Summary: The turning inward (inversion) of the edge of the eyelid, with the tarsal cartilage turned inward toward the eyeball. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Christiansen G, Mohney B, Baratz K, Bradley E. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of congenital entropion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:153-5 pubmed
    To describe a case of congenital entropion presenting with ulcerative keratitis that was successfully treated with a single injection of botulinum toxin.
  2. Barnes J, Bunce C, Olver J. Simple effective surgery for involutional entropion suitable for the general ophthalmologist. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:92-6 pubmed
    To compare the long-term success, recurrence, and complication rate of involutional entropion surgery using the lateral tarsal strip and everting sutures when performed by surgeons in training (resident or fellow) and specialist ..
  3. Shiu M, McNab A. Cicatricial entropion and trichiasis in an urban Australian population. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;33:582-5 pubmed
    Cicatricial entropion and trichiasis may be caused by a variety of diseases, of which trachomatous entropion is the commonest worldwide. The spectrum of disease in the authors' community is quite different...
  4. Nagpal G, Dhaliwal U, Bhatia M. Barriers to acceptance of intervention among patients with trachomatous trichiasis or entropion presenting to a teaching hospital. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2006;13:53-8 pubmed
    To determine the barriers to therapeutic intervention in patients with trachomatous trichiasis or entropion.
  5. Kakizaki H, Zako M, Mito H, Kato Y, Iwaki M. Modified operation to correctly detect and fix the lower eyelid retractor in involutional entropion. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:330-2 pubmed
  6. Haefliger I, Piffaretti J. Lid retractors desinsertion in acquired ptosis and involutional lower lid entropion: surgical implications. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2001;218:309-12 pubmed
    An association exists between upper and/or lower lid retractors' desinsertion and acquired ptosis and/or involutional lower lid entropion.
  7. Cillino S, Raimondi G, Guepratte N, Damiani S, Cillino M, Di Pace F, et al. Long-term efficacy of botulinum toxin A for treatment of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and spastic entropion: a multicentre study using two drug-dose escalation indexes. Eye (Lond). 2010;24:600-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) treatment in patients with blepharospasm (BEB), hemifacial spasm (HFS), and entropion (EN) and to use for the first time two modified indexes, 'botulin toxin escalation index-U' (BEI-U) and 'botulin ..
  8. Altieri M, Kingston A, Bertagno R, Altieri G. Modified retractor plication technique in lower lid entropion repair: a 4-year follow-up study. Can J Ophthalmol. 2004;39:650-5 pubmed
    Lower eyelid entropion is an eyelid malposition characterized by inward rotation of the eyelid margin associated with potentially significant discomfort and, occasionally, keratopathy...
  9. Kakizaki H, Zako M, Mito H, Katori N, Iwaki M. Magnetic resonance imaging of pre- and postoperative lower eyelid states in involutional entropion. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2004;48:364-7 pubmed
    To disclose pre- and postoperative lower eyelid gradients in involutional entropion using sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

More Information


  1. Rajak S, Habtamu E, Weiss H, Bedri A, Gebre T, Bailey R, et al. The clinical phenotype of trachomatous trichiasis in Ethiopia: not all trichiasis is due to entropion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7974-80 pubmed publisher
    Trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is usually described as a cicatricial entropion of the upper lid; however, other forms of trichiasis have been reported. This variation in clinical phenotype is potentially important for treatment guidelines...
  2. Olali C, Burton V, Samalila E. Involutional lower eyelid entropion: combined Wheeler's and Wedge resection of tarsal plate. West Afr J Med. 2010;29:117-9 pubmed
    Involutional entropion, a common eyelid condition, has different methods of surgical correction and attendant variable recurrence rates, depending to a large degree on the method used.
  3. Moon J, Choung H, Khwarg S. Correction of lower lid retraction combined with entropion using an ear cartilage graft in the anophthalmic socket. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2005;19:161-7 pubmed
    To investigate the surgical results of an ear cartilage graft and supplemental procedures for correcting lower lid retraction combined with entropion in anophthalmic patients.
  4. Swamy B, Benger R, Taylor S. Cicatricial entropion repair with hard palate mucous membrane graft: surgical technique and outcomes. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;36:348-52 pubmed publisher
    ..a hard palate mucous membrane graft (HPMMG) has been previously described for upper and lower eyelid cicatricial entropion repair...
  5. Dhaliwal U, Monga P, Gupta V. Comparison of three surgical procedures of differing complexity in the correction of trachomatous upper lid entropion: a prospective study. Orbit. 2004;23:227-36 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy of three common surgical procedures of increasing complexity in the correction of trachomatous entropion.
  6. Scheepers M, Singh R, Ng J, Zuercher D, Gibson A, Bunce C, et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing everting sutures with everting sutures and a lateral tarsal strip for involutional entropion. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:352-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether there is a statistically significant difference in the surgical outcome of everting sutures (ES) alone versus everting sutures with a lateral tarsal strip (ES+LTS) in the treatment of involutional entropion.
  7. Kocaoglu F, Katircioglu Y, Tok O, Pulat H, Ornek F. The histopathology of involutional ectropion and entropion. Can J Ophthalmol. 2009;44:677-9 pubmed publisher
    Involutional ectropion and entropion are characterized by excessive horizontal eyelid length, which is thought to be secondary to laxity of the medial and lateral canthal tendons and to the stretching of the tarsus...
  8. Yang S, Choi W, Kim S. Refractive changes of congenital entropion and epiblepharon on surgical correction. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2001;15:32-7 pubmed
    ..refractive change, if any, following recovery of cornea injury through surgery of epiblepharon and congenital entropion patients, we retrospectively reviewed the sex distribution, age at operation, chief complaints, preoperative and ..
  9. Raina J, Foster J. Obesity as a cause of mechanical entropion. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;122:123-5 pubmed
    Although lower eyelid entropion can result from many conditions, obesity is not a generally recognized factor. We treated a case of recurrent severe entropion that was a result of morbid obesity in a patient with de Morsier's syndrome.
  10. Vallabhanath P, Carter S. Ectropion and entropion. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2000;11:345-51 pubmed
    This article reviews the etiology and classification of ectropion and entropion, two of the more common eyelid conditions seen by the ophthalmologist...
  11. Choo P. Distichiasis, trichiasis, and entropion: advances in management. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2002;42:75-87 pubmed
  12. Carruth B, Meyer D. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis: an unusual cause of upper eyelid cicatricial entropion. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;29:e151-4 pubmed publisher
    ..condition resulting in significant ophthalmic morbidity, including keratoconjunctivitis sicca, cicatricial entropion, trichiasis, corneal scarring, significant discomfort, and visual loss...
  13. Cetinkaya A, Hudak D, Kulwin D. Cicatricial entropion following docetaxel (Taxotere) therapy. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27:e113-6 pubmed publisher
    ..All 3 cases showed varying degrees of palpebral mucosal inflammation and cicatricial changes leading to marginal entropion. The first patient exhibited very prominent eyelid margin inflammation and diffuse trichiasis without madarosis...
  14. Kim C, Shin Y, Kim N, Khwarg S, Hwang J, Wee W. Conjunctival epithelial changes induced by cilia in patients with epiblepharon or entropion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:564-9 pubmed
    ..the effect of mechanical trauma induced by cilia on the conjunctival epithelium in patients with epiblepharon or entropion and to evaluate changes in epithelium after surgical correction in patients with entropion. Case-control study...
  15. Nemoto H, Togo T, Maruyama N, Miyabe K, Nakae S, Sumiya N. Orbicularis oculi muscle tightening for involutional entropion. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017;70:946-951 pubmed publisher
    To describe a novel technique for involutional entropion (IE) correction and present a retrospective case study. The entropion eyelid was corrected by repairing the thin preseptal orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM) of the lower eyelid...
  16. Soares O, Cruz A. Community-based transconjunctival marginal rotation for cicatricial trachoma in Indians from the Upper Rio Negro basin. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2004;37:669-74 pubmed
    ..Seventy-three upper eyelids of 46 Indians (11 males and 35 females) with cicatricial upper eyelid entropion and trichiasis were operated in the Indian communities using a marginal rotational procedure by a posterior ..
  17. Raschke G, Djedovic G, Peisker A, Wohlrath R, Rieger U, Guentsch A, et al. The isolated orbital floor fracture from a transconjunctival or subciliary perspective-A standardized anthropometric evaluation. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2016;21:e111-7 pubmed
    ..and lower iris coverage, position of cornea to palpebra inferior, canthal tilt, scleral show, ectropion and entropion. It was clearly distinguished between operated and contralateral eyelid, whether a transconjunctival or a ..
  18. Cho W, Jung S, Paik J, Yang S. Surgical Outcomes of Deep Superior Sulcus Augmentation Using Acellular Human Dermal Matrix in Anophthalmic or Phthisis Socket. J Craniofac Surg. 2016;27:1120-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Three of 10 (30%) showed complications: eyelid entropion, upper eyelid multiple creases, and spontaneous wound dehiscence followed by inflammation after stitch removal...
  19. Shazly T, Stefko S. Congenital entropion and hypotropia secondary to duplication of the inferior rectus muscle. J AAPOS. 2017;21:85-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of unilateral congenital entropion and hypotropia resulting from duplication of the inferior rectus muscle.
  20. Damasceno R, Osaki M, Dantas P, Belfort R. Involutional entropion and ectropion of the lower eyelid: prevalence and associated risk factors in the elderly population. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27:317-20 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of involutional entropion and ectropion of the lower eyelid in the elderly population; to examine how these disorders are related to gender, age, skin color, and axial ocular globe projection; and to define ..
  21. Cho W, Park J, Park M. Surgical correction of Hallermann-Streiff syndrome: a case report of esotropia, entropion, and blepharoptosis. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2011;25:142-5 pubmed publisher
    ..case of surgical treatment for Hallermann-Streiff syndrome in a patient with ocular manifestations of esotropia, entropion, and blepharoptosis. A 54-year-old man visited Yeouido St...
  22. Alsuhaibani A, Bosley T, Goldberg R, Al Faky Y. Entropion in children with isolated peripheral facial nerve paresis. Eye (Lond). 2012;26:1095-8 pubmed publisher
    ..paresis (FNP) generally develop ectropion, but a recent report of children with syndromatic FNPs implies that entropion may be more common in this setting than ectropion...
  23. Matsuo K, Tanaka Y. Dear Drs. Kakizaki, Malhotra and Selva. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2008;61:963-4 pubmed publisher
  24. Dhaliwal U, Nagpal G, Bhatia M. Health-related quality of life in patients with trachomatous trichiasis or entropion. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2006;13:59-66 pubmed
    To determine the health-related quality of life in patients with trachomatous trichiasis or entropion, before and after intervention. A prospective, case-control, interventional study...
  25. Muthugaduru D, Sahu C, Ali M, Dalal A, Jalali S. Report on ocular biometry of microphthalmos, retinal dystrophy, flash electroretinography, ocular coherence tomography, genetic analysis and the surgical challenge of entropion correction in a rare case of Hallermann-Streiff-Francois syndrome. Doc Ophthalmol. 2013;127:147-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgical notes of lid surgery for entropion were reviewed. Genetic screening was also done...
  26. Sharma R, Singh S, Patrikar S. Retroseptal transconjunctival approach for fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex: a retrospective study. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018;56:29-33 pubmed publisher
    ..017). There were also three patients with trichiasis and two with entropion in group I, and one each of both complications in group II...
  27. Yeruham I, Perl S. Case report: entropion and periorbital dermatitis in an Assaf ram. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2001;114:173 pubmed
    b>Entropion and periorbital dermatitis in an Assaf ram are reported. The severe clinical, pathological and histopathological findings are described...
  28. Maycock N, Sahu D, Mota P, Gaston H, Hodgkins P. Conservative management of upper eyelid entropion. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2008;45:377-8 pubmed
    The authors report for the first time two cases of upper eyelid entropion secondary to neonatal conjunctivitis that resolved spontaneously following the insertion of a bandage contact lens...
  29. Fea A, Turco D, Actis A, De Sanctis U, Actis G, Grignolo F. Ectropion, entropion, trichiasis. Minerva Chir. 2013;68:27-35 pubmed
    Aim of this review was to describe ectropion, entropion and trichiasis and their therapy...
  30. Qureshi Y, Karp C, Dubovy S. Intralesional interferon alpha-2b therapy for adnexal Kaposi sarcoma. Cornea. 2009;28:941-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe a case of adnexal Kaposi's sarcoma successfully treated with intralesional interferon alpha 2b injections...
  31. Wabbels B, Förl M. [Botulinum toxin treatment for crocodile tears, spastic entropion and for dysthyroid upper eyelid retraction]. Ophthalmologe. 2007;104:771-6 pubmed
    ..Botulinum toxin A is also a highly effective temporary treatment for involutional (spasmodic) entropion until surgery is performed...
  32. Kubo T, Shimizu J, Furujo M, Takeuchi A, Yoshioka Iwaso H, Eguchi N, et al. An infant case of Graves' disease with ophthalmopathy. Endocr J. 2005;52:647-50 pubmed
    ..The ophthalmologist noted bilateral proptosis, eyelid erythema, lacrimation, entropion of the lower eyelid, and superficial keratitis...
  33. Eliasoph I. Reply re: "Lateral tarsal strip and Quickert sutures for lower eyelid entropion". Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;22:501; author reply 501 pubmed
  34. White J, Grundon R, Hardman C, O Reilly A, Stanley R. Surgical management and outcome of lower eyelid entropion in 124 cats. Vet Ophthalmol. 2012;15:231-5 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the success rate of various surgical techniques for the management of lower eyelid entropion in cats. ? Retrospective study...
  35. Eliasoph I. Current techniques of entropion and ectropion correction. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2005;38:903-19 pubmed
  36. Aghai G, Gordiz A, Falavarjani K, Kashkouli M. Anterior lamellar recession, blepharoplasty, and supratarsal fixation for cicatricial upper eyelid entropion without lagophthalmos. Eye (Lond). 2016;30:627-31 pubmed publisher
    ..lamellar recession, blepharoplasty, and supratarsal fixation procedure in patients with upper eyelid cicatricial entropion without lagophthalmos...
  37. Babuccu O. An alternative approach for involutional entropion: a preliminary study. Lasers Med Sci. 2012;27:1009-12 pubmed publisher
    Involutional entropion is an inward rotation of the eyelid margin because of increased horizontal lid laxity, an overriding preseptal orbicularis, atrophied lid retractors, and involutional enophthalmos...
  38. Kakizaki H, Zako M, Kinoshita S, Iwaki M. Posterior layer advancement of the lower eyelid retractor in involutional entropion repair. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;23:292-5 pubmed
    To examine effectiveness of posterior layer advancement of the lower eyelid retractor in involutional entropion repair. Fifty lower eyelids (30 right and 20 left, average patient age 75...
  39. Olver J, Sathia P, Wright M. Lower eyelid medial canthal tendon laxity grading: an interobserver study of normal subjects. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:2321-5 pubmed
    ..quot; We propose this standardized grading system in the evaluation of patients with entropion and ectropion to identify those patients who may benefit from MCT stabilization/plication.
  40. Jones A, Gandhewar R, Prasad A, Blyth C. The consequences of abandonment of the bandage lens patient--the cause of an inflammatory iris nodule simulating metastasis from a transitional cell tumor of the bladder. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2005;28:135-6 pubmed
  41. Tonk R, Meyer D. Manual Provocation Test for Intermittent Involutional Entropion. Cornea. 2016;35:510-2 pubmed publisher
    To describe the manual provocation test (MPT), a novel test for intermittent involutional entropion of the lower eyelid...
  42. Ravage Z, Beck A, Macsai M, Ching S. Ocular rosacea can mimic trachoma: a case of cicatrizing conjunctivitis. Cornea. 2004;23:630-1 pubmed
    To report the case of a patient with upper eyelid chronic cicatrizing conjunctivitis and entropion, presumably secondary to ocular rosacea. Case report and review of medical literature...
  43. Guzey M, Ozardali I, Basar E, Aslan G, Satici A, Karadede S. A survey of trachoma: the histopathology and the mechanism of progressive cicatrization of eyelid tissues. Ophthalmologica. 2000;214:277-84 pubmed
    ..Specimens of eyelid tissues were taken from 27 upper eyelids of 21 patients with entropion who underwent surgical procedures and 2 post-mortem upper eyelids with severe trachomatous entropion...
  44. Della Rocca D. The lateral tarsal strip: illustrated pearls. Facial Plast Surg. 2007;23:200-2 pubmed
    ..The technique is easy to conceive but difficult to master. Awareness of its many indications and its limitations along with a working knowledge of its proper execution is necessary. ..
  45. Schmidt E, Meyer Ter Vehn T, Zillikens D, Geerling G. [Mucous membrane pemphigoid with ocular involvement. Part I: Clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and diagnosis]. Ophthalmologe. 2008;105:285-97; quiz 298 pubmed publisher
    ..subepithelial fibrosis, which leads to fornix shortening, symblepharon formation and subsequent trichiasis and entropion. Even in the absence of conjunctival inflammation, ankyloblepharon may occur...
  46. Read R, Broun H. Entropion correction in dogs and cats using a combination Hotz-Celsus and lateral eyelid wedge resection: results in 311 eyes. Vet Ophthalmol. 2007;10:6-11 pubmed
    A novel surgical combination technique for the correction of lateral lower lid entropion in dogs and cats is described, involving a combination of Hotz-Celsus and lateral eyelid wedge resection procedures...
  47. Yuksel D, Kosker M. The surgical treatment of congenital tarsal kink syndrome associated with corneal ulcer. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2011;42 Online:e126-8 pubmed publisher
    ..aponeurosis fibers were reattached to the tarsal incision line to create sufficient everting force for correction of the entropion. The tarsal kink disappeared and eyelid positions remained stable during a follow-up period of 2 years.
  48. Schaudig U, Heidari P, Schumacher S. [Lower lid entropion and ectropion. Indication, technique and key points of "classical" surgical methods]. Ophthalmologe. 2012;109:443-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this article is to consider the merits of a selection of standard methods for the correction of lower lid entropion and ectropion by describing their indication, technique and key points.
  49. Perry J. Re: Surgery without skin resection for eyelid entropion. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;54:114; author reply 114 pubmed
  50. Boboridis K, Bunce C. Interventions for involutional lower lid entropion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;:CD002221 pubmed publisher
    b>Entropion is a condition in which the eyelid margin turns in against the eyeball. Involutional or senile entropion is one of the most common lower lid malpositions in the elderly...
  51. Koreen I, Taich A, Elner V. Anterior lamellar recession with buccal mucous membrane grafting for cicatricial entropion. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25:180-4 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the use of anterior lamellar recession with buccal mucous membrane grafting for treatment of cicatricial entropion.
  52. Yagci A, Palamar M. Long-term results of tarsal margin rotation and extended posterior lamellae advancement for end stage trachoma. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;28:11-3 pubmed publisher
    ..the long-term results of tarsal margin rotation with extended posterior lamellae advancement in the management of cicatricial entropion, trichiasis, and accompanying misdirected metaplastic lashes of the upper eyelid due to trachoma.
  53. Sodhi P, Yadava U, Pandey R, Mehta D. Modified grey line split with anterior lamellar repositioning for treatment of cicatricial lid entropion. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 2002;33:169-74 pubmed
    ..of surgery of modified grey line split with anterior lamellar repositioning in patients with cicatricial lid entropion and to determine the risk factors of failure of the procedure, 40 patients (84 lids) with either lid involvement ..
  54. Serafino M, Bottoli A, Nucci P. Correction of congenital entropion of the lower eyelid: incisional versus rotational surgery. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:536-40 pubmed
    When, at birth, the eyelid margin is rolled inward against the globe, the condition is referred to as congenital entropion. Upper eyelid involvement is commonly associated with a tarsal abnormality, while lower eyelid entropion is often ..
  55. Khandekar R, Kidiyur S, Al Raisi A. Distichiasis and dysplastic eyelashes in trachomatous trichiasis cases in Oman: a case series. East Mediterr Health J. 2004;10:192-7 pubmed
    ..eyelashes were significantly more prevalent in trachomatous trichiasis cases aged < 50 years and those with entropion. Presence of distichiasis and/or dysplastic eyelashes in trachomatous trichiasis cases warrants further ..
  56. Bi Y, Zhou Q, Xu W, Rong A. Anterior lamellar repositioning with complete lid split: a modified method for treating upper eyelids trichiasis in Asian patients. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:1395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the modified operation - anterior lamellar repositioning with complete lid split - is an effective, personalized method for the treatment of upper eyelids trichiasis in Asian patients...
  57. Figueira E, Smith N, Wilcsek G, Francis I. Re: "facial nerve paralysis: an unrecognized cause of lower eyelid entropion in the pediatric population". Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;24:247; author reply 247-8 pubmed publisher
  58. Beigi B, Kashkouli M, Shaw A, Murthy R. Fornix fat prolapse as a sign for involutional entropion. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1608-12 pubmed publisher
    To compare horizontal and vertical laxity of lower eyelids in patients with unilateral lower eyelid involutional entropion, introduce a reliable and common finding in involutional entropion, and review the literature.
  59. Balogun B, Adekoya B, Balogun M, Ngwu R, Oworu O. Ectropion and entropion in sub-Saharan Africa: how do we differ?. Ann Afr Med. 2013;12:193-6 pubmed publisher
    To study the etiopathophysiology of ectropion and entropion in a sub-Saharan tertiary eye care center and examine how it differs from reports elsewhere.
  60. Pasco N, Kikkawa D, Korn B, Punja K, Jones M. Facial nerve paralysis: an unrecognized cause of lower eyelid entropion in the pediatric population. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;23:126-9 pubmed
    To describe the association between entropion and pediatric facial nerve paralysis in the pediatric population.
  61. Ziahosseini K, Odat T. Correction of involutional entropion with suborbicularis septal and lateral canthal tightening. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:747-8; author reply 748-9 pubmed
  62. Altieri M, Iester M, Harman F, Bertagno R, Capris P, Venzano D, et al. Comparison of three techniques for repair of involutional lower lid entropion: a three-year follow-up study. Ophthalmologica. 2003;217:265-72 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to quantify the efficacy of three different surgical techniques for entropion repair in a 3-year follow-up study: (1) the Fox procedure, (2) everting sutures and (3) a modified technique of lower lid retractor ..
  63. Hayasaka Y, Hayasaka S. Epiblepharon with inverted eyelashes and high body mass index in Japanese children. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2005;42:300-3 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the sexual predilection of epiblepharon in Japanese children and the relationship between this condition and body mass index...
  64. Sodhi P, Yadava U, Mehta D. Efficacy of lamellar division for correcting cicatricial lid entropion and its associated features unrectified by the tarsal fracture technique. Orbit. 2002;21:9-17 pubmed
    To determine the efficacy of lamellar division for correcting cicatricial lid entropion and its associated features unrectified by the tarsal fracture technique.
  65. Marabotti A, Bedei A, Lanza G, Cariello A, Giannecchini I. Involutional entropion surgery: a modified technique. Ophthalmologica. 2001;215:169-73 pubmed
    A study to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified procedure to correct involutional entropion.
  66. Yeruh I, van Straten M, Elad D. Entropion, corneal ulcer and corneal haemorrhages in a one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2002;49:409-10 pubmed
    An unusual case of entropion, corneal ulcer and corneal haemorrhages in a one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) is described...
  67. Bernardini F, Rose G, Cruz A, Priolo E. Gross enophthalmos after cerebrospinal fluid shunting for childhood hydrocephalus: the "silent brain syndrome". Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25:434-6 pubmed publisher
    ..bilateral enophthalmos, bridging of all the tarsal plates off the ocular surface with secondary upper eyelid entropion, and significant lagophthalmos, associated with diffuse keratopathy...
  68. Damasceno R, Heindl L, Hofmann Rummelt C, Belfort R, Schlötzer Schrehardt U, Kruse F, et al. Pathogenesis of involutional ectropion and entropion: the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in elastic fiber degradation. Orbit. 2011;30:132-9 pubmed publisher
    To determine the elastic fiber content and ultrastructure as well as the expression of elastin-degrading enzymes in biopsy specimens from patients with involutional ectropion and entropion.
  69. Aziz S, Bhatt P, Lavy T, Dutton G. A simple correction for congenital tarsal kink associated with distichiasis. J AAPOS. 2006;10:281-2 pubmed
    ..Repair by means of eyelid everting sutures via an anterior lamellar approach is presented as a novel technique to correct this congenital anomaly...
  70. Kowal L. Re: "congenitally enlarged extraocular muscles: can congenital thyroid eye disease exist in a euthyroid infant?". Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;23:253; author reply 253 pubmed
  71. Melese M, West E, Alemayehu W, Munoz B, Worku A, Gaydos C, et al. Characteristics of trichiasis patients presenting for surgery in rural Ethiopia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89:1084-8 pubmed
    ..To determine the characteristics of trichiasis patients presenting for surgery in Wolayta Zone of Ethiopia...
  72. West S. Blinding trachoma: prevention with the safe strategy. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69:18-23 pubmed
    ..The currently recommended surgery for trichiasis/entropion, antibiotics for active disease, facial cleanliness, and environmental change to reduce transmission (SAFE) ..
  73. Barrett R, Meyer D, Carlson J. Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in situ in the anophthalmic socket. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;26:52-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Examination revealed upper and lower eyelid cicatricial entropion with areas of symblephara and conjunctival scarring causing forniceal shortening...
  74. Sodhi P, Verma L. Comment on involutional lower lid entropion techniques. Ophthalmologica. 2004;218:219; author reply 220 pubmed
  75. Kakizaki H, Takahashi Y, Kang H, Ikeda H, Iwaki M, Selva D, et al. No histological evidence of orbicularis oculi muscle hypertrophy in congenital epiblepharon. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013;41:167-71 pubmed publisher
  76. Gu J, Wang Z, Sun M, Yuan J, Chen J. Posterior lamellar eyelid reconstruction with acellular dermis allograft in severe cicatricial entropion. Ann Plast Surg. 2009;62:268-74 pubmed publisher
    Severe cicatricial entropion is a serious condition, which may threaten the vision of the affected patient. To date, surgical repair of this condition has been difficult and associated with a high degree of failure...
  77. Krasny J, Sach J. [The application of Dysport® - the possibilities of the side effect on the eyelids position (a clinical - histological study)]. Cesk Slov Oftalmol. 2012;68:216-20 pubmed
    ..At the same moment, the authors report on literature analysis of positive and negative influence of this neuro toxine from the medical point of view...
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    Management of trachomatous cicatricial entropion of the upper eye lid presents a difficult problem. Many surgical approaches have been developed to address it...
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    involutional lower eyelid entropion is a common ophthalmic condition requiring surgical correction.
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    Cicatricial entropion with trichiasis can be a challenging problem to manage. This condition is caused by scarring of the tarsus and the inward rotation or the defect of the lid margin...
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    Involutional entropion, a condition in which the lower eyelid margin is rotated inward, occurs often in elderly people. It can result in corneal and conjunctival irritation by the inverted eyelashes...
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    ..A 28-year-old woman with cicatricial entropion from Stevens-Johnson syndrome had recurrent keratinization of the tarsal conjunctiva...
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    ..To examine whether the lower eyelid retractor consists of a single layer or multiple layers...
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    b>Entropion and ectropion are very common among old people. These malpositions concern mostly the lower lids...
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    ..Funduscopy resulted in a diagnosis of ocular albinism. Further investigations, specifically, microscopy of her platelets, led us to conclude that she had Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome...
  87. Ali Z, Zaffar D, Kazmi H, Shah A. Anterior lamellar marginal z-plasty with transverse tarsotomy for management of trichiasis with cicatricial entropion--a new surgical approach. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2012;24:129-32 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study is to report the efficacy of the anterior lamellar marginal z-plasty combined with transverse tarsotomy in the management of severe trichiasis andcicatricial entropion of upper eyelid.
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    ..Congenital tarsal kink should be included in the differential diagnosis of congenital corneal opacity and ulceration. Early recognition and surgical intervention reduces corneal scarring...