 4 weeks. Follow-up CT showed complete resolution of the SPOH...
  54. Yoshimoto M, Matsumoto S. Orbital varix rupture during cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30:722-5 pubmed
    ..Although intermittent exophthalmos is a symptom of orbital varix, silent orbital varix should be considered when selecting the method of anesthesia for ocular surgery...
  55. Yazici B, Gönen T. Posttraumatic subperiosteal hematomas of the orbit in children. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27:33-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The risk of compressive optic neuropathy may be higher in patients with bilateral hematoma and massive subgaleal hematoma. Most patients are treated with evacuation of the hematoma. ..
  56. Van Cann E, Koole R. Retrobulbar hematoma associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor: a case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;108:e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to raise awareness among surgeons performing orbital surgery of the risk of hemorrhage associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors...
  57. Oeken J, Bootz F. [Severe complications after endonasal nasal sinus surgery. An unresolved problem]. HNO. 2004;52:549-53 pubmed
    ..Despite modern techniques, major and even fatal complications may occur. We describe 3 cases of unilateral blindness due to retrobulbar hematoma and one case of an internal carotid artery injury with fatal outcome...
  58. Leong J, Ghabrial R, McCluskey P, Mulligan S. Orbital haemorrhage complication following postoperative thrombolysis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:655-6 pubmed
  59. Robert P, Camezind P, Adenis J. [Orbital fat decompression techniques]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004;27:845-50 pubmed
    ..The main complications are retrobulbar hemorrhage and postoperative diplopia...
  60. Goyal S, Goel R. Orbital haemorrhage with loss of vision in a patient with disseminated intravascular coagulation and prostatic carcinoma. Orbit. 2004;23:193-7 pubmed
    ..This case emphasises the importance of considering systemic factors in cases of non-traumatic haemorrhage, along with imaging studies to rule out any co-existing vascular anomaly...
  61. Schlenker J, Slavin S. Proptosis immediately following blepharoplasty due to an inferior rectus intramuscular hematoma. Ann Plast Surg. 2006;56:437-8 pubmed
  62. Hatton M, Thakker M, Ray S. Orbital and adnexal trauma associated with open-globe injuries. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;18:458-61 pubmed
    ..To describe the incidence and patterns of orbital and adnexal injuries in patients with open-globe injuries...
  63. Cruz A, Ando A, Monteiro C, Elias J. Delayed retrobulbar hematoma after blepharoplasty. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;17:126-30 pubmed
    ..To describe a case of late orbital hematoma after blepharoplasty and review the literature on this subject...
  64. Greenbaum S. Amaurosis and anesthesia technique. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005;31:256; author reply 256 pubmed
  65. Collar R, Lyford Pike S, Byrne P. Algorithmic approach to lower lid blepharoplasty. Facial Plast Surg. 2013;29:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally this review will describe less mainstream suture techniques for lower lid rejuvenation and lower lid blepharoplasty complications with a focus upon lower lid malposition...
  66. Mansurali N, Maclaren G, Sundar G. Bilateral orbital haematomas in an anticoagulated patient with severe H1N1 influenza. Orbit. 2011;30:98-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The spontaneous bilateral vision threatening subperiosteal hematoma was probably caused by a combination of enoxaparin therapy and prolonged ventilation...
  67. Kántor T, Grigorescu B, Popescu G, Ferencz A, Nagy Ö, Jung J, et al. [Traumatic asphyxia with permanent visual loss. Case report]. Orv Hetil. 2017;158:864-868 pubmed publisher
    ..It is therefore important to carry out an early, routine and complete ophtalmologic examination, especially in the intubated and poorly cooperative patients. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(22): 864-868...
  68. Reith W. [Traumatic lesions of the orbit]. Radiologe. 2008;48:1150-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Imaging techniques play an extremely important role in the treatment of various diagnostic question marks, such as direct sequelae of trauma, localization of fractures and soft tissue damage...
  69. Dojcinovic I, Richter M. Mucormycoses: serious complication of high-dose corticosteroid therapy for traumatic optic neuropathy. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37:391-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In this case, the patient was in good health, but received high-dose corticosteroids for 2 weeks, which temporarily diminished immune response and permitted the development of mucormycosis...
  70. Yazici B, Taner P. Delayed orbital subperiosteal hemorrhage after blunt trauma. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;23:315-6 pubmed
    ..Although rare, vision-threatening subperiosteal hemorrhages may develop days after blunt orbital trauma and may require surgical evacuation...
  71. Ahmar W, Mason K, Harley N, Hogan C. An unusual complication of thrombolysis--bilateral retro-orbital haematomata. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2005;33:271-3 pubmed
    ..The haematomata developed two days post-thrombolysis with marked visual impairment. Visual acuity was restored following bilateral drainage of the superior aspects of the retro-orbital space...
  72. Chen C, Chen C, Huang F. Retrobulbar hematoma as a rare complication after secondary correction of enophthalmos. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:963-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Retrobulbar hematoma was confirmed by computed tomography, and immediate medical and surgical treatments were instituted. The vision of the patient recovered gradually during outpatient follow-up...
  73. Dallan I, Tschabitscher M, Castelnuovo P, Bignami M, Muscatello L, Lenzi R, et al. Management of severely bleeding ethmoidal arteries. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:450-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical features of EA bleeding are rather extensive because it can occur within the nasal cavity or in orbital spaces. Furthermore, surgical management of EA bleeding is challenging...
  74. Betbeze C. Management of Orbital Diseases. Top Companion Anim Med. 2015;30:107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Fine-needle aspirates and biopsies of the retrobulbar space can also be performed. ..
  75. Tran K, Scawn R, Whipple K, Korn B, Kikkawa D. Mastication induced retrobulbar hemorrhage. Orbit. 2013;32:387-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a feared potentially sight threatening complication after orbital decompression surgery...
  76. Markiewicz M, Gelesko S, Bell R. Zygoma reconstruction. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2013;25:167-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Traditional and contemporary concepts in posttraumatic, postablative, and esthetic reconstruction are also described...
  77. Machado R, Silveira R, Borges H, Filho A, de Oliveira M. Retrobulbar hemorrhage: a case report. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2006;7:130-6 pubmed
    b>Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare complication that may occur after mid-face injuries or following soft and hard tissue surgery around the eyes...
  78. Mangla D, Carruth B, Britton L, Wladis E. Nontraumatic subperiosteal bilateral orbital hemorrhages after mitral valve repair. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;30:e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The case presentation conforms to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and is Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant. The etiology and management of this uncommon and dangerous entity will be discussed. ..
  79. Diatchuk V, Rehany U, Rumelt S. Spontaneous subperiosteal orbital hemorrhage following thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;23:482-4 pubmed
    ..Conservative treatment with cold compresses in the absence of visual impairment may be sufficient, as was in our patient and others...
  80. Karabekir H, Gocmen Mas N, Emel E, Karacayli U, Koymen R, Atar E, et al. Ocular and periocular injuries associated with an isolated orbital fracture depending on a blunt cranial trauma: anatomical and surgical aspects. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:e189-93 pubmed publisher
    ..17% of cases with rhinorrhoea (n: 3), 5.17% cases with optic bulb injury and adnexial trauma (n:3), 32.76% cases with intra-orbital emphysema (n:19), and 20.69% with vision dysfunctions (n:12), of whom 2 had no optic nerve injury...
  81. Perry M. Acute proptosis in trauma: retrobulbar hemorrhage or orbital compartment syndrome--does it really matter?. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:1913-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To review the nature and outcomes of acute severe proptosis in patients after craniofacial trauma, over a 6-year period...
  82. Zoumalan C, Bullock J, Warwar R, Fuller B, McCulley T. Evaluation of intraocular and orbital pressure in the management of orbital hemorrhage: an experimental model. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:1257-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate orbital pressure (OP), intraocular pressure (IOP), and the effectiveness of canthotomy, cantholysis, and septolysis using an experimental orbital hemorrhage model...
  83. Han J, Higgins T. Management of orbital complications in endoscopic sinus surgery. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;18:32-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes the orbital complications that can occur during endoscopic sinus surgery, how to manage the complication when it occurs, and more importantly how to avoid these complications...
  84. Hass A, Penne R, Stefanyszyn M, Flanagan J. Incidence of postblepharoplasty orbital hemorrhage and associated visual loss. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20:426-32 pubmed
    ..We also reviewed the length of time between surgery and the onset of bleeding and sought any factors that may contribute to these cases...
  85. Fong K, Olver J. Treating traumatic retrobulbar haemorrhage. Hosp Med. 2003;64:496; author reply 496 pubmed
  86. Gellrich N, Schramm A, Rustemeyer J, Schön R, Theodor Eysel U. Quantification of the neurodegenerative impact on the visual system following sudden retrobulbar expanding lesions - an experimental model. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2002;30:230-6 pubmed
    ..Afferent disorders of the visual system are a potential consequence following orbital trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate the tolerance of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer to acute expanding retrobulbar lesions...
  87. Korinth M, Ince A, Banghard W, Hans F, Gilsbach J. [Pterional orbital decompression in traumatic orbital hematomas]. Unfallchirurg. 2002;105:322-6 pubmed
    ..Immediate detection and adequate treatment of orbital hematomas is mandatory to achieve an acceptable outcome of eye function...
  88. Atalla M, McNab A, Sullivan T, Sloan B. Nontraumatic subperiosteal orbital hemorrhage. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:183-9 pubmed
    ..To define more clearly the clinical and imaging characteristics of NTSOH, we evaluated nine cases seen by the authors and reviewed previous case reports...