blepharoptosis

Summary

Summary: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.

Top Publications

  1. Keyhani K, Ashenhurst M. Modified technique and ptosis clamp for surgical correction of congenital pediatric ptosis by anterior levator resection. Facial Plast Surg. 2007;23:156-61 pubmed
    ..The author has utilized this clamp and modified technique in over 350 lid surgeries over the past ten years...
  2. Matsuo K, Ban R. Surgical desensitisation of the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle relieves chronic tension-type headache caused by tonic reflexive contraction of the occipitofrontalis muscle in patients with aponeurotic blepharoptosis. J Plast Surg Hand Surg. 2013;47:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In aponeurotic blepharoptosis, since the levator aponeurosis is disinserted from the tarsus, stretching of the mechanoreceptors in Müller's ..
  3. Evereklioglu C. 'Kite-tail' fascia lata strips technique: frontalis suspension using a non-endoscopic minimally invasive single-thigh incision approach. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:570-5 pubmed publisher
    To introduce 'kite-tail' strips or a 'multiple Z-plasty' technique on an autogenous fascia lata graft without a stripper to correct severe blepharoptosis by frontalis suspension and to evaluate its effectiveness on surgical outcome.
  4. Kim C, Yoon J, Bae J, Lee S. Prediction of postoperative eyelid height after frontalis suspension using autogenous fascia lata for pediatric congenital ptosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153:334-342.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..To predict eyelid height after frontalis suspension using autogenous fascia lata for congenital ptosis...
  5. Lopez J, Ossandón D, Miller P, Sanchez L, Winter A. Unilateral eyelid angiofibroma with complete blepharoptosis as the presenting sign of tuberous sclerosis. J AAPOS. 2009;13:413-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of a newborn with congenital eyelid angiofibroma mimicking complete congenital blepharoptosis that was revealed by central nervous system imaging to be part of the tuberous sclerosis complex.
  6. Li J, Lin M, Zhou H, Jia R, Fan X. Double-eyelid blepharoplasty incorporating blepharoptosis surgery for 'latent' aponeurotic ptosis. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2011;64:993-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Incorporation of the aponeurotic reinsertion and minimal dissection into the blepharoptosis surgery will correct the 'latent' aponeurotic ptosis successfully.
  7. Bhiromekraibhak K. Blepharoptosis repaired by frontalis-orbicularis oculi flap: a new technique. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010;93 Suppl 2:S15-20 pubmed
    The treatment of blepharoptosis depends on the degree of ptosis and the function of the levator muscle...
  8. Allen R, Zimmerman M, Watterberg E, Morrison L, Carter K. Primary bilateral silicone frontalis suspension for good levator function ptosis in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:841-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate outcomes of patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) with levator function (LF) ? 10mm who underwent primary bilateral silicone frontalis suspension...
  9. Kim J, Lee I, Park M, Lim H, Lee S. Aesthetic blepharoptosis correction with release of fibrous web bands between the levator aponeurosis and orbital fat. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:e52-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To correct these features, an accurate understanding of upper eyelid anatomy is essential, especially concerning the levator aponeurosis, orbital fat, and orbital septum...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Arajy Z. Open loop fascial sling for severe congenital blepharoptosis. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a simple open loop fascia lata suspension sling to the frontalis muscle to treat patients with severe eyelid ptosis and poor levator function...
  2. Bleyen I, Hiemstra C, Devogelaere T, van den Bosch W, Wubbels R, Paridaens D. Not only hard contact lens wear but also soft contact lens wear may be associated with blepharoptosis. Can J Ophthalmol. 2011;46:333-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors attempt to establish an association between prolonged hard and soft contact lens wear and ptosis...
  3. Nagane Y, Utsugisawa K, Suzuki S, Masuda M, Shimizu Y, Utsumi H, et al. Topical naphazoline in the treatment of myasthenic blepharoptosis. Muscle Nerve. 2011;44:41-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the efficacy of topical naphazoline in the treatment of myasthenic blepharoptosis.
  4. Wong C, Fan D, Ng J, Goh T, Lam D. Long-term results of autogenous palmaris longus frontalis sling in children with congenital ptosis. Eye (Lond). 2005;19:546-8 pubmed
    ..It could be a good alternative to autogenous fascia lata, and further studies, to compare these two sling materials seem warranted. ..
  5. Yu C, Chen S, Chen T. Frontalis slings with palmaris tendon as an adjuvant treatment for myasthenic blepharoptosis: a case report. Ann Plast Surg. 2007;58:577-9 pubmed
    ..The surgical result has been stable for more than 2 years. For patients who have failed to respond to medical therapy for MG, frontalis sling procedure is an appropriate adjuvant treatment option. ..
  6. Engle E, Kunkel L, Specht L, Beggs A. Mapping a gene for congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles to the centromeric region of chromosome 12. Nat Genet. 1994;7:69-73 pubmed
    ..9 (theta = 0.03) and 5.4 (theta = 0.03) respectively, defining a region of 8 cM. These data establish a map location for CFEOM and demonstrate that this may be a genetically homogeneous disorder. ..
  7. Dithmar S, Linke R, Kolling G, Völcker H, Helmke B. Ptosis from localized A-lambda-amyloid deposits in the levator palpebrae muscle. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:1043-7 pubmed
    ..Ocular amyloidosis with isolated initial involvement of the levator muscle is a rare condition. Localized monoclonal gammopathy may have been the cause of this unique presentation. ..
  8. Frueh B, Musch D, McDonald H. Efficacy and efficiency of a new involutional ptosis correction procedure compared to a traditional aponeurotic approach. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2004;102:199-206; discussion 206-7 pubmed
  9. Ramirez O, Pena G. Frontalis muscle advancement: a dynamic structure for the treatment of severe congenital eyelid ptosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;113:1841-9; discussion 1850-1 pubmed
    ..Symmetry is created by intervention on the contralateral eyelid to provide symmetrical supratarsal creases...
  10. Ahmad S, Della Rocca R. Blepharoptosis: evaluation, techniques, and complications. Facial Plast Surg. 2007;23:203-15 pubmed
    b>Blepharoptosis (ptosis) is one of the most common eyelid disorders encountered in ophthalmology. A detailed history and exam are crucial in the evaluation of a patient presenting with ptosis...
  11. Meltzer M, Elahi E, Taupeka P, Flores E. A simplified technique of ptosis repair using a single adjustable suture. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:1889-92 pubmed
    ..It is also useful when the "ideal" lid level may not be determined until the postoperative period, such as eyes subject to ptosis by Hering's law, levator dehiscence, or those at increased potential risk for corneal exposure. ..
  12. Kakizaki H, Zako M, Mito H, Iwaki M. Intraoperative quantification using finger force for involutional blepharoptosis without postoperative lagophthalmos. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2006;50:135-40 pubmed
    To report intraoperative quantification using finger force for involutional blepharoptosis, which helps in the prevention of postoperative lagophthalmos. We carried out levator resection on 20 involutional blepharoptic eyelids...
  13. Venkatesh C, Pillai V, Raghunath A, Prakash V, Vathsala R, Pericak Vance M, et al. Clinical phenotype and linkage analysis of the congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles in an Indian family. Mol Vis. 2002;8:294-7 pubmed
    ..The present data showed a classic CFEOM phenotype in an Indian family. The family's phenotype is consistent with linkage to CFEOM1 locus on chromosome 12p11.2-q12. ..
  14. Bell R, Murday V, Patton M, Jeffery S. Two families with blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome have mutations in the putative forkhead transcription factor FOXL2. Genet Test. 2001;5:335-8 pubmed
  15. Baroody M, Holds J, Sakamoto D, Vick V, Hartstein M. Small incision transcutaneous levator aponeurotic repair for blepharoptosis. Ann Plast Surg. 2004;52:558-61 pubmed
    Patients presenting with blepharoptosis due to disinsertion or thinning of the levator aponeurosis require surgical repair...
  16. Yazdani A, Traboulsi E. Classification and surgical management of patients with familial and sporadic forms of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:1035-42 pubmed
  17. Crisponi L, Deiana M, Loi A, Chiappe F, Uda M, Amati P, et al. The putative forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 is mutated in blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome. Nat Genet. 2001;27:159-66 pubmed
    ..FOXL2 represents a candidate gene for the polled/intersex syndrome XX sex-reversal goat...
  18. Scuderi N, Chiummariello S, de Gado F, Alfano C, Scuderi G, Recupero S. Surgical correction of blepharoptosis using the levator aponeurosis-Müller's muscle complex readaptation technique: a 15-year experience. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be caused by various abnormalities, both congenital and acquired. The aim of this article is to report the long-term follow-up of results obtained with the levator aponeurosis-Müller's muscle complex readaptation technique...
  19. McCreery K, Hussein M, Lee A, Paysse E, Chandran R, Coats D. Major review: the clinical spectrum of pediatric myasthenia gravis: blepharoptosis, ophthalmoplegia and strabismus. A report of 14 cases. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2002;17:181-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical spectrum of this condition in children and to identify factors that may aid the clinician in its diagnosis and management...
  20. De Baere E, Dixon M, Small K, Jabs E, Leroy B, Devriendt K, et al. Spectrum of FOXL2 gene mutations in blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus (BPES) families demonstrates a genotype--phenotype correlation. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10:1591-600 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we propose that in a fraction of the BPES patients the genetic defect does not reside within the coding region of the FOXL2 gene and may be caused by a position effect...
  21. Hirasawa C, Matsuo K, Kikuchi N, Osada Y, Shinohara H, Yuzuriha S. Upgaze eyelid position allows differentiation between congenital and aponeurotic blepharoptosis according to the neurophysiology of eyelid retraction. Ann Plast Surg. 2006;57:529-34 pubmed
    To differentiate between congenital and aponeurotic blepharoptosis, we investigated whether upgaze with stretching of the mechanoreceptor of Mueller muscle increases involuntary reflex contraction of the levator slow-twitch muscle fibers...
  22. Seider N, Beiran I, Kaltreider S. One medial triangular Tutoplast sling as a frontalis suspension for adult myogenic blepharoptosis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2006;84:121-3 pubmed
    The treatment of choice for medium to severe blepharoptosis with minimal or no levator function is frontalis suspension with a sling, using a rectangular or rhomboid sling placement technique...
  23. Cetinkaya A, Brannan P. Ptosis repair options and algorithm. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2008;19:428-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Each patient needs to be individually assessed and treated. A surgeon needs to be familiar with all types of surgical repair to choose the best possible option for his/her particular patient...
  24. Lezrek M, Dahreddine M, Bencherif Z, Karim A, Maher M, Tachfouti S, et al. [Bilateral primary pseudotumoral palpebral amyloidosis. A case report]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2007;30:e17 pubmed
    ..Clinical progression showed improvement of the ptosis and the patient's comfort. Although rare, palpebral amyloidosis poses management problems, particularly in advanced cases, because of corneal complications and recurrence...
  25. Matsuo K. Restoration of involuntary tonic contraction of the levator muscle in patients with aponeurotic blepharoptosis or Horner syndrome by aponeurotic advancement using the orbital septum. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2003;37:81-9 pubmed
    ..from the tarsus by habitual rubbing, elongation of Müller's muscle secondary to thinning (aponeurotic blepharoptosis) or paralysis (Horner syndrome) desensitises the mechanoreceptor of Müller's muscle, resulting in ..
  26. Matsuo K, Yuzuriha S. Frontalis suspension with fascia lata for severe congenital blepharoptosis using enhanced involuntary reflex contraction of the frontalis muscle. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:480-7 pubmed publisher
    ..this neurophysiological mechanism during surgery on 50 patients with severe unilateral or bilateral congenital blepharoptosis that does not have the levator muscle but has Mueller's muscle...
  27. Lu S, Zhao C, Zhao K, Li N, Larsson C. Novel and recurrent KIF21A mutations in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 and 3. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:388-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the disease-causing mutations and associated clinical phenotypes in 5 Chinese families with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM)...
  28. Ben Simon G, Blaydon S, Schwarcz R, Nakra T, Goldberg R, McCann J. Paradoxical use of frontalis muscle and the possible role of botulinum a toxin in permanent motor relearning. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:918-22 pubmed
    ..Successful treatment with botulinum A toxin facilitated motor relearning and cessation of muscle contraction...
  29. Doherty E, Macy M, Wang S, Dykeman C, Melanson M, Engle E. CFEOM3: a new extraocular congenital fibrosis syndrome that maps to 16q24.2-q24.3. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:1687-94 pubmed
    ..To define the clinical characteristics and determine the gene localization for a previously undescribed form of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM), referred to as CFEOM type 3 (CFEOM3)...
  30. Ramírez Castro J, Pineda Trujillo N, Valencia A, Muneton C, Botero O, Trujillo O, et al. Mutations in FOXL2 underlying BPES (types 1 and 2) in Colombian families. Am J Med Genet. 2002;113:47-51 pubmed
  31. Kumar A, Babu M, Raghunath A, Venkatesh C. Genetic analysis of a five generation Indian family with BPES: a novel missense mutation (p.Y215C). Mol Vis. 2004;10:445-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to carry out genetic analysis of BPES in a five-generation Indian family...
  32. Leibovitch I, Leibovitch L, Dray J. Long-term results of frontalis suspension using autogenous fascia lata for congenital ptosis in children under 3 years of age. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:866-71 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the outcome of frontalis suspension surgery for congenital ptosis using autogenous fascia lata for children under 3 years of age...
  33. Hwang K, Kim D, Hwang S. Insertion of frontalis muscle relating to blepharoptosis repair. J Craniofac Surg. 2005;16:965-7 pubmed
    ..aim of the study is to elucidate the precise anatomy and histologic structure of frontalis muscle relating to blepharoptosis repair. Five Korean adult cadavers were used...
  34. Wang S, Zwaan J, Mullaney P, Jabak M, al Awad A, Beggs A, et al. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 2, an inherited exotropic strabismus fixus, maps to distal 11q13. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;63:517-25 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that CFEOM2 results from an analogous developmental defect to CFEOM1, one that affects both the superior and inferior divisions of the oculomotor nerve and their corresponding alpha motoneurons and extraocular muscles...
  35. Dinges W, Witherspoon S, Itani K, Garg A, Peterson D. Blepharoptosis and external ophthalmoplegia associated with long-term antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Blepharoptosis, without prior ART association, is usually caused by age-associated involutional ptosis, but it is also seen ..
  36. Leibovitch I, Selva D, Goldberg R, Sullivan T, Saeed P, Davis G, et al. Periocular and orbital amyloidosis: clinical characteristics, management, and outcome. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1657-64 pubmed
    ..To present the clinical features and management outcome in a large series of patients with periocular and orbital amyloidosis...
  37. Bernardini F, de Conciliis C, Devoto M. Mini-invasive ptosis surgery. Orbit. 2006;25:111-5 pubmed
    ..We believe that, in a selected group of patients, a less invasive approach with an upper lid skin incision of only 0.8 cm is equally effective for the final result and offers several advantages compared to the traditional technique...
  38. Demer J, Clark R, Engle E. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence for widespread orbital dysinnervation in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles due to mutations in KIF21A. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:530-9 pubmed
  39. Or S, Tong M, Lo F, Lam T. Three novel FOXL2 gene mutations in Chinese patients with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome. Chin Med J (Engl). 2006;119:49-52 pubmed
  40. Stanković B, Stojkovic M, Vlajkovic G, Zdravković I, Risovic D. Long-term outcome of strabismus and ptosis surgery in a mother and daughter with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2006;63:835-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this report was to describe a severe, atypical, exposure-induced corneal stromal lysis in two patients...
  41. Baroody M, Holds J, Vick V. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of ptosis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2005;16:351-5 pubmed
    The surgical correction of blepharoptosis, both congenital and acquired, has been intensively examined and reported on for many years...
  42. Liu D. Blepharoptosis correction with frontalis suspension using a supramid sling: duration of effect. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:772-3 pubmed
    ..To investigate the duration of effect after frontalis suspension with a Supramid (S. Jackson, Inc, Alexandria, Virginia) sling...
  43. Foster J, John K, Castro E, Meisler D. Blepharoptosis surgery complicated by late suture migration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;130:116-7 pubmed
    To report late suture migration as a complication of blepharoptosis surgery.
  44. Fan J. Frontalis suspension technique with a temporal-fasciae-complex sheet for repairing blepharoptosis. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2001;25:147-51 pubmed
    Congenital blepharoptosis presents as a drooping upper eyelid with an unpleasant appearance. Severe blepharoptosis usually has to be treated with varying modifications of frontalis suspension techniques...
  45. Kosaki K, Ogata T, Kosaki R, Sato S, Matsuo N. A novel mutation in the FOXL2 gene in a patient with blepharophimosis syndrome: differential role of the polyalanine tract in the development of the ovary and the eyelid. Ophthalmic Genet. 2002;23:43-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the polyalanine tract may have a differential role in eyelid and ovarian development and function. Further work is required to clarify whether ovarian function can be predicted on the basis of genotype...
  46. Bernardini F, de Conciliis C, Devoto M. Frontalis suspension sling using a silicone rod in patients affected by myogenic blepharoptosis. Orbit. 2002;21:195-8 pubmed
    ..A silicone rod, because of its elasticity, is the material of choice in this selected category of patients...
  47. Engle E. The molecular basis of the congenital fibrosis syndromes. Strabismus. 2002;10:125-8 pubmed
  48. Philandrianos C, Galinier P, Salazard B, Bardot J, Magalon G. Congenital ptosis: Long-term outcome of frontalis suspension using autogenous temporal fascia or fascia lata in children. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2010;63:782-6 pubmed publisher
    Children with severe congenital blepharoptosis are at risk of developing amblyopia. For this reason, ptosis repair is indicated as soon as the diagnosis is made...
  49. Pan Y, Zhang H, Yang L, Song B, Xiao B, Yi C, et al. Correction of congenital severe ptosis by suspension of a frontal muscle flap overlapped with an inferiorly based orbital septum flap. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2008;32:604-12; discussion 613 pubmed publisher
    ..This report introduces a new method for correction of congenital severe upper eyelid ptosis...
  50. Khan A, Khalil D, Al Tassan N. Congential fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type I (CFEOM1) on the Arabian Peninsula. Ophthalmic Genet. 2008;29:25-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess for KIF21A mutation in the first two reported Saudi Arabian families with the classic phenotype of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type I (CFEOM1)...
  51. Soejima K, Sakurai H, Nozaki M, Fujiwara O, Masuda M, Yamada H, et al. Surgical treatment of blepharoptosis caused by chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. Ann Plast Surg. 2006;56:439-42 pubmed
    ..disorder characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular and levator muscles, which causes blepharoptosis and impairment of ocular motility...
  52. Lo Y, Ho S, Koh L, Khoo D. EMG myokymia as a cause of ptosis in hypothyroidism. Eur J Neurol. 2003;10:87-90 pubmed
    ..In the absence of obvious aetiology, it is hypothesised that focal demyelination of terminal branches to the orbicularis oculi may play a role in the generation of the discharges...
  53. Oe K, Mori K, Konno T, Yoneda T, Ueyama K, Yamagishi M. Ruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva with Wildervanck syndrome (cervico-oculo-acoustic syndrome), blepharoptosis and short stature: case report. Circ J. 2007;71:1485-7 pubmed
    ..to these cardiovascular abnormalities, she had Wildervanck syndrome (Klippel-Feil syndrome, Duane syndrome and sensorineural hearing disturbance), blepharoptosis and short stature. This rare combination has not been reported previously.
  54. Finsterer J. Ptosis: causes, presentation, and management. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2003;27:193-204 pubmed
    ..Although improvement of the lid height is usually achieved, the eyelids may not appear perfectly symmetrical. In rare cases, full eyelid movement does not return. In some cases, more than one operation is required...
  55. Baiyeroju A, Oluwatosin O. Blepharoptosis in Ibadan, Nigeria. West Afr J Med. 2003;22:208-10 pubmed
    To look into the cases of blepharoptosis in our environment as well as find out the causes and effects of the ptosis.
  56. Lee V, Konrad H, Bunce C, Nelson C, Collin J. Aetiology and surgical treatment of childhood blepharoptosis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:1282-6 pubmed
    ..To describe the aetiology, demography, surgical management, and outcome of a cohort of paediatric ptosis patients in a large tertiary referral oculoplastic centre...
  57. Fraunfelder F, Richards A. Diplopia, blepharoptosis, and ophthalmoplegia and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor use. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:2282-5 pubmed publisher
    To report the association between 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) and diplopia, blepharoptosis (ptosis), and ophthalmoplegia.
  58. Rudolph G, Nentwich M, Hellebrand H, Pollack K, Gordes R, Bau V, et al. KIF21A variant R954W in familial or sporadic cases of CFEOM1. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:667-74 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate the clinical characteristics and determine mutations in the KIF21A gene, encoding a kinesin motor protein in patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) type 1...
  59. Fokstuen S, Antonarakis S, Blouin J. FOXL2-mutations in blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES); challenges for genetic counseling in female patients. Am J Med Genet A. 2003;117A:143-6 pubmed
    ..As a consequence, FOXL2 mutation testing in female patients of child-bearing age with BPES should be handled with caution, and a two-step genetic counseling approach, including an initial pre-test information session, is proposed...
  60. Cates C, Tyers A. Outcomes of anterior levator resection in congenital blepharoptosis. Eye (Lond). 2001;15:770-3 pubmed
    To identify any consistent factors which may predict over- or undercorrection of congenital blepharoptosis treated by anterior levator resection.
  61. Wasserman B, Sprunger D, Helveston E. Comparison of materials used in frontalis suspension. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:687-91 pubmed
    ..To compare various materials used in frontalis suspension surgery for incidence of infection and/or granuloma formation and incidence of recurrent ptosis...
  62. el Toukhy E, Salaem M, El Shewy T, Abou Steit M, Levine M. Mersilene mesh sling as an alternative to autogenous fascia lata in the management of ptosis. Eye (Lond). 2001;15:178-82 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the use of Mersilene mesh as a brow suspensory material and to compare it clinically against autogenous fascia lata...
  63. Dollfus H, Stoetzel C, Riehm S, Lahlou Boukoffa W, Bediard Boulaneb F, Quillet R, et al. Sporadic and familial blepharophimosis -ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome: FOXL2 mutation screen and MRI study of the superior levator eyelid muscle. Clin Genet. 2003;63:117-20 pubmed
    ..Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the orbit, in one family, showed absence or hypotrophy of the eyelid superior levator muscle suggesting a possible role of FOXL2 in the development of this extra-ocular muscle...
  64. Udar N, Yellore V, Chalukya M, Yelchits S, Silva Garcia R, Small K. Comparative analysis of the FOXL2 gene and characterization of mutations in BPES patients. Hum Mutat. 2003;22:222-8 pubmed
    ..548A>G (H104R); g.652G>T (E139X); and g.1178_1185del8 (A314fsX530). In addition we also identified two known mutations g.823C>T (Q196X) and g.1092_1108dup17, the latter in individuals from three unrelated pedigrees...