Summary: The turning outward (eversion) of the edge of the eyelid, resulting in the exposure of the palpebral conjunctiva. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Jacobs S. Prophylactic lateral canthopexy in lower blepharoplasties. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2003;5:267-71 pubmed
    ..Herein, I describe a simple method of canthopexy that can be performed on most patients having a lower blepharoplasty, to not only achieve a cosmetically superior result but also to prevent eyelid malposition or ectropion.
  2. Kostakoglu N, Ozcan G. Orbicularis oculi myocutaneous flap in reconstruction of postburn lower eyelid ectropion. Burns. 1999;25:553-7 pubmed
    The management of postburn lower eyelid ectropion is difficult, since the contraction of the skin graft may give rise to secondary deformities especially around the lateral 1/3 of the lower eyelid...
  3. Vallabhanath P, Carter S. Ectropion and entropion. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2000;11:345-51 pubmed
    This article reviews the etiology and classification of ectropion and entropion, two of the more common eyelid conditions seen by the ophthalmologist...
  4. Hayashi A, Maruyama Y, Okada E, Ogino A. Use of a suture anchor for correction of ectropion in facial paralysis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115:234-9 pubmed
  5. Soysal H, Kiratli H, Recep O. Anthrax as the cause of preseptal cellulitis and cicatricial ectropion. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2001;79:208-9 pubmed
    ..Following complete healing of the eyelid lesions, significant cicatricial ectropion resulted...
  6. Mitchell P, Hinchcliffe P, Wang J, Rochtchina E, Foran S. Prevalence and associations with ectropion in an older population: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2001;29:108-10 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of eyelid ectropion and its associations with sunlight-related and other ocular variables, plus systemic factors, in an older Australian population...
  7. Papalkar D, Francis I, Wilcsek G. Correction of ectropion in facial paralysis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;117:677; author reply 677-8 pubmed
  8. Liebau J, Schulz A, Arens A, Tilkorn H, Schwipper V. Management of lower lid ectropion. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:1050-6; discussion 1056-7 pubmed
    b>Ectropion repair is a challenge in plastic surgery. Depending on the etiology of the underlying problem, a variety of surgical techniques are available. The etiology, operative management, and recurrence rate are presented.
  9. Caviggioli F, Klinger F, Villani F, Fossati C, Vinci V, Klinger M. Correction of cicatricial ectropion by autologous fat graft. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2008;32:555-7 pubmed publisher
    ..application has been widened to include treatment for scars resulting from surgical correction of cicatricial ectropion. In fact, although standard surgery with flaps and skin grafts can grant significant functional and cosmetic ..

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Fezza J. Nonsurgical treatment of cicatricial ectropion with hyaluronic acid filler. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:1009-14 pubmed publisher
    Cicatricial lower eyelid ectropion is caused by a shortening of the anterior lamella, with resultant eversion of the eyelid away from the globe...
  2. Schrom T, Habermann A. Temporary ectropion therapy by adhesive taping: a case study. Head Face Med. 2008;4:12 pubmed publisher
    Various surgical procedures are available to correct paralytic ectropion, which are applied in irreversible facial paresis...
  3. Kaya A, Buyukberber S, Coskun U, Yildiz R, Ozturk B, Yaman E, et al. Acute erythema and edematous skin reaction and ectropion following docetaxel in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2008;27:327-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Docetaxel-associated skin reactions that are so extensive and severe as to lead to eye madarosis and ectropion are reported rarely in the literature.
  4. Kocaoglu F, Katircioglu Y, Tok O, Pulat H, Ornek F. The histopathology of involutional ectropion and entropion. Can J Ophthalmol. 2009;44:677-9 pubmed publisher
    Involutional ectropion and entropion are characterized by excessive horizontal eyelid length, which is thought to be secondary to laxity of the medial and lateral canthal tendons and to the stretching of the tarsus...
  5. Mandal S, Bhakta A, Mandal A, Biswas B. Giant mass conjunctival rhinosporidiosis causing severe mechanical ectropion. J Indian Med Assoc. 2012;110:328-9 pubmed
    ..This mass caused dragging of lower lid to produce mechanical ectropion. On examination there was a pedunculated polypoidal broad based conjunctival mass originated from inferior ..
  6. Culican S, Custer P. Repair of cicatricial ectropion in an infant with harlequin ichthyosis using engineered human skin. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:442-3 pubmed
    To report the use of an Apligraf (Organogenesis, Inc., Canton, Massachusetts, USA) human skin equivalent for repair of cicatricial ectropion in a patient with harlequin ichthyosis.
  7. Harasymowycz P, Papamatheakis D, Eagle R, Wilson R. Congenital ectropion uveae and glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124:271-3 pubmed
  8. Khadavi N, Lew H, Goldberg R, Mancini R. A case of acute reversible Charles Bonnet syndrome following postsurgical unilateral eye patch placement. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;26:302-4 pubmed publisher
    ..or psychiatric history presented for surgical follow-up after uncomplicated right lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion surgery with postoperative unilateral, eye patch placement complaining of visual hallucinations...
  9. Shen Y, Li J, Ow A, Wang L, Lv M, Sun J. Acceptable clinical outcomes and recommended reconstructive strategies for secondary maxillary reconstruction with vascularized fibula osteomyocutaneous flap: A retrospective analysis. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017;70:341-351 pubmed publisher
    ..of some patients with class 3 defects were not satisfactory because of midfacial collapse and lower eyelid ectropion. Stepwise regression analysis showed radiotherapy to be a risk factor for prognosis...
  10. de Groot A, Poelhuis J. Ectropion caused by periocular dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44:385-6 pubmed
    A 78-year-old woman had ectropion of both lower eyelids 4 weeks after the appearance of dermatitis around the eyes. Treatment with topical corticosteroids resulted in disappearance of both dermatitis and ectropion within 10 days...
  11. Bernardino C. Correction of ectropion in facial paralysis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;117:1351-2; author reply 1352 pubmed
  12. Zhang L, He J, Han B, Lu L, Fan J, Zhang H, et al. Novel FOXC2 Mutation in Hereditary Distichiasis Impairs DNA-Binding Activity and Transcriptional Activation. Int J Biol Sci. 2016;12:1114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical examinations showed distichiasis, lower eyelid ectropion, congenital ptosis and photophobia in all affected individuals...
  13. Kievit A, Tessadori F, Douben H, Jordens I, Maurice M, Hoogeboom J, et al. Variants in members of the cadherin-catenin complex, CDH1 and CTNND1, cause blepharocheilodontic syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2018;26:210-219 pubmed publisher
    Blepharocheilodontic syndrome (BCDS) consists of lagophthalmia, ectropion of the lower eyelids, distichiasis, euryblepharon, cleft lip/palate and dental anomalies and has autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expression...
  14. Hwang K, Lee D, Lee E, Chung I, Lee S. Innervation of the lower eyelid in relation to blepharoplasty and midface lift: clinical observation and cadaveric study. Ann Plast Surg. 2001;47:1-5; discussion 5-7 pubmed
    b>Ectropion or scleral show resulting from weakness of the lower eyelids is not uncommon after lower blepharoplasty or midface lift via blepharoplasty incision...
  15. Eliasoph I. Current techniques of entropion and ectropion correction. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2005;38:903-19 pubmed
  16. Yen M. Correspondence: avoiding lower eyelid ectropion after full thickness skin grafting. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59:202-3 pubmed
  17. Garza R, Lee G, Press B. Tarsal ectropion repair and lower blepharoplasty: A case report and review of literature. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2012;65:249-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Ectropion is frequently encountered in plastic surgery. A variety of etiologies exist, but tarsal ectropion, defined as complete eversion of the tarsal plate and its overlying conjunctiva, is rarely considered...
  18. Costagliola M. [General principles of burn reconstruction]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2011;56:354-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Exception in presence of severe contracture (growth disturbance, unstable scars, corneal exposure with ectropion, severe microstomia) Occupational and physical therapy, scar management, compressive techniques, psychotherapy ..
  19. Krastinova D, Franchi G, Kelly M, Chabolle F. Rehabilitation of the paralysed or lax lower eyelid using a graft of conchal cartilage. Br J Plast Surg. 2002;55:12-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that autologous conchal cartilage grafting is an effective procedure for improving both the function and the appearance of the atonic lower eyelid. ..
  20. Della Rocca D. The lateral tarsal strip: illustrated pearls. Facial Plast Surg. 2007;23:200-2 pubmed
    ..The technique is easy to conceive but difficult to master. Awareness of its many indications and its limitations along with a working knowledge of its proper execution is necessary. ..
  21. Balogun B, Adekoya B, Balogun M, Ngwu R, Oworu O. Ectropion and entropion in sub-Saharan Africa: how do we differ?. Ann Afr Med. 2013;12:193-6 pubmed publisher
    To study the etiopathophysiology of ectropion and entropion in a sub-Saharan tertiary eye care center and examine how it differs from reports elsewhere.
  22. Komatsu K, Matsuda H, Takahashi Y, Nakano T. Recurrent Lower Eyelid Ectropion After Graft Surgery Using Autogenous Palmaris Longus Tendon. J Craniofac Surg. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    A 78-year-old male experienced right lower eyelid ectropion following right facial trauma from a fall 5 years ago, for which he underwent autogenous palmaris longus tendon graft surgery at another clinic...
  23. Tuncer S, Yavuzer R, Kandal S, Demir Y, Ozmen S, Latifoglu O, et al. Reconstruction of traumatic orbital floor fractures with resorbable mesh plate. J Craniofac Surg. 2007;18:598-605 pubmed
    ..In this patient anterior displacement of mesh was evident which caused ectropion and enophthalmos and required re-operation...
  24. Obi E, McDonald A, Kemp E. A bilateral cicatricial ectropion and bilateral upper lid shortening caused by 5-fluorouracil toxicity in a patient with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2011;30:157-9 pubmed publisher
    Well-known causes of a cicatrizing ectropion are chemical/thermal injuries, dermatitis, cutaneous diseases, malignancies, and trauma...
  25. Wu P, Matoo R, Sun H, Song L, Kikkawa D, Lu W. Single-stage soft tissue reconstruction and orbital fracture repair for complex facial injuries. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017;70:e1-e6 pubmed publisher
    ..4, 95%CI (3.05-3.73). Residual diplopia in secondary gazes was present in two patients; one patient had ectropion. Complications included one case of local wound infection...
  26. De Castro D, Ng Z, Holzer P, Waner M, Cetrulo C, Fay A. One-Stage Supramaximal Full-Thickness Wedge Resection of Vascular Lip Anomalies. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;75:2449-2455 pubmed publisher
    ..recommendation that no more than 30% of lip length be surgically removed, vascular lip anomalies result in tissue hypertrophy, horizontal elongation, ectropion labii, and tissue expansion that allow up to 70% of the lip to be excised.
  27. Mandrekas A, Zambacos G, Anastasopoulos A. Treatment of bilateral severe eyelid burns with skin grafts: an odyssey. Burns. 2002;28:80-6 pubmed
    ..The patient was first operated at 2 years post-injury, and a total of 5 operations in 5 years were necessary to address recurrent ectropion of both upper and lower eyelids.
  28. Grishkevich V. The elimination of postburn nasal contracture in children with trapeze-flap plasty. J Burn Care Res. 2011;32:566-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The dorsum nose scar stretching delays nasal development, pulls the nose up, making it shorter, and causes nasal ectropion. Secondary deformity of the nose's solid structures develops as a consequence of scar contracture, and its ..
  29. Pérez Dieste J, Castroviejo Bolíbar M. Eyelid ectropion caused by glasses. Mechanical centurion syndrome. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2013;88:80-2 pubmed publisher
    ..On examining the patient with her glasses on, both lower eyelids presented an inner third ectropion. Once the diagnosis was established and the mechanical factor resolved, the clinical symptoms improved within a ..
  30. Patipa M. The evaluation and management of lower eyelid retraction following cosmetic surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;106:438-53; discussion 454-9 pubmed
    ..Appropriate surgery, which is determined on the basis of the preoperative evaluation, has allowed for the correction of these previously difficult-to-treat lower eyelid malpositions with minimal complications. ..
  31. Menke T, Moschner S, Joachimmeyer E, Ahrens P, Geerling G. [Congenital ectropion in ichthyosis congenita mitis and gravis]. Ophthalmologe. 2006;103:410-5 pubmed
    ..Skin alterations in the eyelid cause shortening of the anterior lamella, subsequently resulting in ectropion. This affects the upper eyelid more often than the lower and can lead to complications such as chronic palpebral ..
  32. Higaki F, Noma K, Takahashi Y, Kakizaki H. A case of medial ectropion cured after canaliculoplasty and intubation. Orbit. 2013;32:60-2 pubmed publisher
    ..He was diagnosed with left lower eyelid medial ectropion and bilateral lacrimal obstructions...
  33. Jian X, Liu J. A new surgical approach to extensive tumors in the pterygomaxillary fossa and the skull base. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003;95:156-62 pubmed
    ..All patients healed per primum. This technique is especially useful for excising tumors in the nasopharynx, clivus, superior orbital fissure-cavernous sinus, and infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossa. ..
  34. Clement C, O Donnell B. Medial canthal tendon repair for moderate to severe tendon laxity. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2004;32:170-4 pubmed
    ..This is an effective procedure in the majority of patients with moderate to severe medial canthal tendon laxity; however, residual lower lid laxity persisted in some patients. ..
  35. Parodi P, Faini G, De Biasio F, Rampino Cordaro E, Guarneri G, Miani F. Full-thickness lower eyelid reconstruction with a conchal chondro-perichondral graft and local coverage with Mio-cutaneous flaps--our divisional experience. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:1826-32 pubmed publisher
  36. Wiwatwongwana D, Rootman J. Bilateral microphthalmos with cyst: excision with orbital free fat graft. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25:241-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment consisted of bilateral cyst removal and free fat grafts for volume replacement, which yielded good cosmetic results with reduction of right globe displacement. ..
  37. Liu X, Tang X. [Congenital ectropion uvea and secondary glaucoma]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2009;45:888-91 pubmed
    To investigate the clinical features of congenital ectropion uvea (CEU) and the relationship between CEU and secondary glaucoma. This is a retrospective case series...
  38. Yu L, Zhang J, Wang J, Wang Y, Zhang Z. [Repairing of upper cicatricial ectropion with orbicularis oculi myocutaneous flap in construction of double eyelid]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2007;23:13-5 pubmed
    To investigate a method for upper cicatricial ectropion correction using a rotated orbicularis oculi myocutaneous flap in the unsatisfied pre-operative construction of double eyelid...
  39. Damasceno R, Osaki M, Dantas P, Belfort R. Involutional entropion and ectropion of the lower eyelid: prevalence and associated risk factors in the elderly population. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27:317-20 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of involutional entropion and ectropion of the lower eyelid in the elderly population; to examine how these disorders are related to gender, age, skin color, and axial ocular globe projection; and to define ..
  40. Raschke G, Rieger U, Bader R, Schäfer O, Schultze Mosgau S. Objective anthropometric analysis of eyelid reconstruction procedures. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2013;41:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..lid height, upper iris coverage, lower iris coverage, position of cornea to palpebra inferior, scleral show, ectropion, and canthal tilt. We clearly differentiated between resections including eyelid margin or not. Time (p = 0...
  41. Koller J, Hintersteininger A, Brugger Jentsch K. Modified subcutaneously pedicled flap. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2015;13:1200-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This offsets any potential distal tension on the flap and has thus proven beneficial in preventing an ectropion.
  42. Raschke G, Djedovic G, Peisker A, Wohlrath R, Rieger U, Guentsch A, et al. The isolated orbital floor fracture from a transconjunctival or subciliary perspective-A standardized anthropometric evaluation. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2016;21:e111-7 pubmed
    ..lid height, upper and lower iris coverage, position of cornea to palpebra inferior, canthal tilt, scleral show, ectropion and entropion...
  43. Burroughs J, Soparkar C, Patrinely J. Rotation mattress suture: a powerful adjunct for ectropion correction. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;19:404-6 pubmed
    We describe an effective adjunctive suture technique for severe forms of both tarsal and marginal ectropion in a case series of 28 patients undergoing the rotation mattress suture technique for ectropion repair...
  44. Chua J, Choo C, Seah L, Fong K, Chee S, Chuah C, et al. A 5-year retrospective review of Asian ectropion: how does it compare to ectropion amongst non-Asians?. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2011;40:84-9 pubmed
    This study reviews the differences in demographics and surgical outcomes between ectropion in Asian and non-Asian eyes. Medical records of surgically corrected ectropion cases from January 2002 to December 2006 were reviewed...
  45. Ahmed S, Ahmed H. [Keratopathy versus allergic eye disease: misdiagnosis leading to keratitis]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2014;176: pubmed
    A case report of involutional ectropion associated with exposure keratopathy - which complicated to exposure keratitis due to incorrect management is presented...
  46. Nemoto H, Togo T, Maruyama N, Miyabe K, Nakae S, Sumiya N. Orbicularis oculi muscle tightening for involutional entropion. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017;70:946-951 pubmed publisher
    ..Fifty-six patients (70 eyelids) were evaluated. The mean operation time was 37.6 min. Postoperative ectropion (over-correction) was observed in 1 patient (1.4%); a local skin flap was performed for this patient...
  47. Putterman A. Blotter technique to determine the size of skin grafts. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;112:335-6 pubmed
  48. Morchen M, Emmerich K. [Bilateral keratitis in lagophthalmos and lower lid ectropion]. Ophthalmologe. 2004;101:939-40 pubmed
  49. Cavuoto K, Hui J. Congenital eyelid eversion. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2010;47 Online:e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors present an unusual case requiring multiple surgical interventions in a newborn child. A previously undescribed method that restored anatomic eyelid position in this patient is also outlined...
  50. Miletić D, Elabjer B, Bosnar D, Bušić M. Our approach to operative treatment of lower lid ectropion. Acta Clin Croat. 2010;49:283-7 pubmed
    b>Ectropion is a malposition of eyelid in which the eyelid is pulled away from the globe. It is classified in the following categories: congenital and acquired, which may be involutional, paralytic, cicatricial and mechanical...
  51. Frueh B, Su C. Medial tarsal suspension: a method of elevating the medial lower eyelid. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;18:133-7 pubmed
    ..Medial canthal tendon tightening creates mostly horizontal tension and contributes little vertical vector. We present a technique for applying a lifting force to the medial end of the eyelid: medial tarsal suspension...
  52. Toledano Fernández N, García Sáenz S, Arteaga Sánchez A, Diaz Valle D, Sánchez Cruz J. [Paralytic ectropion correction with porous polyethylene spacer by subciliar external approach]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2002;77:537-42 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of porous polyethylene spacer in paralytic ectropion.
  53. Irak I, Soll S, Camacho J. Junctional epidermolysis bullosa in a young patient. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2003;40:168-9 pubmed
  54. Rose E. Autogenous fascia lata grafts: clinical applications in reanimation of the totally or partially paralyzed face. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116:20-32; discussion 33-5 pubmed
  55. Lucci L, Baldin A, Fonseca N, Rehder J. [Bipedicle myocutaneous flap for cicatricial ectropion correction]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2006;69:187-92 pubmed
    To evaluate the correction of lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion due to shrinking of anterior lamela with the surgical technique of bipedicle myocutaneous flap from the upper eyelid.
  56. Seymenoğlu G, Baser E. Congenital iris ectropion associated with juvenile glaucoma. Int Ophthalmol. 2011;31:33-8 pubmed publisher
    Congenital iris ectropion is an uncommon malformation of the anterior segment of the eye. The authors describe a case of bilateral congenital iris ectropion associated with juvenile glaucoma in an otherwise healthy 9-year-old girl...
  57. Damasceno R, Heindl L, Hofmann Rummelt C, Belfort R, Schlötzer Schrehardt U, Kruse F, et al. Pathogenesis of involutional ectropion and entropion: the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in elastic fiber degradation. Orbit. 2011;30:132-9 pubmed publisher
    To determine the elastic fiber content and ultrastructure as well as the expression of elastin-degrading enzymes in biopsy specimens from patients with involutional ectropion and entropion.
  58. Magli A, Bonavolonta P, Forte R, Vassallo P. Lower eyelid surgery for lagophthalmos in Möbius and Poland-Möbius syndromes. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:e53-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with Möbius and Poland-Möbius syndromes may experience paralytic lagophthalmos...
  59. Koktekir B, Bakbak B, Karamese M, Gedik S, Tosun Z. Scleral perforation complicating titanium mesh plaque in orbital blowout fracture. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:964-5 pubmed publisher
    ..reconstruction surgery for left orbital blowout fracture and recent revision surgery for left cicatricial ectropion was admitted to the ophthalmology outpatient clinic with a 20-mm irregular conjunctival and scleral incision in ..
  60. Craiglow B. Ichthyosis in the newborn. Semin Perinatol. 2013;37:26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews presentations of ichthyosis in the neonate, outlines risks and complications, and provides strategies for management...
  61. Romero R, Sánchez Orgaz M, Granados M, Arbizu A, Castano A, Romero A, et al. Use of hyaluronic acid gel in the management of cicatricial ectropion: results and complications. Orbit. 2013;32:362-5 pubmed publisher
    To report our experience using hyaluronic acid gel injection in the lower eyelid to treat cicatricial ectropion.
  62. Lemke B, Cook B, Lucarelli M. Canthus-sparing ectropion repair. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;17:161-8 pubmed
    To describe a novel surgical technique for lower eyelid ectropion repair that avoids canthotomy and cantholysis and can be used in combination with external levator repair and/or in combination with blepharoplasty.
  63. Adenis J, Grivet D. Ectropion of the lacrimal point: the shoelace technique. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:267-70 pubmed
    To describe an alternative technique to repair the ectropion of the lacrimal point, either alone or combined with an ectropion related to outer angle laxity.
  64. Calderon W, Rinaldi B, Ortega J, Calderon D, Leniz P. The V-Y advancement for lower eyelid defect in preventing ectropion. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;118:557-8; author reply 558-9 pubmed
  65. Garibaldi D, Adler R. Cicatricial ectropion associated with treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer with cetuximab. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;23:62-3 pubmed with metastatic colon cancer who had development of periocular skin toxicity, madarosis, and cicatricial ectropion after the addition of weekly cetuximab infusions to his baseline chemotherapy...
  66. Exner K, Kuhn T. [Gillies and McLaughlin's dynamic muscle support in irreversible facial palsy]. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2010;42:102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There are still some indications for these procedures. The long-term follow-up of 93 patients with Gillies procedure and 180 patients with McLaughlin's muscle support gives a sound base for decision making in facial reanimation...
  67. Kerkeni N, El Fekih N, Fazaa B, Zeglaoui F, Mnif E, Kamoun M. A delayed diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy: pitfalls and clues to early recognition. Int J Dermatol. 2011;50:1383-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To remind special attention to atypical symptoms of Hansen's disease, we report a case of an atypical case due to a delayed diagnosis...
  68. Schaudig U, Heidari P, Schumacher S. [Lower lid entropion and ectropion. Indication, technique and key points of "classical" surgical methods]. Ophthalmologe. 2012;109:443-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this article is to consider the merits of a selection of standard methods for the correction of lower lid entropion and ectropion by describing their indication, technique and key points.
  69. Zilinsky I, Farber N, Weissman O, Israeli H, Winkler E, Haik J. The temporal suspension flap for malar defects: a novel technique. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12:206-7 pubmed
    ..This technique is especially valuable in facilitating precise approximation of grafts within the fossae of the anterior ear. In our experience, this approach promotes graft survival and produces excellent cosmetic results...
  70. Kashkouli M, Beigi B, Murthy R, Astbury N. Acquired external punctal stenosis: etiology and associated findings. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:1079-84 pubmed
    ..PURPOSE; To investigate the underlying causes of acquired external punctal stenosis (AEPS) and assess the associated tear drainage problems...
  71. Miyamoto J, Nakajima T, Nagasao T, Shimada T. Blepharocheilodontic syndrome: surgical management of euryblepharon and nocturnal eyelid eversion. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;114:138-41 pubmed
  72. Viana G, Sant Anna A, Righetti F, Osaki M. Floppy eyelid syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:333e-334e pubmed publisher
  73. Procianoy F, Barbato M, Osowski L, Bocaccio F, Bakos L. Cicatricial ectropion correction in a patient with pyoderma gangrenosum: case report. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2009;72:384-6 pubmed
    ..female with pyoderma gangrenosum was referred to the oculoplastic clinic for evaluation of severe cicatricial ectropion of the right lower eyelid...
  74. Harvey H, Shaw M, Morrell D. Perinatal management of harlequin ichthyosis: a case report and literature review. J Perinatol. 2010;30:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..the HI phenotype is striking with thick hyperkeratotic plate-like scales with deep dermal fissures, severe ectropion and eclabium, among other findings...
  75. Pfaff M, Chang C, Patel A, Steinbacher D. Bridge of bone canthopexy: technique and morphologic assessment. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2013;66:675-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple techniques have been proposed to restore lower eyelid position. The purpose of this study is to report on a modified bridge of bone canthopexy technique and assess its effect on lower eyelid and palpebral fissure restoration...
  76. Manna A, Mehta P, Ahluwalia H. Levator-Muller's muscle recession with tarsorrhaphy: a technique for corneal protection in cases with cicatricial upper eyelid retraction. Orbit. 2013;32:190-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a one-stage technique of levator and Muller's muscle recession combined with a tarsorrhaphy used in four patients with an impending corneal perforation due to cicatricial lagophthalmos...
  77. Tawfik H, Elraey H. Orbital myxoma: a case report. Orbit. 2013;32:200-2 pubmed publisher
    Orbital myxomas are extremely rare tumors. We describe a 75-year old male patient with lower eyelid ectropion and 8-mm of left non-axial proptosis. Orbital CT and MRI revealed a well-demarcated lesion in the lateral quadrant of the orbit...
  78. Davies R. Surgical options for eyelid problems. Aust Fam Physician. 2002;31:239-45 pubmed
    ..Eyelid problems may be vision threatening, painful, irritating, cause watering, or just unsightly. Many are treatable surgically...
  79. Cheung D, Sandramouli S. Consecutive ectropion after the Wies procedure. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20:64-8 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical features and management difficulties of the ectropions after Wies procedure for lower eyelid involutional entropion in 4 patients...
  80. Memarzadeh F, Shamie N, Gaster R, Chuck R. Corneal and conjunctival toxicity from hydrogen peroxide: a patient with chronic self-induced injury. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:1546-9 pubmed
    ..To report a patient with severe corneal and conjunctival toxicity from long-term, habitual use of hydrogen peroxide as an eye wash...
  81. Hashikawa K, Tahara S, Nakahara M, Sanno T, Hanagaki H, Tsuji Y, et al. Total lower lid support with auricular cartilage graft. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115:880-4 pubmed
  82. Singh A, Atkinson P. Ocular manifestations of congenital lamellar ichthyosis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:118-22 pubmed
    ..These cases presented with varying types of eyelid abnormality associated with the systemic disease. The clinical features and ophthalmic management were studied...
  83. Moe K, Kao C. Precaruncular medial canthopexy. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2005;7:244-50 pubmed
    ..To describe a new 3-dimensional technique for medial canthal repositioning, precaruncular medial canthopexy (PMC), and to present an outcome study demonstrating its efficacy...
  84. Sharma B, Sharma M. Severe post thermal burn cicatricial ectropion with corneal ulceration: an illustrative case. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2005;44:102-5 pubmed
    ..We present a case of corneal ulceration associated with postburn cicatricial ectropion presenting 10 years following the initial trauma...
  85. Gassia V. [Prevention and management of locoregional complications of botulinum A toxin injections in cosmetic treatment]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2009;136 Suppl 4:S146-51 pubmed publisher
    ..They are rare, moderate, transitory, and totally reversible. Properly informing and selecting patients will contribute to successfully preventing and managing these effects...
  86. Kumar V, Kumar K, Chanana B, Rohatgi J, Gupta V. Congenital ectropion uveae with iris coloboma and telecanthus. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011;34:147-8 pubmed publisher
    Congenital ectropion uveae (CEU) is a rare, non progressive anomaly characterised by the presence of iris pigment epithelium on the anterior surface and is frequently associated with anterior iris insertion, dysgenesis of the drainage ..
  87. Raschke G, Rieger U, Bader R, Schäfer O, Schultze Mosgau S. Standardized anthropometric evaluation of ectropion repair results. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:1032-7 pubmed publisher
    Before undergoing ectropion repair, most patients are concerned not only about the functional result, but also about their postoperative aesthetic appearance...
  88. Barrow R, Jeschke M, Herndon D. Early release of third-degree eyelid burns prevents eye injury. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;105:860-3 pubmed
    ..Burn wound contracture can cause ectropion of the eyelid, resulting in exposure keratitis, corneal ulcers, and conjunctivitis...
  89. Rubin P, Mykula R, Griffiths R. Ectropion following excision of lower eyelid tumours and full thickness skin graft repair. Br J Plast Surg. 2005;58:353-60 pubmed
    A retrospective review was performed to define the incidence of post operative lower eyelid ectropion after excision and full thickness grafting of lower eyelid tumours...
  90. Schellini S, Sampaio Junior A. [Subperiosteal midface lift: an alternative to correct the cicatricial eyelid ectropion]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2005;68:527-31 pubmed
    To show the subperiosteal midface lift as an option to treat cicatricial eyelid ectropion.
  91. Tenea D, Jacyk W. What syndrome is this? Barber-Say syndrome. Pediatr Dermatol. 2006;23:183-4 pubmed
  92. Kopsachilis N, Tsaousis K, Tourtas T, Tsinopoulos I. Severe chronic blepharitis and scarring ectropion associated with discoid lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Optom. 2013;96:124-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The eyelid inflammation decreased but severe scarring of the marginal eyelids persisted, resulting in cicatricial ectropion.