pterygium

Summary

Summary: An abnormal triangular fold of membrane in the interpalpebral fissure, extending from the conjunctiva to the cornea, being immovably united to the cornea at its apex, firmly attached to the sclera throughout its middle portion, and merged with the conjunctiva at its base. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Fotouhi A, Hashemi H, Khabazkhoob M, Mohammad K. Prevalence and risk factors of pterygium and pinguecula: the Tehran Eye Study. Eye (Lond). 2009;23:1125-9 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence and causes of pterygium and pinguecula in the population of Tehran in 2002. In a cross-sectional population study with cluster sampling, 6497 residents of Tehran were selected from 160 clusters...
  2. Wu P, Kuo C, Hsu H, Lai C. Effect of pterygium surgery on refractive spherocylinder power and corneal topography. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2009;40:32-7 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of pterygium surgery on refractive spherocylinder power and corneal topography. Twenty-four patients (27 eyes) undergoing pterygium surgery from January to December 2006 were retrospectively identified...
  3. Liu J, Fu Y, Xu Y, Tseng S. New grading system to improve the surgical outcome of multirecurrent pterygia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..To report a new grading system and surgical outcome by sealing the gap between the conjunctiva and Tenon capsule...
  4. Awdeh R, Destafeno J, Blackmon D, Cummings T, Kim T. The presence of T-lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4 and CD8) in pterygia: evaluation of the inflammatory response. Adv Ther. 2008;25:479-87 pubmed publisher
    The aim of our study was to confirm the presence of inflammatory T-lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4 and CD8) in pterygium specimens with regards to clinical severity...
  5. Ang M, Li X, Wong W, Zheng Y, Chua D, Rahman A, et al. Prevalence of and racial differences in pterygium: a multiethnic population study in Asians. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:1509-15 pubmed publisher
    To describe the prevalence and risk factors of pterygium in a multiethnic Asian population and to examine racial differences. Population-based study in Singapore, located 1° north of the equator...
  6. Ali A, Thariat J, Bensadoun R, Thyss A, Rostom Y, El Haddad S, et al. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of pterygium: a review of the literature including more than 6000 treated lesions. Cancer Radiother. 2011;15:140-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Pterygium is a benign conjunctival neoformation usually treated by surgical excision, but recurrences may affect 30% to 89% of cases, so that adjunctive therapies like conjunctival autografting, antimitotic drugs and beta-irradiation (?-..
  7. Mauro J, Foster C. Pterygia: pathogenesis and the role of subconjunctival bevacizumab in treatment. Semin Ophthalmol. 2009;24:130-4 pubmed publisher
    A pterygium is a very common conjunctival degenerative condition. It has been well established that there are different factors that are interrelated and involved in the growth of pterygia...
  8. Bradley J, Yang W, Bradley R, Reid T, Schwab I. The science of pterygia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:815-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Pterygium is an ocular surface disease of humans attributed to chronic ultraviolet-B exposure. Clinically, the condition involves invasive centripetal growth with associated inflammation and neovascularisation...
  9. Demurtas P, Di Girolamo N, Corrias M, Zucca I, Maxia C, Diana A, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of angiotensin converting enzyme in Sardinian pterygium. Histol Histopathol. 2013;28:759-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Pterygium is a common ocular surface disorder characterized by excessive cell proliferation, inflammation, fibrosis, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling...

More Information

Publications100

  1. Sherwin J, Hewitt A, Kearns L, Griffiths L, Mackey D, Coroneo M. The association between pterygium and conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence: the Norfolk Island Eye Study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2013;91:363-70 pubmed publisher
    ..ultraviolet autofluorescence (UVAF), a biomarker of ocular ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, and prevalent pterygium. We conducted a cross-sectional study on Norfolk Island, South Pacific...
  2. Peng M, Tsai Y, Chiang C, Huang Y, Chou M, Yeh K, et al. CYP1A1 protein activity is associated with allelic variation in pterygium tissues and cells. Mol Vis. 2012;18:1937-43 pubmed
    ..to determine whether allelic variation of CYP1A1 is associated with protein expression and protein activity in pterygium. We collected 150 pterygium samples and 50 normal conjunctiva samples, which served as controls...
  3. Kheirkhah A, Adelpour M, Nikdel M, Ghaffari R, Ghassemi H, Hashemi H. Evaluation of conjunctival graft thickness after pterygium surgery by anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Curr Eye Res. 2011;36:782-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate changes in thickness of the conjunctival graft after pterygium surgery by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)...
  4. Kandavel R, Kang J, Memarzadeh F, Chuck R. Comparison of pterygium recurrence rates in Hispanic and white patients after primary excision and conjunctival autograft. Cornea. 2010;29:141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the impact of Hispanic and white ethnicity on the recurrence rates of pterygia after primary excision and conjunctival autograft (CAG) in a southern California population...
  5. Zhao L, You Q, Xu L, Ma K, Wang Y, Yang H, et al. 10-year incidence and associations of pterygium in adult Chinese: the Beijing Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:1509-14 pubmed publisher
    To assess the 10-year incidence of pterygium and associated factors in adult Chinese...
  6. West S, Munoz B. Prevalence of pterygium in Latinos: Proyecto VER. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1287-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Pterygium is a common corneal eye condition that can be disfiguring and may require surgery to avoid loss of vision. There are no population-based data on the prevalence or on risk factors among Latinos...
  7. Vojniković B, Njirić S, Coklo M, Toth I, Spanjol J, Marinović M. Sunlight and incidence of pterygium on Croatian Island Rab--epidemiological study. Coll Antropol. 2007;31 Suppl 1:61-2 pubmed
    ..between climatic factors, specially chronic exposure to strong visible and UV light, and appearance of pterygium and exfoliation syndrome...
  8. Young C, Chiu Y, Shih T, Lin W, Chiang C, Chou Y, et al. E-cadherin promoter hypermethylation may contribute to protein inactivation in pterygia. Mol Vis. 2010;16:1047-53 pubmed
    ..Moreover, loss of E-cadherin protein may contribute to aberrant localization of beta-catenin. These data provide evidence that methylation exists in pterygia and may play a role in their development. ..
  9. Tong L, Li J, Chew J, Tan D, Beuerman R. Phospholipase D in the human ocular surface and in pterygium. Cornea. 2008;27:693-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Pterygium is a fibro-vascular disease of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation and advancement of tissue onto the cornea...
  10. Vogt J, Morgan N, Rehal P, Faivre L, Brueton L, Becker K, et al. CHRNG genotype-phenotype correlations in the multiple pterygium syndromes. J Med Genet. 2012;49:21-6 pubmed publisher
    ..acetylcholine receptor may cause the non-lethal Escobar variant (EVMPS) or the lethal form (LMPS) of multiple pterygium syndrome (MPS)...
  11. Dekaris I, Gabric N, Karaman Z, Mravicic I, Kastelan S. Limbal-conjunctival autograft transplantation for recurrent pterygium. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2002;12:177-82 pubmed
    To assess the usefulness of limbal-conjunctival autograft transplantation (LCAT) for the treatment of recurrent pterygium.
  12. Lękawa Ilczuk A, Antosz H, Rymgayłło Jankowska B, Zarnowski T. Expression of double strand DNA breaks repair genes in pterygium. Ophthalmic Genet. 2011;32:39-47 pubmed publisher
    The alteration in the expression of some genes and proteins responsible for chosen DNA repair pathways in pterygium pathogenesis were studied...
  13. Zhou L, Beuerman R, Ang L, Chan C, Li S, Chew F, et al. Elevation of human alpha-defensins and S100 calcium-binding proteins A8 and A9 in tear fluid of patients with pterygium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2077-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study the authors determined that the inflammatory nature of pterygium is reflected in the protein components of tears...
  14. Srinivasan S, Dollin M, McAllum P, Berger Y, Rootman D, Slomovic A. Fibrin glue versus sutures for attaching the conjunctival autograft in pterygium surgery: a prospective observer masked clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:215-8 pubmed publisher
    ..subconjunctival haemorrhage (SCH) and graft stability following the use of sutures or fibrin glue (FG) during pterygium surgery. Prospective, observer masked, clinical trial...
  15. Karahan N, Baspinar S, Ciris M, Baydar C, Kapucuoglu N. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in primary and recurrent pterygium. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:279-83 pubmed
    ..In this study, 21 primary pterygia and 12 recurrent pterygia from subjects undergoing pterygium surgery and six normal corneal-scleral tissue specimens were studied immunohistochemically for COX-2 expression...
  16. Errais K, Bouden J, Mili Boussen I, Anane R, Beltaif O, Meddeb Ouertani A. Effect of pterygium surgery on corneal topography. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2008;18:177-81 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of successful pterygium surgery on corneal topography.
  17. Garfias Y, Bautista De Lucio V, Garcia C, Nava A, Villalvazo L, Jimenez Martinez M. Study of the expression of CD30 in pterygia compared to healthy conjunctivas. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2068-73 pubmed
    The pterygium is characterized by a fibrovascular neoformation from the bulbar conjunctiva into the cornea...
  18. Maxia C, Perra M, Demurtas P, Minerba L, Murtas D, Piras F, et al. Relationship between the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and survivin in primary pterygium. Mol Vis. 2009;15:458-63 pubmed
    ..Primary pterygium samples were treated for the immunohistochemical evaluation of COX-2 and survivin...
  19. Yang S, Lin C, Yang P, Chao S, Ye Y, Hu D. Increased expression of gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in pterygia and pterygium fibroblasts with disease progression and activation of protein kinase C. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4588-96 pubmed publisher
    ..of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 mRNA and activities in various stages of surgically excised pterygium specimens and cultured pterygium fibroblasts and to study the effects of activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on ..
  20. Adiguzel U, Karabacak T, Sari A, Oz O, Cinel L. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in primary and recurrent pterygium. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2007;17:879-84 pubmed
    b>Pterygium is a proliferative, inflammatory, and invasive ocular surface disease associated with excessive ultraviolet radiation exposure and has several tumor-like characteristics...
  21. Zhong H, Cha X, Wei T, Lin X, Li X, Li J, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for pterygium in rural adult chinese populations of the Bai nationality in Dali: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:6617-21 pubmed
    The purpose of the study was to describe the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors for pterygium in a population-based sample of rural residents of the Bai minority population in rural Dali, China...
  22. Assaad N, Chong R, Tat L, Bennett M, Coroneo M. Use of adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy to support limbal conjunctival graft in the management of recurrent pterygium. Cornea. 2011;30:7-10 pubmed publisher
    To assess the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in the management of recurrent pterygium.
  23. Sun L, Lv W, Liang Y, Friedman D, Yang X, Guo L, et al. The prevalence of and risk factors associated with pterygium in a rural adult Chinese population: the Handan Eye Study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2013;20:148-54 pubmed publisher
    To describe the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in a rural adult Chinese population...
  24. Fallah Tafti M, Khosravifard K, Mohammadpour M, Hashemian M, Kiarudi M. Efficacy of intralesional bevacizumab injection in decreasing pterygium size. Cornea. 2011;30:127-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy of intralesional bevacizumab injection in decreasing size of pterygium. Seventeen patients with pterygium (14 with primary and 3 with recurrent pterygium) received intralesional injections of bevacizumab (2...
  25. Uçakhan O, Kanpolat A, Elgun S, Durak I. The role of oxidative mechanisms in the etiopathogenesis of pterygium: a preliminary study. Ophthalmologica. 2009;223:41-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the role of light-induced oxidative mechanisms in the pathogenesis of primary pterygium. Pterygium specimens were obtained from 18 eyes of 18 patients undergoing pterygial removal (group A), and normal conjunctival specimens ..
  26. Ozdamar Y, Mutevelli S, Han U, Ileri D, Onal B, Ilhan O, et al. A comparative study of tissue glue and vicryl suture for closing limbal-conjunctival autografts and histologic evaluation after pterygium excision. Cornea. 2008;27:552-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and histopathologic outcomes of tissue glue and vicryl suture to attach limbal conjunctival autografts in pterygium surgery. Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients were included in this study...
  27. Lu J, Wang Z, Lu P, Chen X, Zhang W, Shi K, et al. Pterygium in an aged Mongolian population: a population-based study in China. Eye (Lond). 2009;23:421-7 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence and identify associated risk factors for pterygium in an elderly Mongolian population at high altitude in Henan County, China. A population-based survey was conducted from June 2006 to September 2006...
  28. Liang K, Jiang Z, Ding B, Cheng P, Huang D, Tao L. Expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis biomarkers in pterygia and normal conjunctiva. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1687-93 pubmed
    To analyze the expression of apoptosis and cell proliferation molecules in pterygium tissues of Chinese patients...
  29. Teng C, Patel N, Jacobson L. Effect of subconjunctival bevacizumab on primary pterygium. Cornea. 2009;28:468-70 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of subconjunctival bevacizumab on primary pterygium. A patient with an inflamed nasal primary pterygium, refractory to artificial tears and naphazoline, was enrolled in this study...
  30. Labbe A, Gheck L, Iordanidou V, Mehanna C, Brignole Baudouin F, Baudouin C. An in vivo confocal microscopy and impression cytology evaluation of pterygium activity. Cornea. 2010;29:392-9 pubmed publisher
    To correlate pterygium activity with in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and ex vivo impression cytology (IC) analyses.
  31. Kim H, Mun H, Park Y, Lee K, Shin J. Conjunctivolimbal autograft using a fibrin adhesive in pterygium surgery. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2008;22:147-54 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fibrin bioadhesive in conjunctivolimbal autograft surgery for primary pterygium.
  32. Pardo J, Fontanilla M, Ospina L, Espinosa L. Determining the pharmacological activity of Physalis peruviana fruit juice on rabbit eyes and fibroblast primary cultures. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:3074-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of this fruit juice for treating pterygium has been reported in Colombian traditional medicine...
  33. Mohammed I. Treatment of pterygium. Ann Afr Med. 2011;10:197-203 pubmed publisher
    The treatment of ocular pterygium has been subjected to the development and application of various new strategies in the last few years...
  34. Gao Y, Zhang M, Peng Y. [Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in pterygium and effects of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on human pterygium fibroblasts]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2007;43:881-4 pubmed
    To investigate the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in pterygium and the effect of selective COX-2 inhibitor (Nimesulide) on proliferation of human pterygium fibroblasts (HPF) in culture.
  35. Zare M, Zarei Ghanavati S, Ansari Astaneh M, Baradaran Rafiee A, Einolahi B. Effects of pterygium on ocular aberrations. Cornea. 2010;29:1232-5 pubmed publisher
    To compare high-order aberration between the eyes with pterygium and normal fellow eyes.
  36. Wang S, Jiang B, Gu Y. Changes of tear film function after pterygium operation. Ophthalmic Res. 2011;45:210-5 pubmed publisher
    To assess changes of tear film function in patients with pterygium after pterygium excision combined with limbal-conjunctival autograft transplantation.
  37. Chui J, Coroneo M, Tat L, Crouch R, Wakefield D, Di Girolamo N. Ophthalmic pterygium: a stem cell disorder with premalignant features. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:817-27 pubmed publisher
    ..One hundred pterygium specimens were histopathologically reviewed and selected cases were immunohistochemically assessed to confirm ..
  38. Zheng K, Cai J, Jhanji V, Chen H. Comparison of pterygium recurrence rates after limbal conjunctival autograft transplantation and other techniques: meta-analysis. Cornea. 2012;31:1422-7 pubmed publisher
    Meta-analysis to compare pterygium surgery outcomes using limbal conjunctival autograft (LCAG) and other techniques.
  39. Nakasato H, Uemoto R, Mizuki N. Treatment of pterygium by ligation and bevacizumab injection. Cornea. 2012;31:1339-41 pubmed publisher
    To describe a technique for treating pterygium by combining a subpterygial injection of bevacizumab followed by pterygial ligation.
  40. Fox T, Gotlinger K, Dunn M, Lee O, Milman T, Zaidman G, et al. Dysregulated heme oxygenase-ferritin system in pterygium pathogenesis. Cornea. 2013;32:1276-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These eicosanoids are subjected to regulation by enzymes, such as heme oxygenases (HOs) and ferritin...
  41. Marmamula S, Khanna R, Rao G. Population-based assessment of prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:5359-66 pubmed publisher
    To describe the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in a population-based sample of individuals aged 30 years and older in South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
  42. Hou A, Voorhoeve P, Lan W, Tin M, Tong L. Comparison of gene expression profiles in primary and immortalized human pterygium fibroblast cells. Exp Cell Res. 2013;319:2781-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Pterygium is a fibrovascular growth on the ocular surface with corneal tissue destruction, matrix degradation and varying extents of chronic inflammation...
  43. Jaworski C, Aryankalayil John M, Campos M, Fariss R, Rowsey J, Agarwalla N, et al. Expression analysis of human pterygium shows a predominance of conjunctival and limbal markers and genes associated with cell migration. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2421-34 pubmed
    b>Pterygium is a vision-impairing fibrovascular lesion that grows across the corneal surface and is associated with sunlight exposure...
  44. Kucukerdonmez C, Karalezli A, Akova Y, Borazan M. Amniotic membrane transplantation using fibrin glue in pterygium surgery: a comparative randomised clinical trial. Eye (Lond). 2010;24:558-66 pubmed publisher
    To compare the results of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) using fibrin glue vs vicryl sutures in pterygium surgery.
  45. Kase S, Osaki M, Jin X, Ohgami K, Yoshida K, Saito W, et al. Increased expression of erythropoietin receptor in human pterygial tissues. Int J Mol Med. 2007;20:699-702 pubmed
    ..b>Pterygium is a fibrovascular proliferating tissue that includes transformed cells...
  46. Ratnalingam V, Eu A, Ng G, Taharin R, John E. Fibrin adhesive is better than sutures in pterygium surgery. Cornea. 2010;29:485-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the recurrence rate, surgical time, and postoperative pain between conjunctival autografting with sutures and with fibrin adhesive in pterygium surgery.
  47. Ando R, Kase S, Ohashi T, Dong Z, Fukuhara J, Kanda A, et al. Tissue factor expression in human pterygium. Mol Vis. 2011;17:63-9 pubmed
    A pterygium shows tumor-like characteristics, such as proliferation, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
  48. Tsai Y, Chiang C, Bau D, Cheng Y, Lee H, Tseng S, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene 460 polymorphism is associated with pterygium formation in female patients. Cornea. 2008;27:476-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Pterygium is composed of proliferating fibrovascular tissue, and its formation and progression require neovascularization...
  49. Maxia C, Perra M, Demurtas P, Minerba L, Murtas D, Piras F, et al. Expression of survivin protein in pterygium and relationship with oxidative DNA damage. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:2372-80 pubmed publisher
    ..is known to cause oxidative DNA damage and is thought to be a major factor implicated in the pathogenesis of pterygium. Among all the photo-oxidative DNA products, the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is regarded a sensitive and ..
  50. Bandyopadhyay R, Nag D, Mondal S, Gangopadhyay S, Bagchi K, Bhaduri G. Ocular surface disorder in pterygium: role of conjunctival impression cytology. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010;53:692-5 pubmed publisher
    To study ocular surface abnormalities in patients with pterygium, conjunctival impression cytology was explored as a tool for the assessment of the cytological changes.
  51. Ozgurhan E, Agca A, Kara N, Yuksel K, Demircan A, Demirok A. Topical application of bevacizumab as an adjunct to recurrent pterygium surgery. Cornea. 2013;32:835-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of topical bevacizumab as adjunctive to the surgical excision for treatment of recurrent pterygium.
  52. Bai H, Teng Y, Wong L, Jhanji V, Pang C, Yam G. Proliferative and migratory aptitude in pterygium. Histochem Cell Biol. 2010;134:527-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Pterygium is a chronic fibrovascular overgrowth on the corneal surface and is often associated with inflammation, astigmatism and obstructed vision...
  53. Sebastiá R, Ventura M, Solari H, Antecka E, Orellana M, Burnier M. Immunohistochemical detection of Hsp90 and Ki-67 in pterygium. Diagn Pathol. 2013;8:32 pubmed publisher
    To examine the immunohistochemical expression of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and Ki-67 protein in human pterygium.
  54. Sarnicola V, Vannozzi L, Motolese P. Recurrence rate using fibrin glue-assisted ipsilateral conjunctival autograft in pterygium surgery: 2-year follow-up. Cornea. 2010;29:1211-4 pubmed publisher
    To determine the recurrence rate after pterygium excision with ipsilateral conjunctival autograft using fibrin glue.
  55. Rim T, Nam J, Kim E, Kim T. Risk factors associated with pterygium and its subtypes in Korea: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Cornea. 2013;32:962-70 pubmed publisher
    To assess the sociodemographic and health-related risk factors associated with pterygium and its subtypes in Korea.
  56. Peiretti E, Dessì S, Mulas C, Abete C, Norfo C, Putzolu M, et al. Modulation of cholesterol homeostasis by antiproliferative drugs in human pterygium fibroblasts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:3450-8 pubmed
    ..investigation was conducted to determine whether antiproliferative agents such as pioglitazone (PIO) and everolimus (EVE) may inhibit proteins involved in the cholesterol ester cycle and the proliferation of pterygium fibroblasts (PF).
  57. Golu T, Mogoanta L, Streba C, Pirici D, Mălăescu D, Mateescu G, et al. Pterygium: histological and immunohistochemical aspects. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2011;52:153-8 pubmed
    b>Pterygium represents a triangular conjunctivo-epithelial overgrowth, proliferating from the bulbar conjunctiva and covering the cornea, causing severe vision loss...
  58. Shehadeh Mashor R, Srinivasan S, Boimer C, Lee K, Tomkins O, Slomovic A. Management of recurrent pterygium with intraoperative mitomycin C and conjunctival autograft with fibrin glue. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152:730-2 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of using fibrin glue in cases of recurrent pterygium treated with pterygium excision and conjunctival autograft combined with mitomycin C.
  59. Yalcin Tok O, Burcu Nurozler A, Ergun G, Akbas Kocaoglu F, Duman S. Topical cyclosporine A in the prevention of pterygium recurrence. Ophthalmologica. 2008;222:391-6 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the efficacy and safety of postoperative topical cyclosporine A 0.05% (tCsA) (Restasis, Allergan Pharmaceutical) eye drops in preventing the recurrence of pterygium.
  60. Bahar I, Kaiserman I, Lange A, Slomovic A, Levinger E, Sansanayudh W, et al. The effect of mitomycin C on corneal endothelium in pterygium surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;147:447-452.e1 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the changes in endothelial cell counts in patients after pterygium surgery with mitomycin C (MMC) 0.02% and to compare them with patients undergoing pterygium excision without MMC.
  61. Eze B, Maduka Okafor F, Okoye O, Chuka Okosa C. Pterygium: A review of clinical features and surgical treatment. Niger J Med. 2011;20:7-14 pubmed
    ..A review of the efficacy of the currently available surgical procedures for pterygium excision using postoperative recurrences as the main outcome measure is presented.
  62. Takamura Y, Kubo E, Tsuzuki S, Akagi Y. Detection of human papillomavirus in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma by hybrid capture II and PCR assays. Eye (Lond). 2008;22:1442-5 pubmed publisher
    To elucidate the putative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma.
  63. Gumus K, Topaktas D, Goktas A, Karakucuk S, Oner A, Mirza G. The change in ocular higher-order aberrations after pterygium excision with conjunctival autograft: a 1-year prospective clinical trial. Cornea. 2012;31:1428-31 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of pterygium excision with conjunctival autograft plus corneal polishing on ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) and to monitor the changes throughout the first postoperative year.
  64. Ribatti D, Nico B, Maxia C, Longo V, Murtas D, Mangieri D, et al. Neovascularization and mast cells with tryptase activity increase simultaneously in human pterygium. J Cell Mol Med. 2007;11:585-9 pubmed
    ..study, we correlate the extent of angiogenesis with the number of tryptase-reactive MC in tissue fragments from pterygium and normal bulbar conjunctiva investigated by immunohistochemistry, using two murine monoclonal antibodies ..
  65. Kucukerdonmez C, Akova Y, Altinors D. Comparison of conjunctival autograft with amniotic membrane transplantation for pterygium surgery: surgical and cosmetic outcome. Cornea. 2007;26:407-13 pubmed
    ..clinical results of conjunctival autograft and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for primary and recurrent pterygium excision...
  66. Cimpean A, Poenaru Sava M, Raica M, Ribatti D. Preliminary evidence of the presence of lymphatic vessels immunoreactive for D2-40 and Prox-1 in human pterygium. Oncol Rep. 2011;26:1111-3 pubmed publisher
    Human pterygium is a benign fibrovascular outgrowth of the corneo-conjunctival junction, characterized by tissue remodeling, cellular proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammation...
  67. Pan H, Zhong J, Jing C. Comparison of fibrin glue versus suture for conjunctival autografting in pterygium surgery: a meta-analysis. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1049-54 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of fibrin glue in pterygium surgery with conjunctival autografting.
  68. Detorakis E, Spandidos D. Pathogenetic mechanisms and treatment options for ophthalmic pterygium: trends and perspectives (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2009;23:439-47 pubmed
    b>Pterygium is a fibrovascular lesion of the ocular surface that can display an aggressive clinical behavior and, occasionally, threaten vision...
  69. Su Y, Wang F, Qi H, Zhao S, Li X, Cui H. Small interfering RNA targeting of S phase kinase-interacting protein 2 inhibits cell proliferation of pterygium fibroblasts. Mol Vis. 2011;17:247-56 pubmed
    ..RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing of S phase-kinase-interacting protein 2 (Skp2) can be employed to inhibit protein 27 kinase inhibition protein 1 (p27(kip1)) down-regulation in pterygium fibroblast cells (PFC) in vitro and in vivo.
  70. Tung J, Wu H, Chiang C, Tsai Y, Chou M, Lee H, et al. An association between BPDE-like DNA adduct levels and CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisma in pterygium. Mol Vis. 2010;16:623-9 pubmed
    ..The relationship between BPDE-like DNA adduct levels and CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms in pterygium is not clear...
  71. Tsai Y, Bau D, Chiang C, Cheng Y, Tseng S, Tsai F. Pterygium and genetic polymorphism of DNA double strand break repair gene Ku70. Mol Vis. 2007;13:1436-40 pubmed
    ..Because pterygium is an UV-related uncontrolled cell proliferation, it is logical to assume polymorphisms of Ku70 is associated ..
  72. Jain V, Garg P, Sharma S. Microbial scleritis-experience from a developing country. Eye (Lond). 2009;23:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this article was to study the clinical features, pathogenic organisms, and the outcome in cases of infectious scleritis...
  73. Ling S, Liang L, Lin H, Li W, Xu J. Increasing lymphatic microvessel density in primary pterygia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:735-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) in primary pterygia...
  74. Jiang J, Yang Y, Zhang M, Fu X, Bao X, Yao K. Comparison of fibrin sealant and sutures for conjunctival autograft fixation in pterygium surgery: one-year follow-up. Ophthalmologica. 2008;222:105-11 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fibrin sealant in conjunctival autograft fixation in pterygium surgery.
  75. Riau A, Wong T, Beuerman R, Tong L. Calcium-binding S100 protein expression in pterygium. Mol Vis. 2009;15:335-42 pubmed
    b>Pterygium is an ocular surface disease of unknown etiology associated with epithelial and fibrovascular outgrowth from the conjunctiva onto the cornea...
  76. Chen Y, Hsiao C, Ngan K, Yeung L, Tan H, Yang K, et al. Herpes simplex virus and pterygium in Taiwan. Cornea. 2008;27:311-3 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in pterygia to study the possible association between HSV and pterygia in Taiwan, a tropical country with a high prevalence of pterygium.
  77. Seet L, Tong L, Su R, Wong T. Involvement of SPARC and MMP-3 in the pathogenesis of human pterygium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:587-95 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the expression of SPARC and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in normal conjunctiva and pterygium tissues.
  78. Asokan R, Venkatasubbu R, Velumuri L, Lingam V, George R. Prevalence and associated factors for pterygium and pinguecula in a South Indian population. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2012;32:39-44 pubmed publisher
    To describe the prevalence and factors associated with pterygium and pinguecula in a south Indian population.
  79. Chiang C, Tsai Y, Bau D, Cheng Y, Tseng S, Wang R, et al. Pterygium and genetic polymorphisms of the DNA repair enzymes XRCC1, XPA, and XPD. Mol Vis. 2010;16:698-704 pubmed
    b>Pterygium is an ultraviolet (UV) related disease. UV radiation can produce DNA damage, which is repaired by the DNA repair systems...
  80. Sekundo W, Droutsas K, Cursiefen C. [Operative techniques for surgical treatment of primary and recurrent pterygia]. Ophthalmologe. 2010;107:525-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A lamellar sectorial corneal graft might become necessary if there is a deep corneal defect. The well established technique of suturing the graft has been replaced by fibrin glue in some surgical centers...
  81. Shiroma H, Higa A, Sawaguchi S, Iwase A, Tomidokoro A, Amano S, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of pterygium in a southwestern island of Japan: the Kumejima Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;148:766-771.e1 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in a Japanese population aged 40 years or older on Kumejima Island, Japan.
  82. Chiang C, Cheng Y, Lin C, Lee H, Tsai F, Tseng S, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2 expression in pterygium. Mol Vis. 2007;13:635-8 pubmed
    Following the recent discovery of an abnormal expression of the p53 gene in the epithelium in pterygium, some researchers felt that pterygium is a tumor rather than a degenerative disease...
  83. Khalfaoui T, Mkannez G, Colin D, Imen A, Zbiba W, Errais K, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and p53 expression in pterygium from Tunisian patients. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2011;59:137-41 pubmed publisher
    A pterygium is characterized by abnormal fibrovascular corneoconjunctival tissue. A number of investigations have attempted to elucidate this incompletely understood pathology...
  84. Ma K, Xu L, Jie Y, Jonas J. Prevalence of and factors associated with pterygium in adult Chinese: the Beijing Eye Study. Cornea. 2007;26:1184-6 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the prevalence of pterygia and its associated factors in an adult Chinese population of Greater Beijing...
  85. Hirst L. Prospective study of primary pterygium surgery using pterygium extended removal followed by extended conjunctival transplantation. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1663-72 pubmed publisher
    To assess the rate of recurrence and complications after primary pterygium removal with the P.E.R.F.E.C.T. for PTERYGIUM (pterygium extended removal followed by extended conjunctival transplantation) technique.
  86. Das S, Ramamurthy B, Sangwan V. Deep lamellar keratoplasty for recurrent advanced pterygium. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2009;40:43-5 pubmed
    The authors report a case of recurrent advanced pterygium managed by deep lamellar keratoplasty and conjunctival autograft...
  87. Bahar I, Kaiserman I, Weisbrod M, McAllum P, Slomovic A. Extensive versus limited pterygium excision with conjunctival autograft: outcomes and recurrence rates. Curr Eye Res. 2008;33:435-40 pubmed publisher
    To compare the long-term outcomes and recurrence rate of extensive versus limited subconjunctival pterygium excision with conjunctival autograft.
  88. Piecyk Sidor M, Polz Dacewicz M, Zagorski Z, Zarnowski T. Occurrence of human papillomavirus in pterygia. Acta Ophthalmol. 2009;87:890-5 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in pterygium.
  89. Dzunic B, Jovanovic P, Veselinović D, Petrović A, Stefanovic I, Kovacevic I. Analysis of pathohistological characteristics of pterygium. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010;10:307-13 pubmed
    b>Pterygium internum (external eye layer) shows great recurrence tendency after surgical removal. Its etiology is still unclear and represents a significant problem...
  90. Razeghinejad M, Hosseini H, Ahmadi F, Rahat F, Eghbal H. Preliminary results of subconjunctival bevacizumab in primary pterygium excision. Ophthalmic Res. 2010;43:134-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy of subconjunctival bevacizumab as an adjunctive therapy for primary pterygium surgery.
  91. Balci M, Sahin S, Mutlu F, Yagci R, Karanci P, Yildiz M. Investigation of oxidative stress in pterygium tissue. Mol Vis. 2011;17:443-7 pubmed
    To investigate changes in the oxidant-antioxidant system in pterygium tissue.