keratoconjunctivitis sicca


Summary: Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.

Top Publications

  1. Lee H, Ryu I, Seo K, Hong S, Kim H, Kim E. Topical 0.1% prednisolone lowers nerve growth factor expression in keratoconjunctivitis sicca patients. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:198-205 pubmed
    ..growth factor (NGF) levels in tears and on the ocular surfaces of normal control and non-Sjögren's type keratoconjunctivitis sicca subjects, and to investigate the effect of 0...
  2. Suwan Apichon O, Rizen M, Rangsin R, Herretes S, Reyes J, Lekhanont K, et al. Botulinum toxin B-induced mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:133-9 pubmed
    To develop a mouse model of human chronic dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca [KCS]).
  3. Lekhanont K, Leyngold I, Suwan Apichon O, Rangsin R, Chuck R. Comparison of topical dry eye medications for the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in a botulinum toxin B-induced mouse model. Cornea. 2007;26:84-9 pubmed
    To compare the effects of topical dry eye medications including anti-inflammatory agents and lubricant eyedrops for the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in a botulinum toxin B (BTX-B)-induced mouse model.
  4. Pflugfelder S, Maskin S, Anderson B, Chodosh J, Holland E, de Paiva C, et al. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter comparison of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic suspension, 0.5%, and placebo for treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients with delayed tear clearance. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:444-57 pubmed
    To evaluate loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic 0.5% suspension, versus placebo for treatment of the inflammatory component of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients with delayed tear clearance.
  5. Jacobsen H, Hakim S, Lauer I, Dendorfer A, Wedel T, Sieg P. Long-term results of autologous submandibular gland transfer for the surgical treatment of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2008;36:227-33 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess the long-term results of autologous submandibular gland transfer for surgical correction of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
  6. Klauss G, Giuliano E, Moore C, Stuhr C, Martin S, Tyler J, et al. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca associated with administration of etodolac in dogs: 211 cases (1992-2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;230:541-7 pubmed
    To characterize features and response to treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) associated with oral administration of etodolac in dogs.
  7. Pinheiro S, Martins Filho O, Ribas J, Catalan Soares B, Proietti F, Namen Lopes S, et al. Immunologic markers, uveitis, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142:811-15 pubmed
    To verify the occurrence of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) associated uveitis (HAU) and to evaluate the immunologic status related to HTLV-1.
  8. Avouac J, Sordet C, Depinay C, Ardizonne M, Vacher Lavenu M, Sibilia J, et al. Systemic sclerosis-associated Sjögren's syndrome and relationship to the limited cutaneous subtype: results of a prospective study of sicca syndrome in 133 consecutive patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:2243-9 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence of sicca symptoms and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in a 2-center prospective series of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), using the American-European Consensus Group criteria for SS...
  9. Mertzanis P, Abetz L, Rajagopalan K, Espindle D, Chalmers R, Snyder C, et al. The relative burden of dry eye in patients' lives: comparisons to a U.S. normative sample. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:46-50 pubmed
    ..To assess the relative burden of dry eye in daily life by comparing Short Form-36 (SF-36) responses from individuals with and without dry eye against U.S. norms...

More Information


  1. Chen Z, Liang Q, Yu G. Establishment of a rabbit model for keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Cornea. 2011;30:1024-9 pubmed publisher
    To establish a rabbit model for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) to study autologous submandibular gland transfer for treating severe KCS.
  2. Nepp J, Abela C, Polzer I, Derbolav A, Wedrich A. Is there a correlation between the severity of diabetic retinopathy and keratoconjunctivitis sicca?. Cornea. 2000;19:487-91 pubmed
    ..Patients with diabetic retinopathy (DRP) seldom report symptoms of ocular surface irritation, but evaluations of dryness are pathologic. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation between the severity of DRP and dry eyes...
  3. Takahide K, Parker P, Wu M, Hwang W, Carpenter P, Moravec C, et al. Use of fluid-ventilated, gas-permeable scleral lens for management of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca secondary to chronic graft-versus-host disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007;13:1016-21 pubmed
    b>Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) occurs in 40%-60% of patients with chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation...
  4. Moore C, McHugh J, Thorne J, Phillips T. Effect of cyclosporine on conjunctival mucin in a canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:653-9 pubmed
    ..that beneficial effects of Cyclosporin A (CsA; Sandimmune; Sandoz, Basel, Switzerland) in treating keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) include an effect on the mucin-producing conjunctival goblet cells independent of CsA's effect on ..
  5. Lekhanont K, Park C, Smith J, Combs J, Preechawat P, Suwan Apichon O, et al. Effects of topical anti-inflammatory agents in a botulinum toxin B-induced mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2007;23:27-34 pubmed
  6. Izci C, Celik I, Alkan F, Ogurtan Z, Ceylan C, Sur E, et al. Histologic characteristics and local cellular immunity of the gland of the third eyelid after topical ophthalmic administration of 2% cyclosporine for treatment of dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Am J Vet Res. 2002;63:688-94 pubmed
    ..the efficacy of topical administration of a 2% solution of cyclosporine (CsA) for treatment of dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and to correlate results with histopathologic characteristics and local cellular immunity of the ..
  7. Stonecipher K, Perry H, Gross R, Kerney D. The impact of topical cyclosporine A emulsion 0.05% on the outcomes of patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005;21:1057-63 pubmed
    To assess patients' experiences with topical cyclosporine A (tCSA) 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion (Restasis) to treat keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in a real-world setting.
  8. Yu G, Zhu Z, Mao C, Cai Z, Zou L, Lu L, et al. Microvascular autologous submandibular gland transfer in severe cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;33:235-9 pubmed
    ..the technique of microvascular autologous submandibular gland transfer for the treatment of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. From August 1999 to April 2002, 38 patients with severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca were treated by ..
  9. Grönlund M, Stenevi U, Lundeberg T. Acupuncture treatment in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca: a pilot study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2004;82:283-90 pubmed
    To evaluate the effects of acupuncture in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS).
  10. Ge X, Yu G, Fu J, Wu D, Zhang X, Wang Y, et al. An experimental study of the management of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca with autologous reduced-sized submandibular gland transplantation. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;50:562-6 pubmed publisher
    We have evaluated transplantation of reduced submandibular glands for the treatment of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Thirty-four rabbits were allocated into three groups: dry eye (controls, n=10), transplantation of whole ..
  11. Siagris D, Pharmakakis N, Christofidou M, Petropoulos J, Vantzou C, Lekkou A, et al. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca and chronic HCV infection. Infection. 2002;30:229-33 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in Greek patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its association with HCV genotypes and liver histology.
  12. Whitcher J, Shiboski C, Shiboski S, Heidenreich A, Kitagawa K, Zhang S, et al. A simplified quantitative method for assessing keratoconjunctivitis sicca from the Sjögren's Syndrome International Registry. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149:405-15 pubmed publisher
    To describe, apply, and test a new ocular grading system for assessing keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) using lissamine green and fluorescein.
  13. Caffery B, Simpson T, Wang S, Bailey D, McComb J, Rutka J, et al. Rose bengal staining of the temporal conjunctiva differentiates Sjögren's syndrome from keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2381-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of 231 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) with 89 patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca; KCS), to determine those procedures that best differentiate these groups in the eye care clinic.
  14. Nguyen C, Singson E, Kim J, Cornelius J, Attia R, Doyle M, et al. Sjögren's syndrome-like disease of C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1 Aec2 mice: gender differences in keratoconjunctivitis sicca defined by a cross-over in the chromosome 3 Aec1 locus. Scand J Immunol. 2006;64:295-307 pubmed
    ..and lacrimal glands results in loss of acinar cell tissue and function leading to stomatitis sicca and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. In recent years, the NOD mouse has become an accepted model of SjS, exhibiting a spontaneously ..
  15. Jonsson R, Vogelsang P, Volchenkov R, Espinosa A, Wahren Herlenius M, Appel S. The complexity of Sjögren's syndrome: novel aspects on pathogenesis. Immunol Lett. 2011;141:1-9 pubmed publisher most patients is manifested by two severe symptoms: dryness of the mouth (xerostomia) and the eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)...
  16. Naranjo C, Fondevila D, Leiva M, Roura X, Peña T. Characterization of lacrimal gland lesions and possible pathogenic mechanisms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs with leishmaniosis. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:37-47 pubmed
    In a previous study, it was found that 2.8% of dogs with leishmaniosis had keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS)...
  17. Quinto G, Camacho W, Castro Combs J, Li L, Martins S, Wittmann P, et al. Effects of topical human amniotic fluid and human serum in a mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Cornea. 2012;31:424-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the effects of topical human amniotic fluid (HAF), topical human serum (HS), and topical artificial tears in a mouse model of dry eye...
  18. Liu Z, Carvajal M, Carothers Carraway C, Carraway K, Pflugfelder S. Increased expression of the type 1 growth factor receptor family in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;129:472-80 pubmed
    To investigate the expression of type 1 growth factor receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor, ErbB2, and ErbB3) in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
  19. Dursun D, Wang M, Monroy D, Li D, Lokeshwar B, Stern M, et al. A mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:632-8 pubmed
  20. Aho V, Nevalainen T, Saari K. Group IIA phospholipase A2 content of tears in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002;240:521-3 pubmed
    To determine the concentration of group IIA phospholipase A2 (GIIAPLA(2)) in tears of patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and to compare it with the GIIAPLA(2) content of tears in age-matched healthy controls.
  21. Strong B, Farley W, Stern M, Pflugfelder S. Topical cyclosporine inhibits conjunctival epithelial apoptosis in experimental murine keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Cornea. 2005;24:80-5 pubmed
    Increased apoptosis in the conjunctival epithelium has been observed in experimental murine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS)...
  22. Chen W, Zhao K, Li X, Yoshitomi T. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca modifies epithelial stem cell proliferation kinetics in conjunctiva. Cornea. 2007;26:1101-6 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to examine the epithelial stem cell proliferation kinetics in a rat model with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS).
  23. Akinci A, Cakar N, Uncu N, Kara N, Acaroglu G. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Cornea. 2007;26:941-4 pubmed
    To compare the symptoms, signs, and results of objective tests for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and controls.
  24. Zapata L, Agudelo L, Paulo J, Pineda R. Sjögren keratoconjunctivitis sicca treated with rituximab. Cornea. 2007;26:886-7 pubmed
    To report two clinical cases of patients having severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca refractive to conventional treatment that received rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for human CD20 that targets B lymphocytes.
  25. Dursun D, Ertan A, Bilezikci B, Akova Y, Pelit A. Ocular surface changes in keratoconjunctivitis sicca with silicone punctum plug occlusion. Curr Eye Res. 2003;26:263-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate histopathologic and clinical response to silicone plug insertion in dry eye patients...
  26. Williams D. Immunopathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in the dog. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2008;38:251-68, vi pubmed publisher
    b>Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), more commonly known as dry eye, is an inflammatory condition of the ocular surface caused by a pathologic reduction in the aqueous component of the tear film...
  27. Doyle M, Boggs L, Attia R, Cooper L, Saban D, Nguyen C, et al. Autoimmune dacryoadenitis of NOD/LtJ mice and its subsequent effects on tear protein composition. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:1224-36 pubmed
    ..This leaves a major gap in our understanding of the dacryoadenitis/keratoconjunctivitis sicca in this model. Here we characterize the development of the autoimmune dacryoadenitis in NOD/LtJ and NOD...
  28. de Almeida D, Roveratti C, Brito F, Godoy G, Duque J, Bechara G, et al. Conjunctival effects of canine distemper virus-induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Vet Ophthalmol. 2009;12:211-5 pubmed publisher
    This study compared the histopathology of canine distemper virus (CDV)-induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) to non-infectious KCS in conjunctival tissues.
  29. Pflugfelder S. Antiinflammatory therapy for dry eye. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:337-42 pubmed
    ..To present evidence establishing the relationship between inflammation and dry eye and supporting the use of antiinflammatory therapy for dry eye...
  30. de Paiva C, Volpe E, Gandhi N, Zhang X, Zheng X, Pitcher J, et al. Disruption of TGF-? signaling improves ocular surface epithelial disease in experimental autoimmune keratoconjunctivitis sicca. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29017 pubmed publisher
    ..These mice have a truncated TGF-? receptor in CD4(+) T cells, rendering them unresponsive to TGF-?...
  31. Fujita M, Igarashi T, Kurai T, Sakane M, Yoshino S, Takahashi H. Correlation between dry eye and rheumatoid arthritis activity. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:808-13 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the incidence of dry eye in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with or without Sjögren syndrome (SS), and to investigate the correlation between dry eye and RA activity...
  32. Tabery H. Corneal surface changes in keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Part I: The surface proper. A non-contact photomicrographic in vivo study in the human cornea. Eye (Lond). 2003;17:482-7 pubmed
    To describe corneal surface changes in keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS).
  33. Gao J, Schwalb T, Addeo J, Ghosn C, Stern M. The role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca: the effect of topical Cyclosporin A therapy. Cornea. 1998;17:654-63 pubmed
    ..The therapeutic effect of immunomodulatory agents such as cyclosporin A (CsA) in the treatment of dry eye, particularly its impact on the level of apoptosis in the target tissues, is also investigated...
  34. de Paiva C, Hwang C, Pitcher J, Pangelinan S, Rahimy E, Chen W, et al. Age-related T-cell cytokine profile parallels corneal disease severity in Sjogren's syndrome-like keratoconjunctivitis sicca in CD25KO mice. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:246-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the severity of corneal epithelial disease and T-cell cytokine profile in the ocular surface tissues of CD25KO mice...
  35. Castro Lima Vargens C, Grassi M, Boa Sorte N, Rathsam Pinheiro R, Olavarria V, de Almeida Kruschewsky R, et al. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infected individuals is associated with high levels of HTLV-1 proviral load. J Clin Virol. 2011;52:177-80 pubmed publisher
    A high HTLV-1 proviral load is found in HTLV-1-associated diseases, mainly HAM/TSP. However, the association between proviral load and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) has not been well established.
  36. Gilger B, Andrews J, Wilkie D, Wyman M, Lairmore M. Cellular immunity in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca before and after treatment with topical 2% cyclosporine. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1995;49:199-208 pubmed
    Peripheral cellular immunity of ten dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) that had not been treated with topical corticosteroids or cyclosporine was evaluated (by use of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assays and CD4+/CD8+ ..
  37. Jiang G, Ke Y, Sun D, Li H, Ihnen M, Jumblatt M, et al. A new model of experimental autoimmune keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) induced in Lewis rat by the autoantigen Klk1b22. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2245-54 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to generate an inducible autoimmune model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) for study of pathogenesis of the disease.
  38. Lemp M. Dry eye (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca), rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjögren's syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:898-9 pubmed
  39. Caffery B, Joyce E, Heynen M, Jones L, Ritter R, Gamache D, et al. MUC16 expression in Sjogren's syndrome, KCS, and control subjects. Mol Vis. 2008;14:2547-55 pubmed
    ..The relationship of tear flow and soluble MUC16 concentration was also measured...
  40. Pflugfelder S, Jones D, Ji Z, Afonso A, Monroy D. Altered cytokine balance in the tear fluid and conjunctiva of patients with Sjögren's syndrome keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Curr Eye Res. 1999;19:201-11 pubmed
    To compare epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentration in tear fluid and levels of inflammatory cytokines in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with Sjögren's syndrome keratoconjunctivitis sicca with those of normal controls.
  41. Hong S, Kim T, Chung S, Kim E, Seo K. Recurrence after topical nonpreserved methylprednisolone therapy for keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren's syndrome. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2007;23:78-82 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of long-term recurrence after topical nonpreserved methylprednisolone pulse therapy for the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) with Sjögren's syndrome.
  42. Worda C, Nepp J, Huber J, Sator M. Treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca with topical androgen. Maturitas. 2001;37:209-12 pubmed
    ..The effect of topical androgen therapy on a 54-year-old patient with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and decreased lipid phase of the tear film is reported.
  43. Berdoulay A, English R, Nadelstein B. Effect of topical 0.02% tacrolimus aqueous suspension on tear production in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Vet Ophthalmol. 2005;8:225-32 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of 0.02% tacrolimus in aqueous suspension on tear production in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS)...
  44. Zhao H, Jumblatt J, Wood T, Jumblatt M. Quantification of MUC5AC protein in human tears. Cornea. 2001;20:873-7 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to establish a method to measure the amount of MUC5AC in human tears and to correlate the amount of MUC5AC with age, gender, and dry eye diseases...
  45. Petrone D, Condemi J, Fife R, Gluck O, Cohen S, Dalgin P. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of cevimeline in Sjögren's syndrome patients with xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:748-54 pubmed
    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 2 dosages of cevimeline for the treatment of xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.
  46. Niederkorn J, Stern M, Pflugfelder S, de Paiva C, Corrales R, Gao J, et al. Desiccating stress induces T cell-mediated Sjögren's Syndrome-like lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis. J Immunol. 2006;176:3950-7 pubmed
  47. Chen Z, Jie Y, Yu G. Treatment of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca by parotid duct transposition after tympanic neurectomy in rabbits. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6964-70 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the feasibility of parotid duct transposition after tympanic neurectomy to treat severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups in experiment 1...
  48. Sambursky R, Davitt W, Latkany R, Tauber S, Starr C, Friedberg M, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of a point-of-care matrix metalloproteinase 9 immunoassay for diagnosing inflammation related to dry eye. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:24-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the clinical sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of a rapid point-of-care diagnostic test to detect elevated matrix metalloproteinase 9 levels (InflammaDry)...
  49. Jacobi C, Cursiefen C. [Ophthalmological complications in Sjögren's syndrome]. Z Rheumatol. 2010;69:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Early and close cooperation between rheumatologist and ophthalmologist can avoid long-term complications in patients with Sjögren's disease and ocular complications. ..
  50. Fava R, Kennedy S, Wood S, Bolstad A, Bienkowska J, Papandile A, et al. Lymphotoxin-beta receptor blockade reduces CXCL13 in lacrimal glands and improves corneal integrity in the NOD model of Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R182 pubmed publisher
    In Sjögren's syndrome, keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye) is associated with infiltration of lacrimal glands by leukocytes and consequent losses of tear-fluid production and the integrity of the ocular surface...
  51. Guobis Z, Baseviciene N, Paipaliene P, Sabalys G, Kubilius R. [Xerostomia: clinic, etiology, diagnosis and treatment]. Medicina (Kaunas). 2006;42:171-9 pubmed
    ..The concept of possible treatment modalities and prognosis are discussed. The main and most common problems concerning xerostomia are revealed. ..
  52. Sun J, Liu C, Zhang Y, Ang H. Effect of cyclosporin A eye drop on keratoconjunctivitis sicca and its mechanism. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2005;25:738-40 pubmed
    In this study, the effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) eye drop on keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS) and its mechanism were studied...
  53. Pinheiro M, dos Santos P, dos Santos R, Barros J, Passos L, Cardoso Neto J. [Oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum) in the treatment for dry-eye Sjögren's syndrome patients]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2007;70:649-55 pubmed
    To evaluate if oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum), which reduces the inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, may help keratoconjunctivitis sicca's treatment in Sjögren's syndrome patients.
  54. McCulley J, Uchiyama E, Aronowicz J, Butovich I. Impact of evaporation on aqueous tear loss. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2006;104:121-8 pubmed
    To determine the impact of evaporation on preocular aqueous tear (AT) loss in normal subjects (controls) and patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS).
  55. Schaumburg C, Siemasko K, de Paiva C, Wheeler L, Niederkorn J, Pflugfelder S, et al. Ocular surface APCs are necessary for autoreactive T cell-mediated experimental autoimmune lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis. J Immunol. 2011;187:3653-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that APCs are necessary for the initiation and development of experimental dry eye and support the standing hypothesis that dry eye is a self-Ag-driven autoimmune disease...
  56. Corfield A, Donapaty S, Carrington S, Hicks S, Schauer R, Kohla G. Identification of 9-O-acetyl-N-acetylneuraminic acid in normal canine pre-ocular tear film secreted mucins and its depletion in Keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Glycoconj J. 2005;22:409-16 pubmed
    ..Mucus aspirated from the surface of normal dog eyes and those with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) was fractionated into three pools by density gradient centrifugation. Sialic acids comprised 0.6-0...
  57. Murphy C, Bentley E, Miller P, McIntyre K, Leatherberry G, Dubielzig R, et al. The pharmacologic assessment of a novel lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 antagonist (SAR 1118) for the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:3174-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is characterized by inflammation and decreased production of tears containing increased levels of cytokines...
  58. Bernauer W. [Vision disorders in inflammatory-rheumatic diseases]. Ther Umsch. 1996;53:58-67 pubmed
    ..The major ophthalmic manifestations of the rheumatic diseases include keratoconjunctivitis sicca, ulcerative keratitis, scleritis, uveitis, retinal vascular disease, and neuro-ophthalmic lesions...
  59. Itescu S, Brancato L, Buxbaum J, Gregersen P, Rizk C, Croxson T, et al. A diffuse infiltrative CD8 lymphocytosis syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a host immune response associated with HLA-DR5. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:3-10 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical, immunologic, and immunogenetic features of a diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic disorder resembling Sjögren syndrome in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...