dry eye syndromes

Summary

Summary: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.

Top Publications

  1. Kastelan S, Lukenda A, Salopek Rabatic J, Pavan J, Gotovac M. Dry eye symptoms and signs in long-term contact lens wearers. Coll Antropol. 2013;37 Suppl 1:199-203 pubmed
  2. Srinivasan S, Thangavelu M, Zhang L, Green K, Nichols K. iTRAQ quantitative proteomics in the analysis of tears in dry eye patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:5052-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the change in protein expression of tear film proteins in dry eye (DE) and non-DE (NDE) patients using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology...
  3. Lee H, Hattori T, Park E, Stevenson W, Chauhan S, Dana R. Expression of toll-like receptor 4 contributes to corneal inflammation in experimental dry eye disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:5632-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusions. These results suggest that DED increases the corneal expression of TLR4 and that TLR4 participates in the inflammatory response to ocular surface desiccating stress...
  4. Na K, Mok J, Kim J, Rho C, Joo C. Correlations between tear cytokines, chemokines, and soluble receptors and clinical severity of dry eye disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:5443-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine cytokine and chemokine concentrations in the tears of patients with dry eye disease (DED) and analyze the possible relationships with the clinical severity of DED...
  5. Tomlinson A, Madden L, Simmons P. Effectiveness of dry eye therapy under conditions of environmental stress. Curr Eye Res. 2013;38:229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an environmental chamber to induce environmental stress, this study compared the effect of three lubricant eye drops on various aspects of tear physiology in a crossover design (evaporation was the principal outcome measure)...
  6. Versura P, Bavelloni A, Blalock W, Fresina M, Campos E. A rapid standardized quantitative microfluidic system approach for evaluating human tear proteins. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2526-37 pubmed
    ..To explore the potential of a chip-based miniaturized capillary gel electrophoresis device in a quantitative evaluation of the human tear protein profile and to validate the method...
  7. Aluru S, Agarwal S, Srinivasan B, Iyer G, Rajappa S, Tatu U, et al. Lacrimal proline rich 4 (LPRR4) protein in the tear fluid is a potential biomarker of dry eye syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51979 pubmed publisher
    ..Further characterization of the protein is required to assess its therapeutic potential in DES...
  8. Rüfer F, Erb C. [Influence of dry eye syndrome on glaucoma diagnostic procedures]. Ophthalmologe. 2012;109:1082-6 pubmed publisher
    ..If necessary, eyes should be pretreated with lubricating eye drops or therapy should be switched to preservative-free pressure lowering drops. Afterwards, new control measurements should be taken to exclude glaucoma pseudoprogression...
  9. Zhou D, Chen Y, Chen F, Gallup M, Vijmasi T, Bahrami A, et al. Critical involvement of macrophage infiltration in the development of Sjögren's syndrome-associated dry eye. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:753-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that autoreactive CD4(+) T cells provoked macrophage infiltration to the eye and lacrimal gland, where they played a functional role in directing the development of autoimmune dry eye...
  10. Enríquez de Salamanca A, Bonini S, Calonge M. Molecular and cellular biomarkers in dry eye disease and ocular allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;12:523-33 pubmed publisher
    ..To summarize recent studies in biomarkers in dry eye disease (DED) and ocular allergy in the last 18 months...

Detail Information

Publications94

  1. Kastelan S, Lukenda A, Salopek Rabatic J, Pavan J, Gotovac M. Dry eye symptoms and signs in long-term contact lens wearers. Coll Antropol. 2013;37 Suppl 1:199-203 pubmed
  2. Srinivasan S, Thangavelu M, Zhang L, Green K, Nichols K. iTRAQ quantitative proteomics in the analysis of tears in dry eye patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:5052-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the change in protein expression of tear film proteins in dry eye (DE) and non-DE (NDE) patients using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology...
  3. Lee H, Hattori T, Park E, Stevenson W, Chauhan S, Dana R. Expression of toll-like receptor 4 contributes to corneal inflammation in experimental dry eye disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:5632-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusions. These results suggest that DED increases the corneal expression of TLR4 and that TLR4 participates in the inflammatory response to ocular surface desiccating stress...
  4. Na K, Mok J, Kim J, Rho C, Joo C. Correlations between tear cytokines, chemokines, and soluble receptors and clinical severity of dry eye disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:5443-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine cytokine and chemokine concentrations in the tears of patients with dry eye disease (DED) and analyze the possible relationships with the clinical severity of DED...
  5. Tomlinson A, Madden L, Simmons P. Effectiveness of dry eye therapy under conditions of environmental stress. Curr Eye Res. 2013;38:229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an environmental chamber to induce environmental stress, this study compared the effect of three lubricant eye drops on various aspects of tear physiology in a crossover design (evaporation was the principal outcome measure)...
  6. Versura P, Bavelloni A, Blalock W, Fresina M, Campos E. A rapid standardized quantitative microfluidic system approach for evaluating human tear proteins. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2526-37 pubmed
    ..To explore the potential of a chip-based miniaturized capillary gel electrophoresis device in a quantitative evaluation of the human tear protein profile and to validate the method...
  7. Aluru S, Agarwal S, Srinivasan B, Iyer G, Rajappa S, Tatu U, et al. Lacrimal proline rich 4 (LPRR4) protein in the tear fluid is a potential biomarker of dry eye syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51979 pubmed publisher
    ..Further characterization of the protein is required to assess its therapeutic potential in DES...
  8. Rüfer F, Erb C. [Influence of dry eye syndrome on glaucoma diagnostic procedures]. Ophthalmologe. 2012;109:1082-6 pubmed publisher
    ..If necessary, eyes should be pretreated with lubricating eye drops or therapy should be switched to preservative-free pressure lowering drops. Afterwards, new control measurements should be taken to exclude glaucoma pseudoprogression...
  9. Zhou D, Chen Y, Chen F, Gallup M, Vijmasi T, Bahrami A, et al. Critical involvement of macrophage infiltration in the development of Sjögren's syndrome-associated dry eye. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:753-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that autoreactive CD4(+) T cells provoked macrophage infiltration to the eye and lacrimal gland, where they played a functional role in directing the development of autoimmune dry eye...
  10. Enríquez de Salamanca A, Bonini S, Calonge M. Molecular and cellular biomarkers in dry eye disease and ocular allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;12:523-33 pubmed publisher
    ..To summarize recent studies in biomarkers in dry eye disease (DED) and ocular allergy in the last 18 months...
  11. Kinoshita S, Oshiden K, Awamura S, Suzuki H, Nakamichi N, Yokoi N. A randomized, multicenter phase 3 study comparing 2% rebamipide (OPC-12759) with 0.1% sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of dry eye. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:1158-65 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the efficacy of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension compared with 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution for the treatment of patients with dry eye...
  12. Narayanan S, Redfern R, Miller W, Nichols K, McDermott A. Dry eye disease and microbial keratitis: is there a connection?. Ocul Surf. 2013;11:75-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The review highlights current understanding of innate immunity in dry eye and identifies gaps in our knowledge to help direct future studies to further unravel the complexities of dry eye disease and its sequelae...
  13. Sullivan B, Crews L, Messmer E, Foulks G, Nichols K, Baenninger P, et al. Correlations between commonly used objective signs and symptoms for the diagnosis of dry eye disease: clinical implications. Acta Ophthalmol. 2014;92:161-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the relationship between signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED) in a clinic-based population...
  14. Amparo F, Dastjerdi M, Okanobo A, Ferrari G, Smaga L, Hamrah P, et al. Topical interleukin 1 receptor antagonist for treatment of dry eye disease: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:715-723 pubmed publisher
  15. Chauhan S, El Annan J, Ecoiffier T, Goyal S, Zhang Q, Saban D, et al. Autoimmunity in dry eye is due to resistance of Th17 to Treg suppression. J Immunol. 2009;182:1247-52 pubmed
    ..Our findings elucidate involvement of a previously unknown pathogenic T cell subset (Th17) in DED that is associated specifically with Treg dysfunction and disease pathogenesis and suggest a new target for dry eye therapy. ..
  16. Ibrahim O, Dogru M, Takano Y, Satake Y, Wakamatsu T, Fukagawa K, et al. Application of visante optical coherence tomography tear meniscus height measurement in the diagnosis of dry eye disease. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:1923-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Visante OCT is a quick, noninvasive method for assessing the TMH, with acceptable sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability, and may have potential applications for the diagnosis and evaluation of dry eye disease. ..
  17. El Annan J, Goyal S, Zhang Q, Freeman G, Sharpe A, Dana R. Regulation of T-cell chemotaxis by programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in dry eye-associated corneal inflammation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3418-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of corneal epithelial PD-L1 amplifies dry eye-associated corneal inflammation and epitheliopathy by increasing the expression of chemokine ligands and receptors that promote T-cell homing to the ocular surface. ..
  18. Li N, He J, Schwartz C, Gjorstrup P, Bazan H. Resolvin E1 improves tear production and decreases inflammation in a dry eye mouse model. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2010;26:431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated the role of RvE1 in a DE mouse model...
  19. Wakamatsu T, Dogru M, Tsubota K. Tearful relations: oxidative stress, inflammation and eye diseases. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2008;71:72-9 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the evaluation of the influence of oxidative stress on eye diseases emphasizing its relation with the pathogenesis of dry eye disease. ..
  20. Rossi G, Tinelli C, Pasinetti G, Milano G, Bianchi P. Dry eye syndrome-related quality of life in glaucoma patients. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:572-9 pubmed
    ..To verify the presence of dry eye syndrome (DES) in treated patients with glaucoma and to analyze DES's impact on the patients' quality of life (QOL) versus the control group...
  21. Karampatakis V, Karamitsos A, Skriapa A, Pastiadis G. Comparison between normal values of 2- and 5-minute Schirmer test without anesthesia. Cornea. 2010;29:497-501 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the 2- and 5-minute Schirmer test I (test without anesthesia) in healthy individuals so as to exploit the possibility of using the 2-minute instead of the 5-minute test...
  22. Liu S, Richards S, Lo K, Hatton M, Fay A, Sullivan D. Changes in gene expression in human meibomian gland dysfunction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2727-40 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the precise mechanism(s) underlying the pathogenesis of this disease is unclear. This study was conducted to identify meibomian gland genes that may promote the development and/or progression of human MGD...
  23. Kang M, Kim M, Lee H, Lee H, Wee W, Lee J. Interleukin-17 in various ocular surface inflammatory diseases. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:938-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Tear IL-17 is likely to correlate clinically with corneal disease severity only in the patients with systemic inflammatory disease. ..
  24. Goyal S, Chauhan S, El Annan J, Nallasamy N, Zhang Q, Dana R. Evidence of corneal lymphangiogenesis in dry eye disease: a potential link to adaptive immunity?. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:819-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Low-grade inflammation associated with DED is an inducer of lymphangiogenesis without accompanying hemangiogenesis. ..
  25. Chen Y, Li S, Nikulina K, Porco T, Gallup M, McNamara N. Immune profile of squamous metaplasia development in autoimmune regulator-deficient dry eye. Mol Vis. 2009;15:563-76 pubmed
    ..Using this murine model, we sought to determine the specific immune events that predict squamous metaplasia of the cornea in Aire deficiency...
  26. Siemasko K, Gao J, Calder V, Hanna R, Calonge M, Pflugfelder S, et al. In vitro expanded CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells maintain a normal phenotype and suppress immune-mediated ocular surface inflammation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:5434-40 pubmed publisher
  27. Goyal S, Chauhan S, Zhang Q, Dana R. Amelioration of murine dry eye disease by topical antagonist to chemokine receptor 2. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:882-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical Relevance Topical application of CCR2 antagonist may hold promise as a therapeutic modality in dry eye disease. ..
  28. Corrales R, de Paiva C, Li D, Farley W, Henriksson J, Bergmanson J, et al. Entrapment of conjunctival goblet cells by desiccation-induced cornification. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:3492-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effects of desiccating stress on conjunctival goblet cell density and morphology and the expression of cornified envelope precursors by the ocular surface epithelia...
  29. Hongyok T, Chae J, Shin Y, Na D, Li L, Chuck R. Effect of chitosan-N-acetylcysteine conjugate in a mouse model of botulinum toxin B-induced dry eye. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:525-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Topically applied C-NAC might protect the ocular surface in dry eye syndrome, as evidenced by decreased inflammatory cytokine expression. ..
  30. Uchino M, Schaumberg D, Dogru M, Uchino Y, Fukagawa K, Shimmura S, et al. Prevalence of dry eye disease among Japanese visual display terminal users. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1982-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. ..
  31. Nguyen C, Peck A. Unraveling the pathophysiology of Sjogren syndrome-associated dry eye disease. Ocul Surf. 2009;7:11-27 pubmed
    ..Current studies using appropriate animal models in parallel with studies of human subjects are rapidly establishing a foundation for new intervention strategies that go beyond merely treating symptoms. ..
  32. Oh J, Kim M, Choi H, Ko J, Kang E, Lee H, et al. Investigating the relationship between serum interleukin-17 levels and systemic immune-mediated disease in patients with dry eye syndrome. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2011;25:73-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the association between dry eye syndrome (DE) and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-17 in patients with systemic immune-mediated diseases...
  33. Pflugfelder S, de Paiva C, Li D, Stern M. Epithelial-immune cell interaction in dry eye. Cornea. 2008;27 Suppl 1:S9-11 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, they are targets of cytokines produced by activated T cells that are recruited to the ocular surface in response to dry eye. This interaction between epithelial and immune cells in dry eye will be thoroughly reviewed...
  34. Moore J, Graham J, Goodall E, Dartt D, Leccisotti A, McGilligan V, et al. Concordance between common dry eye diagnostic tests. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Large variations in results of diagnostic tests for mild to moderate dry eye are widely recognised. The purpose of this study was to assess if there was concordance between common dry eye diagnostic tests...
  35. Yu J, Asche C, Fairchild C. The economic burden of dry eye disease in the United States: a decision tree analysis. Cornea. 2011;30:379-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to estimate both the direct and indirect annual cost of managing dry eye disease (DED) in the United States from a societal and a payer's perspective...
  36. de Paiva C, Pangelinan S, Chang E, Yoon K, Farley W, Li D, et al. Essential role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 in corneal epithelial response to desiccating stress. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:1625-31 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the protective effects of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-1 and -2 gene knockout (KO) on the corneal epithelial response to desiccating stress...
  37. Rand A, Asbell P. Nutritional supplements for dry eye syndrome. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2011;22:279-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Essential fatty acids have been of interest in the treatment of systemic and ocular diseases, and is most recently of interest in the area of dry eye disease...
  38. Cortina M, Bazan H. Docosahexaenoic acid, protectins and dry eye. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011;14:132-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To report recent data on the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids, in particular docosahexaenoic acid and its derivatives, in the treatment of dry eye syndrome...
  39. Labbe A, Terry O, Brasnu E, Van Went C, Baudouin C. Tear film osmolarity in patients treated for glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Cornea. 2012;31:994-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate tear film osmolarity in patients treated with intraocular pressure-lowering medications...
  40. Li M, Gong L. [Progress of research on quality of life of dry eye patients]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2011;47:185-8 pubmed
    ..This paper briefly reviews the researches on the dry eye patient quality of life, influencing factors, and strategies to improve quality of life...
  41. Lemp M, Nichols K. Blepharitis in the United States 2009: a survey-based perspective on prevalence and treatment. Ocul Surf. 2009;7:S1-S14 pubmed
    ..In addition, management paradigms are shifting away from more traditional management with antibiotic ointment and warm compress therapy to prescription therapy for anterior and posterior blepharitis...
  42. Zhang X, Volpe E, Gandhi N, Schaumburg C, Siemasko K, Pangelinan S, et al. NK cells promote Th-17 mediated corneal barrier disruption in dry eye. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36822 pubmed publisher
    ..The conjunctiva contains a specialized population of lymphocytes that reside in the epithelium, named intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL)...
  43. Suzuki M, Massingale M, Ye F, Godbold J, Elfassy T, Vallabhajosyula M, et al. Tear osmolarity as a biomarker for dry eye disease severity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4557-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the association between tear osmolarity and dry eye severity grade, based on a modified Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) scale, and between osmolarity and the signs and symptoms that determine dry eye disease severity...
  44. Chen W, Zhang X, Zhang J, Chen J, Wang S, Wang Q, et al. A murine model of dry eye induced by an intelligently controlled environmental system. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:1386-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To establish a novel murine model of dry eye using an intelligently controlled environmental system (ICES)...
  45. Ousler G, Hagberg K, Schindelar M, Welch D, Abelson M. The Ocular Protection Index. Cornea. 2008;27:509-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses the development and use of the OPI model, its relationship to dry eye, and factors that are known to alter blink rate and tear film integrity...
  46. Khanal S, Simmons P, Pearce E, Day M, Tomlinson A. Effect of artificial tears on tear stress test. Optom Vis Sci. 2008;85:732-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the effect of two artificial tears of different viscosities in the relief of environmental dry eye induced with a novel tear stress test (TST)...
  47. Chauhan S, Jin Y, Goyal S, Lee H, Fuchsluger T, Lee H, et al. A novel pro-lymphangiogenic function for Th17/IL-17. Blood. 2011;118:4630-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings demonstrate a novel prolymphangiogenic function for Th17/IL-17, indicating that IL-17 can promote the progression and amplification of immunity in part through its induction of lymphangiogenesis...
  48. Nyunt A, Ishida Y, Yu Y, Shimada S. Topical apolipoprotein A-1 may have a beneficial effect on the corneal epithelium in a mouse model of dry eye: a pilot study. Eye Contact Lens. 2008;34:287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of apolipoprotein A (ApoA)-1 and its synergistic action with d-pantethine (DP) on corneal epithelial disorders in dry-eye mouse model...
  49. Ecoiffier T, El Annan J, Rashid S, Schaumberg D, Dana R. Modulation of integrin alpha4beta1 (VLA-4) in dry eye disease. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:1695-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the effect of topical application of very late antigen 4 (VLA-4) small-molecule antagonist (anti-VLA-4 sm) in a mouse model of dry eye disease...
  50. Jackson W. Management of dysfunctional tear syndrome: a Canadian consensus. Can J Ophthalmol. 2009;44:385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with lid disease or rosacea and those with allergic conditions should be identified during the initial encounter and should receive specific therapy to relieve their symptoms...
  51. Massingale M, Li X, Vallabhajosyula M, Chen D, Wei Y, Asbell P. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines in the tears of dry eye patients. Cornea. 2009;28:1023-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the levels of 8 important cytokines and 1 chemokine in tears of patients with dry eye disease...
  52. Toker E, Asfuroğlu E. Corneal and conjunctival sensitivity in patients with dry eye: the effect of topical cyclosporine therapy. Cornea. 2010;29:133-40 pubmed publisher
  53. Rosenberg E, Asbell P. Essential fatty acids in the treatment of dry eye. Ocul Surf. 2010;8:18-28 pubmed
  54. Guillon M, Maissa C, Ho S. Evaluation of the effects on conjunctival tissues of Optive eyedrops over one month usage. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2010;33:93-9 pubmed publisher
    ..028-0.002). The results demonstrated that the regular use of Optive over one month was significantly superior to Hylocomod in improving conjunctival status by producing a greater reduction in the staining of dry eye sufferers...
  55. Pflugfelder S, de Paiva C, Villarreal A, Stern M. Effects of sequential artificial tear and cyclosporine emulsion therapy on conjunctival goblet cell density and transforming growth factor-beta2 production. Cornea. 2008;27:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effects of sequential treatment with artificial tears and cyclosporine emulsion on conjunctival goblet cell density and production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 in patients with dry eye disease...
  56. Lu P, Chen X, Liu X, Yu L, Kang Y, Xie Q, et al. Dry eye syndrome in elderly Tibetans at high altitude: a population-based study in China. Cornea. 2008;27:545-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence of dry eye syndrome, analyze the relationship between dry eye symptoms and signs, and identify associated risk factors for dry eye syndrome in an elderly Tibetan population at high altitude...
  57. Perry H, Solomon R, Donnenfeld E, Perry A, Wittpenn J, Greenman H, et al. Evaluation of topical cyclosporine for the treatment of dry eye disease. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:1046-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the use of topical cyclosporine, 0.05% (Restasis; Allergan Inc, Irvine, California), for the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe dry eye disease unresponsive to artificial tears therapy...
  58. Jeon J, Shin M, Lee M, Jeong S, Kang K, Kim Y, et al. Acupuncture reduces symptoms of dry eye syndrome: a preliminary observational study. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16:1291-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acupuncture treatment on dry eye syndrome...
  59. McKown R, Wang N, Raab R, Karnati R, Zhang Y, Williams P, et al. Lacritin and other new proteins of the lacrimal functional unit. Exp Eye Res. 2009;88:848-58 pubmed publisher
    ..one of only a handful of tear proteins preliminarily reported to be downregulated in blepharitis and in two dry eye syndromes. Computational analysis predicts an ordered C-terminal domain that binds the corneal epithelial cell surface ..
  60. Huang J, Zhang Y, Rittenhouse K, Pickering E, McDowell M. Evaluations of tear protein markers in dry eye disease: repeatability of measurement and correlation with disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:4556-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterized tear protein markers in dry eye disease (DED)...
  61. Thomas P, Samant D, Zhu Z, Selvam S, Stevenson D, Wang Y, et al. Long-term topical cyclosporine treatment improves tear production and reduces keratoconjunctivitis in rabbits with induced autoimmune dacryoadenitis. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2009;25:285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To use a rabbit model of induced autoimmune dacryoadenitis to evaluate the efficacy of topical ophthalmic cyclosporine A (CsA)...
  62. García Catalán M, Jerez Olivera E, Benítez Del Castillo Sánchez J. [Dry eye and quality of life]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2009;84:451-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the relation between dry eye severity and quality of life...
  63. Kawashima M, Kawakita T, Okada N, Ogawa Y, Murat D, Nakamura S, et al. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;397:724-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome...
  64. de Paiva C, Pflugfelder S. Rationale for anti-inflammatory therapy in dry eye syndrome. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2008;71:89-95 pubmed
    ..There are several anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye that target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified and are discussed in detail...
  65. Goyal S, Chauhan S, Dana R. Blockade of prolymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor C in dry eye disease. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:84-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether blocking prolymphangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) would suppress alloimmunity in dry eye disease using a murine model...
  66. DeVoss J, Leclair N, Hou Y, Grewal N, Johannes K, Lu W, et al. An autoimmune response to odorant binding protein 1a is associated with dry eye in the Aire-deficient mouse. J Immunol. 2010;184:4236-46 pubmed publisher
  67. Zheng X, de Paiva C, Li D, Farley W, Pflugfelder S. Desiccating stress promotion of Th17 differentiation by ocular surface tissues through a dendritic cell-mediated pathway. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3083-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the phenomenon that corneal and conjunctival tissues subjected to desiccating stress (DS) promote Th17 differentiation by stimulating the production of Th17-inducing cytokines through a dendritic cell (DC)-mediated pathway...
  68. Friedman N. Impact of dry eye disease and treatment on quality of life. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2010;21:310-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the available research on the impact of DED and its treatment on measures of QoL...
  69. Jie Y, Xu L, Wu Y, Jonas J. Prevalence of dry eye among adult Chinese in the Beijing Eye Study. Eye (Lond). 2009;23:688-93 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the prevalence and associations of dry eye symptoms in adult Chinese...
  70. Schaumberg D, Dana R, Buring J, Sullivan D. Prevalence of dry eye disease among US men: estimates from the Physicians' Health Studies. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:763-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for dry eye disease (DED) among US men...
  71. Peral A, Domínguez Godínez C, Carracedo G, Pintor J. Therapeutic targets in dry eye syndrome. Drug News Perspect. 2008;21:166-76 pubmed
    ..These compounds come from different families of therapies, and among others, can be found in the form of steroidal and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, vitamins A and D, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides...
  72. Bukhari A, Ajlan R, Alsaggaf H. Prevalence of dry eye in the normal population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Orbit. 2009;28:392-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate the prevalence of dry eye disease in the normal non-complaining population...
  73. El Annan J, Chauhan S, Ecoiffier T, Zhang Q, Saban D, Dana R. Characterization of effector T cells in dry eye disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:3802-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this T cell-mediated immune response is generated in the lymphoid compartment and to characterize the functional phenotype of the T cells activated in DED...
  74. Chotikavanich S, de Paiva C, Li D, Chen J, Bian F, Farley W, et al. Production and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 on the ocular surface increase in dysfunctional tear syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:3203-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate production and activity of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 on the ocular surface of patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) and determine any correlation between MMP-9 activity and clinical parameters...
  75. Guo B, Lu P, Chen X, Zhang W, Chen R. Prevalence of dry eye disease in Mongolians at high altitude in China: the Henan eye study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17:234-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate the prevalence of dry eye disease, analyze the associations between dry eye symptoms and signs, and identify the risk factors in an elderly Mongolian population at high altitude in China...
  76. Sheppard J, Scoper S, Samudre S. Topical loteprednol pretreatment reduces cyclosporine stinging in chronic dry eye disease. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011;27:23-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Stinging is the most common side effect of tCSA and reason for tCSA discontinuation. This analysis describes an effective pharmacologic means to reduce tCSA stinging and subsequent discontinuation...
  77. Zhang X, Chen W, de Paiva C, Corrales R, Volpe E, McClellan A, et al. Interferon-? exacerbates dry eye-induced apoptosis in conjunctiva through dual apoptotic pathways. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the role of interferon (IFN)-? in dry eye-associated conjunctival apoptosis...
  78. de Paiva C, Chotikavanich S, Pangelinan S, Pitcher J, Fang B, Zheng X, et al. IL-17 disrupts corneal barrier following desiccating stress. Mucosal Immunol. 2009;2:243-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that IL-17 has a role in corneal epithelial barrier disruption in DE...
  79. Dartt D. Tear lipocalin: structure and function. Ocul Surf. 2011;9:126-38 pubmed
    ..Additional research is warranted to determine the actual functions of TLC in tears and the presence of its receptor on the ocular surface...