Summary: Inflammation of the eyelids.

Top Publications

  1. Jackson W. Blepharitis: current strategies for diagnosis and management. Can J Ophthalmol. 2008;43:170-9 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of this article is to present a consensus on the appropriate identification and management of patients with blepharitis based on expert clinical recommendations for 4 representative case studies and evidence from well-designed ..
  2. Kemal M, Sumer Z, Toker M, Erdogan H, Topalkara A, Akbulut M. The Prevalence of Demodex folliculorum in blepharitis patients and the normal population. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2005;12:287-90 pubmed
    Demodex folliculorum (DF), which is frequently found in patients with chronic blepharitis, is a well-known common inhabitant of eyelash follicles...
  3. Macsai M. The role of omega-3 dietary supplementation in blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction (an AOS thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2008;106:336-56 pubmed
    b>Blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) are common sources of complaints from patients...
  4. Gilbard J. Dry eye and blepharitis: approaching the patient with chronic eye irritation. Geriatrics. 2009;64:22-6 pubmed
    ..These patients need to be distinguished from patients with posterior blepharitis, or meibomitis, in which similar symptoms are worse on eye opening...
  5. Opitz D, Tyler K. Efficacy of azithromycin 1% ophthalmic solution for treatment of ocular surface disease from posterior blepharitis. Clin Exp Optom. 2011;94:200-6 pubmed publisher
    Posterior blepharitis is an eyelid disease primarily of the meibomian glands...
  6. Malerbi F, Martins L, Saldiva P, Braga A. Ambient levels of air pollution induce clinical worsening of blepharitis. Environ Res. 2012;112:199-203 pubmed publisher associated with changes in the ocular surface and tear film, its relationship to the clinical course of blepharitis, a common eyelid disease, had not yet been investigated...
  7. Kaercher T, Brewitt H. [Blepharitis]. Ophthalmologe. 2004;101:1135-47; quiz 1148 pubmed
    b>Blepharitis is characterized by a great variety of clinical manifestations, which often include alterations of the ocular surface...
  8. Haque R, Torkildsen G, Brubaker K, Zink R, Kowalski R, Mah F, et al. Multicenter open-label study evaluating the efficacy of azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% on the signs and symptoms of subjects with blepharitis. Cornea. 2010;29:871-7 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effect of 4 weeks of treatment with azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% on eyelid bacterial load, tear cytokines, and signs and symptoms of blepharitis.
  9. Behrens Baumann W, Niederdellmann C, Jehkul A, Kohnen R. [Bibrocathol eye ointment is efficacious in blepharitis. Results from a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial]. Ophthalmologe. 2006;103:960-5 pubmed
    Bibrocathol (Noviform) 5% ointment is a frequently used therapy for blepharitis. The study included 197 patients who were randomized to be treated over 2 weeks with bibrocathol or an ointment vehicle, respectively...

More Information


  1. Cavone L, Muzzi M, Mencucci R, Sparatore B, Pedrazzi M, Moroni F, et al. 18?-glycyrrhetic acid inhibits immune activation triggered by HMGB1, a pro-inflammatory protein found in the tear fluid during conjunctivitis and blepharitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence indicates that extracellularly released high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) behaves as a cytokine, promoting inflammation and disease pathogenesis. HMGB1 release occurs during endophtalmitis or uveoretinitis...
  2. Torkildsen G, Cockrum P, Meier E, Hammonds W, Silverstein B, Silverstein S. Evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of tobramycin/dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension 0.3%/0.05% compared to azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% in the treatment of moderate to severe acute blepharitis/blepharoconjunctivitis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011;27:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3%/0.05% compared to azithromycin (Azasite) ophthalmic solution (1%) in the treatment of moderate to severe blepharitis/blepharoconjunctivitis.
  3. Morfín Maciel B. [Demodicidosis in a female patient treated as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis. A case report]. Rev Alerg Mex. 2003;50:232-6 pubmed
    ..Two months later demodicidosis recurred. Then she was treated with a combination of ivermectin and transfer factor with total remission. Demodex folliculorum considered as saprophytic mite may play a pathogenic role in ocular diseases...
  4. Bernardes T, Bonfioli A. Blepharitis. Semin Ophthalmol. 2010;25:79-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Blepharitis is a chronic inflammatory process of the eyelid margin. It is a common eye disorder throughout the world and can affect any age group...
  5. Song C, Choi J, Kim D, Kim J. Enhanced secretory group II PLA2 activity in the tears of chronic blepharitis patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:2744-8 pubmed
    ..This study was performed to investigate PLA2 type and activity in the tears of chronic blepharitis patients compared to those of normal persons.
  6. Mayer K, Reinhard T, Reis A, Böhringer D, Sundmacher R. [FK 506 ointment 0.1 % - A new therapeutic option for atopic blepharitis. Clinical trial with 14 patients]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2001;218:733-6 pubmed
    Severe atopic blepharitis is difficult to treat, as topical steroids offer only a limited therapeutic benefit with increasing side effects by time...
  7. Ghiasi H, Osorio Y, Nesburn A, Wechsler S. Enhanced clearance of herpes simplex virus type 1 and reduced herpetic eye disease in STAT6 knockout mice is associated with increased IL-2. Virology. 2002;302:286-93 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that in the absence of the STAT6 pathway, IL-2-mediated immune responses are up-regulated. This, in turn, leads to faster viral clearance and, consequently, lower levels of eye disease...
  8. Sore G, Rougier A, Richard A, Pericoi M. Ocular tolerance and efficiency of two solutions applied to non-infectious blepharitis. Eur J Dermatol. 2002;12:LXII-LXIV pubmed
  9. Nemet A, Vinker S, Kaiserman I. Associated morbidity of blepharitis. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1062-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the prevalence of systemic medical conditions in patients with blepharitis.
  10. Kheirkhah A, Blanco G, Casas V, Tseng S. Fluorescein dye improves microscopic evaluation and counting of demodex in blepharitis with cylindrical dandruff. Cornea. 2007;26:697-700 pubmed
    To show whether fluorescein dye helps detect and count Demodex embedded in cylindrical dandruff (CD) of epilated eyelashes from patients with blepharitis.
  11. Anane S, Anane Touzri R, Malouche N, El Aich F, Beltaief O, Zhioua R, et al. [Which is the role of parasites and yeasts in the genesis of chronic blepharitis?]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2007;55:323-7 pubmed
    The chronic blepharitis is a current ophthalmic disease posing a therapeutic problem. The etiologic diagnosis is essential for adapting the treatment.
  12. Kim J, Chun Y, Kim J. Clinical and immunological responses in ocular demodecosis. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:1231-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirteen eyes in 10 patients with Demodex blepharitis and chronic ocular surface disorders were included in this study and treated by lid scrubbing with tea tree oil ..
  13. Messmer E, Torres Suarez E, Mackert M, Zapp D, Kampik A. [In vivo confocal microscopy in blepharitis]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2005;222:894-900 pubmed
    ..of the meibomian glands with inflammation and obstruction has been suggested to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of chronic blepharitis. Few objective tests are, however, available to examine the meibomian glands directly.
  14. Rodriguez A, Ferrer C, Alio J. [Chronic blepharitis and Demodex]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2005;80:635-42 pubmed
    ..Due to the fact this mite has also been reported in many chronic cases of blepharitis, we aimed to investigate the incidence of infestation with this mite in healthy people and in patients with ..
  15. Saccà S, Pascotto A, Venturino G, Prigione G, Mastromarino A, Baldi F, et al. Prevalence and treatment of Helicobacter pylori in patients with blepharitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:501-8 pubmed
    ..This study was conducted to investigate a possible association between Helicobacter pylori infection and blepharitis. Two hundred fifty consecutive patients with symptomatic blepharitis and 250 control subjects without ..
  16. Rubin M, Rao S. Efficacy of topical cyclosporin 0.05% in the treatment of posterior blepharitis. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2006;22:47-53 pubmed
    ..05% ophthalmic emulsion versus tobramycin 0.3%/dexamethasone 0.1% in patients with posterior blepharitis. Posterior blepharitis improved significantly from the initial study visit with both cyclosporin treatment and ..
  17. Liu J, Sheha H, Tseng S. Pathogenic role of Demodex mites in blepharitis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;10:505-10 pubmed publisher
    To summarize the key literature and our research experience regarding Demodex infestation as a potential cause of ocular inflammatory diseases with a special emphasis on Demodex blepharitis.
  18. Luchs J. Efficacy of topical azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% in the treatment of posterior blepharitis. Adv Ther. 2008;25:858-70 pubmed publisher
    ..a broad-spectrum antibiotic with potent anti-inflammatory activities, has the potential to effectively treat blepharitis, an inflammatory disease of the eyelid with abnormal eyelid flora as an etiologic determinant...
  19. Kim J, Lee S, Chun Y, Kim J. Tear cytokines and chemokines in patients with Demodex blepharitis. Cytokine. 2011;53:94-9 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the causes of inflammation in Demodex-induced blepharitis by analyzing cytokine levels in lacrimal fluid.
  20. Kheirkhah A, Casas V, Li W, Raju V, Tseng S. Corneal manifestations of ocular demodex infestation. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:743-749 pubmed
    ..To report the corneal manifestations in eyes with Demodex infestation of the eyelids...
  21. Lemp M, Nichols K. Blepharitis in the United States 2009: a survey-based perspective on prevalence and treatment. Ocul Surf. 2009;7:S1-S14 pubmed
    ABSTRACT Like dry eye disease 15 years ago, blepharitis today is a poorly defined condition about which there is considerable misunderstanding...
  22. Zhao Y, Wu L, Hu L, Xu J. Association of blepharitis with Demodex: a meta-analysis. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2012;19:95-102 pubmed publisher
    To conduct a meta-analysis to confirm the association between Demodex infestation and blepharitis.
  23. Bezdetko P, Sergienko N, Dyomin Y, Korol A, Nikitin N, Merzbacher M, et al. Successful treatment of blepharitis with bibrocathol (Posiformin® 2 %). Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;250:1869-75 pubmed publisher
    Bibrocathol is a well-established antiseptic drug for the treatment of acute eyelid diseases like blepharitis. Despite its frequent use in clinical practice, no controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of bibrocathol 2% eye ointment has ..
  24. Koo B, Lee D, Ha H, Kim J, Kim C. Comparative analysis of the tear protein expression in blepharitis patients using two-dimensional electrophoresis. J Proteome Res. 2005;4:719-24 pubmed
    ..The changes in tear proteins are also associated with various pathological eye conditions. Especially, chronic blepharitis is one of the most common conditions seen in the ophthalmologist's office...
  25. Iwao F, Sawamura D, Yokota K, Shimizu H. Granulomatous blepharitis successfully treated with tranilast. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:222-4 pubmed
  26. Lozano F, León E, Mira J, Corzo J, Gómez Mateos J. Relapsing blepharitis in patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy including indinavir. AIDS. 2004;18:354-6 pubmed
  27. Turk M, Ozturk I, Sener A, Kucukbay S, Afsar I, Maden A. Comparison of incidence of Demodex folliculorum on the eyelash follicule in normal people and blepharitis patients. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2007;31:296-7 pubmed
    Demodex folliculorum has been incriminated in the development of blepharitis although much controversy persist...
  28. Tonini G, Vincenzi B, Santini D, Olzi D, Lambiase A, Bonini S. Ocular toxicity related to cetuximab monotherapy in an advanced colorectal cancer patient. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:606-7 pubmed
  29. Voils S, Evans M, Lane M, Schosser R, Rapp R. Use of macrolides and tetracyclines for chronic inflammatory diseases. Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39:86-94 pubmed
    ..Key terms included acne, blepharitis, cardiovascular disease, cystic fibrosis, periodontitis, rosacea, and rheumatoid arthritis...
  30. Kopsachilis N, Tsaousis K, Tourtas T, Tsinopoulos I. Severe chronic blepharitis and scarring ectropion associated with discoid lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Optom. 2013;96:124-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The eyelid inflammation decreased but severe scarring of the marginal eyelids persisted, resulting in cicatricial ectropion...
  31. Uusitalo H, Chen E, Pfeiffer N, Brignole Baudouin F, Kaarniranta K, Leino M, et al. Switching from a preserved to a preservative-free prostaglandin preparation in topical glaucoma medication. Acta Ophthalmol. 2010;88:329-36 pubmed publisher
  32. Ozaki A, Fukushima A, Fukata K, Ueno H. Mast-cell activation augments the late phase reaction in experimental immune-mediated blepharoconjunctivitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;241:394-402 pubmed
    ..Other molecules induced by allergen-specific T cells activated in an as yet unknown manner by the mast cells may be responsible for the infiltration of eosinophils. ..
  33. Greene J, Jeng B, Fintelmann R, Margolis T. Oral azithromycin for the treatment of meibomitis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132:121-2 pubmed publisher
  34. Rahman M, Lim Y, Roberts F, Ramaesh K. Fibrosing blepharo-conjunctivitis following pyogenic granuloma in ocular acne rosacea. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2010;18:346-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This case demonstrated significant morbidity and decreased visual acuity. However, early recognition and effective surgical management can lead to good visual outcomes. ..
  35. Kashkouli M, Beigi B, Murthy R, Astbury N. Acquired external punctal stenosis: etiology and associated findings. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:1079-84 pubmed
    ..PURPOSE; To investigate the underlying causes of acquired external punctal stenosis (AEPS) and assess the associated tear drainage problems...
  36. Sawada Y, Fischer J, Verm A, Harrison A, Yuan C, Huang A. Detection by impression cytologic analysis of conjunctival intraepithelial invasion from eyelid sebaceous cell carcinoma. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:2045-50 pubmed
    ..However, full-thickness biopsies are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Judicious use of impression cytologic analysis may facilitate the detection and diagnosis of this invasive tumor. ..
  37. Pas Wyroslak A, Wiszniewska M, Krecisz B, Swierczynska Machura D, Pałczyński C, Walusiak Skorupa J. Contact blepharoconjunctivitis due to black henna--a case report. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2012;25:196-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations revealed eosinophilia in the tear fluid. To our knowledge, this is the first case of PPD-induced contact blepharoconjunctivitis (CB) with concomitant increased eosinophilia in the tear fluid. ..
  38. Bhojwani R, Lloyd I, Alam S, Ashworth J. Blepharokeratoconjunctivitis in Cockayne syndrome. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2009;46:184-5 pubmed
    ..These findings are clinically important because many patients with Cockayne syndrome wear contact lenses for the refractive correction of aphakia with a resultant risk of corneal ulceration. ..
  39. Kosik Bogacka D, Łanocha N, Łanocha A, Czepita D, Grobelny A, Zdziarska B, et al. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis in healthy and immunocompromised patients. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2013;20:159-63 pubmed publisher nor the immunocompromised patients did we observe a correlation between the proportion of symptoms of blepharitis and the presence of Demodex spp...
  40. Cloché V, Buisson A, Tréchot F, Batta B, Locatelli A, Favel C, et al. Ocular symptoms are not predictive of ophthalmologic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2013;45:195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Following ophthalmologic examination (n=74), 41.9% patients had evidence of dry eye (n=31), 14.9% blepharitis (n=11) and 1.4% scleritis (n=1). No uveitis was reported...
  41. Quist E, Belcher C, Levine G, Johnson M, Heatley J, Kiupel M, et al. Disseminated histoplasmosis with concurrent oral candidiasis in an Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus). Avian Pathol. 2011;40:207-11 pubmed publisher
    ..and candidiasis in an Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) characterized by severe granulomatous glossitis, blepharitis and osteomyelitis with numerous intrahistiocytic and extracellular yeasts (H...
  42. Furiani N, Scarampella F, Martino P, Panzini I, Fabbri E, Ordeix L. Evaluation of the bacterial microflora of the conjunctival sac of healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis. Vet Dermatol. 2011;22:490-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests differences in conjunctival bacterial colonization and cytological features between atopic and healthy dogs. ..
  43. Kaymak Y, Ilter N. The results and side effects of systemic isotretinoin treatment in 100 patients with acne vulgaris. Dermatol Nurs. 2006;18:576-80 pubmed
  44. Rassi T, Passos R, Kumagai K, Soranz Filho J, Freitas J. [Chronical and multifocal paracoccidioidomycosis having the lid involvement as the first sign: case report]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2009;72:822-5 pubmed
    ..The possible primary ocular infection spreading by contiguity is argued and the disease manifestation in an advanced age is highlighted. ..
  45. Smith P, Zeiss C, Beck A, Scholz J. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice. Comp Med. 2016;66:278-85 pubmed
    ..Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis...
  46. Souchier M, Joffre C, Gregoire S, Bretillon L, Muselier A, Acar N, et al. Changes in meibomian fatty acids and clinical signs in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction after minocycline treatment. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:819-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Minocycline was more effective than lid hygiene alone. Both interventions partly corrected fatty acid composition abnormalities. Among the fatty acids, isoC20 could be a biological marker of MGD. ..
  47. Basti S. Ocular toxicities of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and their management. Cancer Nurs. 2007;30:S10-6 pubmed
    ..that may occur with use of EGFR inhibitors can be broadly categorized as changes in the eyelids (eg, squamous blepharitis, trichomegaly, meibomitis), changes in the tear film (eg, dysfunctional tear syndrome), and miscellaneous ..
  48. Robert P. [How to prescribe topical antibiotics in ophthalmology]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2007;30:417-22 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the literature on emerging bacterial resistance in ophthalmology, and summarizes the AFSSAPS guidelines. ..
  49. Rousta S. Pediatric blepharokeratoconjunctivitis: is there a 'right' treatment?. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2017;28:449-453 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a lack of randomized controlled trials on this topic and no standardized outcome measures. Better ways to measure the clinical outcome of various treatment modalities need to be developed. ..
  50. Pelletier J, Stewart K, Capriotti K, Capriotti J. Rosacea Blepharoconjunctivitis Treated with a Novel Preparation of Dilute Povidone Iodine and Dimethylsulfoxide: a Case Report and Review of the Literature. Ophthalmol Ther. 2015;4:143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A 78-year-old male presented with chronic, long-standing blepharitis involving both the anterior and posterior lid margins...
  51. Hu G, Wang M, Miller M, Holland G, Bruckner D, Civen R, et al. Ocular vaccinia following exposure to a smallpox vaccinee. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:554-6 pubmed
    ..To describe the presentation and management of the first identified case of ocular vaccinia infection associated with the current smallpox vaccination program...
  52. Johnson R. An unusual case of an extra row of eyelashes in the superior eyelid skin crease. Clin Exp Optom. 2006;89:322-4 pubmed
    A diabetic patient was referred to the office for assessment of anterior blepharitis and associated tear film complications...
  53. Bamford J, Gessert C, Renier C, Jackson M, Laabs S, Dahl M, et al. Childhood stye and adult rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:951-5 pubmed
    ..Little is known about how individuals with a predisposition for rosacea appear in childhood. This retrospective, matched control, longitudinal study examined the relationship between childhood stye and adult rosacea...
  54. Uter W, Menezes de Pádua C, Pfahlberg A, Nink K, Schnuch A, Behrens Baumann W. [Contact allergy to topical ophthalmological drugs - epidemiological risk assessment]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2009;226:48-53 pubmed publisher
    ..As yet, the assessment of the CA-eliciting risk has been based on clinical data alone, while a valid epidemiological risk assessment is lacking...
  55. Papan C, Hagl B, Heinz V, Albert M, Ehrt O, Sawalle Belohradsky J, et al. Beneficial IFN-? treatment of tumorous herpes simplex blepharoconjunctivitis in dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:1456-8 pubmed publisher
  56. Wolf R, Orion E, Tuzun Y. Periorbital (eyelid) dermatides. Clin Dermatol. 2014;32:131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We then briefly reviewed some acute sight-threatening and even life-threatening infections of the eyelids, although dermatologists are not likely to be the primary care physicians responsible for treating them...
  57. Mooy C. Comments on 'Clinical and cytopathologic correlation in chronic inflammations of the orbit and ocular adnexa: a review of 55 cases' by Upreet Dhaliwal et al. Orbit. 2004;23:211-2 pubmed
  58. Pandhi D, Singhal A. Giant molluscum contagiosum. Indian Pediatr. 2005;42:488-9 pubmed
  59. Taherian K, Shekarchian M, Taylor R. Fascicular keratitis in children: can corneal phlycten be mobile?. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;33:531-2 pubmed
    ..At his last follow up he was asymptomatic. Some stromal scarring of the right cornea remained and his visual acuity improved in both eyes following treatment...
  60. McCulley T, Kersten R. Periocular inflammation after retrobulbar chlorpromazine (thorazine) injection. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;22:283-5 pubmed
    ..Retrobulbar chlorpromazine injection is a relatively recently described method of pain control in nonseeing eyes. This report illustrates severe sterile inflammation as a potential complication...
  61. Ota M, Nakazawa D, Sawamura D. Sarcoidosis manifesting as a periorbital purplish rash. Am J Med. 2007;120:e3-4 pubmed
  62. Shoji J, Inada N, Sawa M. Evaluation of novel scoring system named 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease. Allergol Int. 2009;58:591-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study is to evaluate the practical usefulness of a scoring system using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD)...
  63. Damasceno R, Heindl L, Szentmary N, Schlötzer Schrehardt U, Kruse F, Holbach L. [Nodular fasciitis of the eyelid and anterior orbit in children: case report and review of the literature]. Ophthalmologe. 2009;106:829-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Five years after surgery, there is no evidence of local recurrence, and the result is aesthetically satisfactory...
  64. Awan M, Musadiq M, Sandramouli S. Soft contact lens use for upper eyelid surgery. Clin Exp Optom. 2009;92:27-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the usefulness of silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses in upper eyelid procedures...
  65. Lousch R, Staats H, Oakes J, Cohen G, Eisenberg R. Prevention of herpes keratitis by monoclonal antibodies specific for discontinuous and continuous epitopes on glycoprotein D. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991;32:2735-40 pubmed
    ..Selected high-dose mAbs also were able to reduce the severity of blepharitis. These results indicated that at least seven different antigenic sites on glycoprotein D can serve as targets ..
  66. Chamaillard M, Mortemousque B, Boralevi F, Marques da Costa C, Aitali F, Taieb A, et al. Cutaneous and ocular signs of childhood rosacea. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:167-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Objectives To describe the clinical features of cutaneous and ocular manifestations of childhood rosacea, to propose diagnostic criteria, and to emphasize the possible severity of ocular complications in this age group...
  67. Doan S, Gabison E, Nghiem Buffet S, Abitbol O, Gatinel D, Hoang Xuan T. Long-term visual outcome of childhood blepharokeratoconjunctivitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:528-9 pubmed
    ..To assess the visual outcome of childhood blepharokeratoconjunctivitis...
  68. Fadlallah A, Rami H, Fahd D, Dunia I, Bejjani R, Chlela E, et al. Azithromycin 1.5% ophthalmic solution: efficacy and treatment modalities in chronic blepharitis. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2012;75:178-82 pubmed
    To assess the efficacy of topical 1.5% azithromycin in the treatment of moderate to severe chronic blepharitis and to compare the efficacy of two different treatment modalities.
  69. González Mendiola M, Balda A, Delgado M, Montaño P, De Olano D, Sanchez Cano M. Contact allergy from tobramycin eyedrops. Allergy. 2005;60:527-8 pubmed
    We report a patient with allergic conjunctivitis and blepharitis as a result of tobramycin eyedrops.
  70. Mastrota K. Method to identify Demodex in the eyelash follicle without epilation. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:e172-4 pubmed publisher
    The ubiquitous skin mite Demodex has been implicated as an instigator of anterior blepharitis. To date, overpopulation of the organism has been verified by cilia epilation (Coston or modified Coston method)...
  71. Choi W, Greensmith A, Chatdokmaiprai C, Holmes A, Meara J. Tumescent steroid infiltration reduces postoperative eye closure after craniofacial surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;122:30e-32e pubmed publisher
  72. Levinson B, Rapuano C, Cohen E, Hammersmith K, Ayres B, Laibson P. Referrals to the Wills Eye Institute Cornea Service after laser in situ keratomileusis: reasons for patient dissatisfaction. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008;34:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To review the symptoms, findings, and management options in patients referred to the Cornea Service who were unsatisfied with results after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)...
  73. Teo L, Mehta J, Htoon H, Tan D. Severity of pediatric blepharokeratoconjunctivitis in Asian eyes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153:564-570.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe and evaluate the severity of pediatric blepharokeratoconjunctivitis in Asia...
  74. Rodriguez Garcia A, González Godínez S, López Rubio S. Blepharokeratoconjunctivitis in childhood: corneal involvement and visual outcome. Eye (Lond). 2016;30:438-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The main objective of this study is to describe the prevalence, degree and risk of corneal involvement, and visual impact in a pediatric population with blepharokeratoconjunctivitis (BKC)...
  75. Neil Dwyer J, Evans R, Jones B, Hayward R. Tumescent steroid infiltration to reduce postoperative swelling after craniofacial surgery. Br J Plast Surg. 2001;54:565-9 pubmed
    ..The technique is advocated for the reduction of postoperative facial swelling in craniomaxillofacial surgical patients...
  76. Reiss M, Reiss G. [Painless upper eyelid swelling. Bad surprise in the diagnosis]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2008;150:5 pubmed
  77. Schopf L, Luccioli S, Bundoc V, Justice P, Chan C, Wetzel B, et al. Differential modulation of allergic eye disease by chronic and acute ascaris infection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:2772-80 pubmed
    ..To assess alterations in allergic ocular responses to nonparasite antigens in an experimental system in which mice were skewed toward a Th2 cytokine profile by helminth infection...
  78. Cheikhrouhou F, Makni F, Neji S, Sellami H, Masmoudi A, Turki H, et al. [Human demodicidosis in Sfax area (Tunisia)]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2010;103:238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..73.2% of cases were blepharitis and 26.8% of cases were facial dermatosis. The mean age was 44 years...
  79. Stacey M, Blanch R. A case of external ophthalmomyiasis in a deployed U.K. soldier. J R Army Med Corps. 2008;154:60-2 pubmed