Summary: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.

Top Publications

  1. Chan C, Theng J, Li L, Tan D. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in healthy individuals: a case series. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:1420-5 pubmed
    To present a series of 6 cases of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in healthy, nonimmunocompromised individuals.
  2. Lowder C, McMahon J, Meisler D, Dodds E, Calabrese L, Didier E, et al. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis caused by Septata intestinalis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121:715-7 pubmed
    ..Septata intestinalis was demonstrated to be the cause of keratoconjunctivitis in the patient. The keratoconjunctivitis resolved after three weeks of therapy with topical fumagillin...
  3. Reinhard T, Godehardt E, Pfahl H, Sundmacher R. [Local cyclosporin A in nummuli after keratoconjunctivitis epidemica. A pilot study]. Ophthalmologe. 2000;97:764-8 pubmed
    ..Recurrences are common after discontinuing topical steroids against nummular infiltrates following adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis (AK)...
  4. Bielory L. Ocular allergy and dry eye syndrome. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;4:421-4 pubmed
    ..This is not only relevant for the production of mucin and the change in tear fluid content, but it may also have implications for other sinopulmonary disorders such as cystic fibrosis and chronic sinusitis. ..
  5. Nilsson E, Storm R, Bauer J, Johansson S, Lookene A, Angstrom J, et al. The GD1a glycan is a cellular receptor for adenoviruses causing epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Nat Med. 2011;17:105-9 pubmed publisher
    Adenovirus type 37 (Ad37) is a leading cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), a severe and highly contagious ocular disease...
  6. Robinson C, Shariati F, Gillaspy A, Dyer D, Chodosh J. Genomic and bioinformatics analysis of human adenovirus type 37: new insights into corneal tropism. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:213 pubmed publisher
    Human adenovirus type 37 (HAdV-37) is a major etiologic agent of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, a common and severe eye infection associated with long-term visual morbidity due to persistent corneal inflammation...
  7. Kaneko H, Aoki K, Ohno S, Ishiko H, Fujimoto T, Kikuchi M, et al. Complete genome analysis of a novel intertypic recombinant human adenovirus causing epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:484-90 pubmed publisher
    ..specimens were collected for surveillance purposes from patients across Japan suspected of having epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC)...
  8. Hu Y, Matsumoto Y, Dogru M, Okada N, Igarashi A, Fukagawa K, et al. The differences of tear function and ocular surface findings in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Allergy. 2007;62:917-25 pubmed
    The pathogenesis of the ocular surface disease in atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) has not been fully understood...
  9. Adhikary A, Numaga J, Kaburaki T, Kawashima H, Araie M, Ikeda Y, et al. Genetic characterisation of adenovirus type 8 isolated in Hiroshima city over a 15 year period. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56:120-5 pubmed
    ..adenovirus type 8 (Ad8) were isolated in Hiroshima City over a 15 year period (1983-97) from patients with keratoconjunctivitis, and analysed with six restriction enzymes-BamHI, HindIII, PstI, SacI, SalI, and SmaI-to investigate ..

More Information


  1. Takeuchi S, Itoh N, Uchio E, Tanaka K, Kitamura N, Kanai H, et al. Adenovirus strains of subgenus D associated with nosocomial infection as new etiological agents of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3392-4 pubmed
    Adenovirus strains of a new type were isolated from patients with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. They were not completely neutralized by any antiserum against adenovirus prototypes...
  2. Thomas P, Samant D, Zhu Z, Selvam S, Stevenson D, Wang Y, et al. Long-term topical cyclosporine treatment improves tear production and reduces keratoconjunctivitis in rabbits with induced autoimmune dacryoadenitis. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2009;25:285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To use a rabbit model of induced autoimmune dacryoadenitis to evaluate the efficacy of topical ophthalmic cyclosporine A (CsA)...
  3. Guglielmetti S, Dart J, Calder V. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;10:478-85 pubmed publisher
    This review will focus on the diagnostic features of atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), its relationship to atopic dermatitis, the immunopathogenesis, and therapy, and will include strategies used for the management of severe disease ..
  4. Cai X, Zhang J, Chen M, Wu Y, Wang X, Chen J, et al. The effect of the potential PhoQ histidine kinase inhibitors on Shigella flexneri virulence. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23100 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the four potential PhoQ inhibitors inhibited the virulence of S. flexneri and that PhoQ/PhoP is a promising target for the development of drugs against S. flexneri infection. ..
  5. Percivalle E, Sarasini A, Torsellini M, Bruschi L, Antoniazzi E, Grazia Revello M, et al. A comparison of methods for detecting adenovirus type 8 keratoconjunctivitis during a nosocomial outbreak in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. J Clin Virol. 2003;28:257-64 pubmed
    An outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) due to adenovirus (Ad) type 8 and involving 14 members of the hospital staff and 33 neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the local University Hospital occurred between ..
  6. Hillenkamp J, Reinhard T, Ross R, Böhringer D, Cartsburg O, Roggendorf M, et al. The effects of cidofovir 1% with and without cyclosporin a 1% as a topical treatment of acute adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis: a controlled clinical pilot study. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:845-50 pubmed
    ..of cidofovir 1% eyedrops with and without cyclosporin A 1% eyedrops as a treatment of acute adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis (AKC). Randomized, controlled trial...
  7. Sahin A, Bozkurt B, Irkec M. Topical cyclosporine a in the treatment of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis: a long-term follow-up. Cornea. 2008;27:193-5 pubmed publisher
    ..05% drops (Restasis; Allergan, Irvine, CA) in the treatment of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK)...
  8. Hillenkamp J, Reinhard T, Ross R, Böhringer D, Cartsburg O, Roggendorf M, et al. Topical treatment of acute adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis with 0.2% cidofovir and 1% cyclosporine: a controlled clinical pilot study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:1487-91 pubmed
    ..cidofovir eyedrops and 1% cyclosporine eyedrops administered 4 times daily (qid) to treat acute adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. A randomized, controlled, double-masked study was conducted on 39 patients with acute adenoviral ..
  9. Giacometti M, Nicolet J, Johansson K, Naglic T, Degiorgis M, Frey J. Detection and identification of Mycoplasma conjunctivae in infectious keratoconjunctivitis by PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1999;46:173-80 pubmed
    ..conjunctivae isolates can be identified by the one-step PCR method, whereas for detection and identification of M. conjunctivae in clinical material the two-step method should be used (higher sensitivity). ..
  10. Adhikary A, Inada T, Banik U, Mukouyama A, Ikeda Y, Noda M, et al. Serological and genetic characterisation of a unique strain of adenovirus involved in an outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. J Clin Pathol. 2004;57:411-6 pubmed
    To characterise a novel strain of adenovirus (Ad) type Ad8 (genome type Ad8I) involved in an epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) outbreak in Hiroshima city using serological testing and sequence analysis of the fibre and hexon gene...
  11. Matsui K, Saha S, Saitoh M, Mizuki N, Itoh N, Okada E, et al. Isolation and identification of adenovirus from conjunctival scrapings over a two-year period (between 2001 and 2003) in Yokohama, Japan. J Med Virol. 2007;79:200-5 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the results of a nationwide surveillance report, adenovirus 3 was found as a major cause of keratoconjunctivitis in the Yokohama area...
  12. Theng J, Chan C, Ling M, Tan D. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in a healthy contact lens wearer without human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:976-8 pubmed
    To present a rare case of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in an otherwise healthy contact lens wearer without human immunodeficiency virus infection who responded to treatment with systemic albendazole and topical fumagillin...
  13. Jeng B, Holsclaw D. Cyclosporine A 1% eye drops for the treatment of subepithelial infiltrates after adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. Cornea. 2011;30:958-61 pubmed publisher
    ..the treatment of symptomatic corneal subepithelial infiltrates (SEI) occurring as a sequelae of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis (AK) that are resistant to tapering of corticosteroid eye drops...
  14. Calonge M, Herreras J. Clinical grading of atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;7:442-5 pubmed
    Atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), the most severe and chronic form of ocular surface allergy-related disorder, is the ocular surface complication that some atopic dermatitis patients can suffer...
  15. Hu Y, Adan E, Matsumoto Y, Dogru M, Fukagawa K, Takano Y, et al. Conjunctival in vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Mol Vis. 2007;13:1379-89 pubmed
    To elucidate the morphological alterations of the conjunctiva in atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) using the new generation Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT II)/Rostock Cornea Module confocal microscope in a prospective controlled ..
  16. Perry H, Doshi Carnevale S, Donnenfeld E, Kornstein H. Topical cyclosporine A 0.5% as a possible new treatment for superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:1578-81 pubmed
    ..5% drops to treat Theodore's superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). A retrospective noncomparative case series. Five patients diagnosed with SLK...
  17. Kakrania R, Joseph J, Vaddavalli P, Gangopadhyay N, Sharma S. Microsporidia keratoconjunctivitis in a corneal graft. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:1314-5 pubmed
  18. Takano Y, Fukagawa K, Miyake Kashima M, Tanaka M, Asano Kato N, Dogru M, et al. Dramatic healing of an allergic corneal ulcer persistent for 6 months by amniotic membrane patching in a patient with atopic keratoconjunctivitis: a case report. Cornea. 2004;23:723-5 pubmed
    To present a case of allergic corneal ulcer in a patient with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) that was persistent for 6 months and healed by amniotic membrane patching...
  19. Montessori V, Scharf S, Holland S, Werker D, Roberts F, Bryce E. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis outbreak at a tertiary referral eye care clinic. Am J Infect Control. 1998;26:399-405 pubmed
    An outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) occurred at a tertiary referral eye care clinic between late September and mid-November 1995...
  20. Robinson C, Rajaiya J, Zhou X, Singh G, Dyer D, Chodosh J. The E3 CR1-gamma gene in human adenoviruses associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Virus Res. 2011;160:120-7 pubmed publisher
    Human adenovirus species D type 37 (HAdV-D37) is an important etiologic agent of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Annotation of the whole genome revealed an open reading frame (ORF) in the E3 transcription unit predicted to encode a 31...
  21. Jones S, Weinstein J, Cumberland P, Klein N, Nischal K. Visual outcome and corneal changes in children with chronic blepharokeratoconjunctivitis. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:2271-80 pubmed
    ..To describe the cause, management, and effect of chronic blepharokeratoconjunctivitis (BKC) on the cornea and visual function in children...
  22. Cheung D, Bremner J, Chan J. Epidemic kerato-conjunctivitis--do outbreaks have to be epidemic?. Eye (Lond). 2003;17:356-63 pubmed
    To study: the epidemiology of an outbreak of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in a UK teaching hospital; disease presentation and its effect on clinical diagnostic efficiency; patterns of viral transmission between staff and patients; the ..
  23. Levinger E, Slomovic A, Sansanayudh W, Bahar I, Slomovic A. Topical treatment with 1% cyclosporine for subepithelial infiltrates secondary to adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. Cornea. 2010;29:638-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the treatment with topical 1% cyclosporine A (CsA) in patients with subepithelial corneal infiltrates (SEIs)...
  24. Rutala W, Peacock J, Gergen M, Sobsey M, Weber D. Efficacy of hospital germicides against adenovirus 8, a common cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in health care facilities. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:1419-24 pubmed
    ..nonporous inanimate surfaces was investigated using adenovirus type 8, a common cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. A 10-microl inoculum of adenovirus was placed onto each stainless steel disk (1-cm diameter), and the ..
  25. Gajdatsy A, Tay Kearney M. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis after HAART. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2001;29:327-9 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the microsporidiosis was a pre-existing opportunistic infection, whose presence was unmasked by a form of immune restoration induced by HAART...
  26. Imrie F, Church W. Factitious keratoconjunctivitis (not another case of ocular Munchausen's syndrome). Eye (Lond). 2003;17:256-8 pubmed
  27. Bissen Miyajima H, Monden Y, Shimazaki J, Tsubota K. Cataract surgery combined with ocular surface reconstruction in patients with severe cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2002;28:1379-85 pubmed
    To present the technique and outcome of cataract surgery combined with ocular surface reconstruction in patients with severe cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis.
  28. Kase S, Aoki K, Harada T, Harada C, Ohgami K, Shiratori K, et al. Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in the conjunctiva with the epithelial scraping of the mouse cornea and human epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:947-9 pubmed
    To examine the expression of p65, one of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), in the conjunctival epithelium of the C57Bl6 mouse and a patient with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC).
  29. Thomas P, Zhu Z, Selvam S, Samant D, Stevenson D, Mircheff A, et al. Autoimmune dacryoadenitis and keratoconjunctivitis induced in rabbits by subcutaneous injection of autologous lymphocytes activated ex vivo against lacrimal antigens. J Autoimmun. 2008;31:116-22 pubmed publisher
    ..rabbit lacrimal epithelial cells, are known to induce a Sjögren's-like autoimmune dacryoadenitis and keratoconjunctivitis when injected directly back into the donor animal's inferior lacrimal gland (LG)...
  30. Böhringer D, Birnbaum F, Reinhard T. [Cyclosporin A eyedrops for keratitis nummularis after adenovirus keratoconjunctivitis]. Ophthalmologe. 2008;105:592-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Keratoconjunctivitis is a common infectious disease of the eye surface, which is caused by adenovirus. The chronic form is keratitis nummularis...
  31. Song X, Li D, Farley W, Luo L, Heuckeroth R, Milbrandt J, et al. Neurturin-deficient mice develop dry eye and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:4223-9 pubmed
    ..Neurturin-deficient (NRTN(-/-)) mice have defective parasympathetic innervation of their lacrimal glands. This study was conducted to evaluate tear function and ocular surface phenotype in NRTN(-/-) mice...
  32. Kaneko H, Iida T, Ishiko H, Ohguchi T, Ariga T, Tagawa Y, et al. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis-related human adenovirus type 8, 19, 37 and a novel serotype. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1471-6 pubmed publisher
    We determined the complete genome sequence of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC)-related human adenoviruses (HAdVs)...
  33. Joseph J, Sridhar M, Murthy S, Sharma S. Clinical and microbiological profile of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in southern India. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:531-7 pubmed
    To report the clinical and microbiological profile of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in immunocompetent individuals in southern India.
  34. Bielory B, Bielory L. Atopic dermatitis and keratoconjunctivitis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2010;30:323-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Even if skin abnormalities seem well controlled, these patients require ophthalmic evaluation. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis in atopic dermatitis patients is characterized by acute exacerbations and requires maintenance therapy for ..
  35. Goto E, Shimmura S, Shimazaki J, Tsubota K. Treatment of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis by application of autologous serum. Cornea. 2001;20:807-10 pubmed
    To determine the efficacy of autologous serum drops in the treatment of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK).
  36. Sridhar M, Sharma S. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in a HIV-seronegative patient treated with debridement and oral itraconazole. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:745-6 pubmed
    To report a case of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in an HIV-seronegative.
  37. Kim H, Choi H, Cho B, Lee J, Kwon M. Effect of the H1N1 influenza pandemic on the incidence of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and on hygiene behavior: a cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23444 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suspected that the 2009/2010 influenza pandemic influenced hand washing. This study aims to examine the relationship between the 2009/2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic and hygiene behavior...
  38. Blusch J, Deryckère F, Windheim M, Ruzsics Z, Arnberg N, Adrian T, et al. The novel early region 3 protein E3/49K is specifically expressed by adenoviruses of subgenus D: implications for epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and adenovirus evolution. Virology. 2002;296:94-106 pubmed
    ..of 49K within the E3 region of Ad19a, an Ad of subgenus D that is similar to Ad8 and Ad37 causes epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC)...
  39. Das S, Sharma S, Sahu S, Nayak S, Kar S. New microbial spectrum of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis: clinical and laboratory aspects of an outbreak. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:861-2 pubmed
  40. Ishiko H, Shimada Y, Konno T, Hayashi A, Ohguchi T, Tagawa Y, et al. Novel human adenovirus causing nosocomial epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:2002-8 pubmed publisher
    In 2000, we encountered cases of nosocomial infections with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) at a university hospital in Kobe, in the western part of Japan...
  41. Kaneko H, Suzutani T, Aoki K, Kitaichi N, Ishida S, Ishiko H, et al. Epidemiological and virological features of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis due to new human adenovirus type 54 in Japan. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011;95:32-6 pubmed publisher
    New human adenovirus (HAdV)-54 causes epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) and is virologically close to and has occasionally been detected as HAdV-8...
  42. Robinson C, Shariati F, Zaitshik J, Gillaspy A, Dyer D, Chodosh J. Human adenovirus type 19: genomic and bioinformatics analysis of a keratoconjunctivitis isolate. Virus Res. 2009;139:122-6 pubmed publisher
    Human adenovirus type 19 (HAdV-19) is a major etiologic agent of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), a common and severe eye infection associated with long-term visual morbidity due to persistent corneal inflammation...
  43. Evans A, Bey R, Schoster J, Gaarder J, Finstad G. Preliminary studies on the etiology of keratoconjunctivitis in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) calves in Alaska. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:1051-5 pubmed
    b>Keratoconjunctivitis outbreaks occur each summer in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) herds in western Alaska, USA. This condition has not been well characterized nor has a definitive primary etiologic agent been identified...
  44. Butt A, Chodosh J. Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in a tertiary care eye clinic. Cornea. 2006;25:199-202 pubmed
    To elucidate the natural history and epidemiology of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis as seen in a tertiary care eye clinic.
  45. Lewis N, Francis I, Hawkins G, Coroneo M. Bilateral microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in an immunocompetent non-contact lens wearer. Cornea. 2003;22:374-6 pubmed
    To describe an immunocompetent male with bilateral microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis who responded to treatment with albendazole, propamidine, and fumagillin.
  46. Walsh M, Chintakuntlawar A, Robinson C, Madisch I, Harrach B, Hudson N, et al. Evidence of molecular evolution driven by recombination events influencing tropism in a novel human adenovirus that causes epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5635 pubmed publisher
    ..This documents the first genomic, bioinformatic, and biological descriptions of the molecular evolution events engendering an emerging pathogenic adenovirus...
  47. Wu E, Trauger S, Pache L, Mullen T, von Seggern D, Siuzdak G, et al. Membrane cofactor protein is a receptor for adenoviruses associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. J Virol. 2004;78:3897-905 pubmed
    ..D adenovirus (Ad) types 8, 19, and 37 (Ad8, -19, and -37, respectively) are causative agents of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and genital tract infections...
  48. Nivenius E, van der Ploeg I, Jung K, Chryssanthou E, van Hage M, Montan P. Tacrolimus ointment vs steroid ointment for eyelid dermatitis in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Eye (Lond). 2007;21:968-75 pubmed
    ..special reference to the intraocular pressure in the treatment of eyelid eczema in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC)...
  49. Adhikary A, Banik U, Okabe N, Fujimoto T. Molecular characterization of human adenovirus type 8 (HAdV-8), including a novel genome type detected in Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2011;64:493-8 pubmed
    Human adenovirus type 8 (HAdV-8) is a common agent of severe epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC)...
  50. Dogru M, Matsumoto Y, Okada N, Igarashi A, Fukagawa K, Shimazaki J, et al. Alterations of the ocular surface epithelial MUC16 and goblet cell MUC5AC in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Allergy. 2008;63:1324-34 pubmed publisher
    ..An increased understanding of the ocular surface at cellular level in the conjunctiva and the cornea may help explain the pathogenesis and the subsequent clinical appearance of atopic ocular allergies, which may be potentially blinding...
  51. Jin X, Aoki K, Kitaichi N, Ariga T, Ishida S, Ohno S. Genome variability of human adenovirus type 8 causing epidemic keratoconjunctivitis during 1986-2003 in Japan. Mol Vis. 2011;17:3121-7 pubmed
    Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is a contagious acute conjunctivitis associated with community-acquired infection. Human adenovirus type 8 (HAdV-8) is one of the major serotypes isolated from patients with EKC...
  52. Aoki K, Ishiko H, Konno T, Shimada Y, Hayashi A, Kaneko H, et al. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis due to the novel hexon-chimeric-intermediate 22,37/H8 human adenovirus. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3259-69 pubmed publisher
    In a 2-month period in 2003, we encountered an outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) in Japan. We detected 67 human adenoviruses (HAdVs) by PCR from eye swabs of patients with EKC at five eye clinics in different parts of Japan...
  53. Zhou X, Robinson C, Rajaiya J, Dehghan S, Seto D, Jones M, et al. Analysis of human adenovirus type 19 associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and its reclassification as adenovirus type 64. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:2804-11 pubmed publisher
    Human adenovirus species D type 19 (HAdV-D19) has been associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), a highly inflammatory infection of the ocular surface. Confusion exists regarding the origins of HAdV-D19...
  54. Dogru M, Okada N, Asano Kato N, Igarashi A, Fukagawa K, Shimazaki J, et al. Alterations of the ocular surface epithelial mucins 1, 2, 4 and the tear functions in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006;36:1556-65 pubmed
  55. Leonardi A. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: pathogenesis and treatment. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2002;21:319-39 pubmed
    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a recurrent or chronic ocular allergic disease that affects mostly children and young adults living in warm climates worldwide...
  56. Otter A, Twomey D, Rowe N, Tipp J, McElligott W, Griffiths P, et al. Suspected chlamydial keratoconjunctivitis in British cattle. Vet Rec. 2003;152:787-8 pubmed
  57. Abelson M, Granet D. Ocular allergy in pediatric practice. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2006;6:306-11 pubmed
    ..Allergic conjunctivitis is the most common ocular allergy syndrome among children, with atopic keratoconjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis comprising less common, but potentially more severe, forms of ocular ..
  58. Stefkovicová M, Sokolik J, Vicianová V, Madar R. Outbreaks of epidemic kerato-conjunctivitis in two hospital wards. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2005;13:29-31 pubmed
    The authors analyzed two hospital outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), one at the Department of Ophthalmology (30 cases) and another one at the Department of Premature Newborns (22 cases)...
  59. Kummeneje K, Mikkelsen T. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes type 04 from cases of keratoconjunctivitis in cattle and sheep. Nord Vet Med. 1975;27:144-9 pubmed
    b>Keratoconjunctivitis in cattle and sheep is usually recognized as a summer problem. The infective agency usually isolated from cattle is Moraxella bovis...
  60. Tanaka Yokogui K, Itoh N, Usui N, Takeuchi S, Uchio E, Aoki K, et al. New genome type of adenovirus serotype 19 causing nosocomial infections of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in Japan. J Med Virol. 2001;65:530-3 pubmed
    Twelve strains of adenovirus serotype 19, isolated from cases of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in Japan in 1992, 1993, 1997, and 1998, were analyzed by DNA restriction analysis, using restriction endonucleases BamHI, BglI, BglII, EcoRI, ..
  61. Chaberny I, Schnitzler P, Geiss H, Wendt C. An outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivtis in a pediatric unit due to adenovirus type 8. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003;24:514-9 pubmed
    To investigate and control an outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) occurring in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to determine signs specific for EKC in newborns.
  62. Barnett K. Congenital keratoconjunctivitis sicca and ichthyosiform dermatosis in the cavalier King Charles spaniel. J Small Anim Pract. 2006;47:524-8 pubmed
    ..To record a previously unreported congenital and hereditary condition affecting the eyes and skin in the cavalier King Charles spaniel...
  63. Melendez C, Florentino M, Martinez I, Lopez H. Outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis caused by adenovirus in medical residents. Mol Vis. 2009;15:557-62 pubmed
    The present work documents an outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis among ophthalmology residents, its influence in the presentation of the community cases, the use of molecular techniques for its diagnosis, and the implementation of ..
  64. Ishiko H, Aoki K. Spread of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis due to a novel serotype of human adenovirus in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2678-9 pubmed publisher
  65. Wakamatsu T, Satake Y, Igarashi A, Dogru M, Ibrahim O, Okada N, et al. IgE and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as markers of severity in the diagnosis of atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:581-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate tear and serum IgE and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as severity markers for atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC).
  66. Moss J, Fisher P, Vick B, Groisman E, Zychlinsky A. The regulatory protein PhoP controls susceptibility to the host inflammatory response in Shigella flexneri. Cell Microbiol. 2000;2:443-52 pubmed
    ..PhoP appears to regulate Shigella susceptibility to PMNs and antimicrobial molecules that are important for the late stages of infection with this enteric bacterium...
  67. Martins S, Muccioli C, Belfort R, Castelo A. Resolution of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in an AIDS patient treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:378-9 pubmed
    To report the outcome of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) after highly active antiretroviral therapy without any specific treatment for microsporidiosis.
  68. Casas E, Stone R. Putative quantitative trait loci associated with the probability of contracting infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. J Anim Sci. 2006;84:3180-4 pubmed
    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an economically important disease in cattle...
  69. Chung J, Kim M, Wee W. Prognostic factors for the clinical severity of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:240-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether prognostic immunological profiles predict the severity of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS).
  70. Kapoor H, Jaison S, Chopra R, Kakkar N. Factitious keratoconjunctivitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2006;54:282-3 pubmed
  71. Sendra Gutiérrez J, Martín Ríos D, Casas I, Saez P, Tovar A, Moreno C. An outbreak of adenovirus type 8 keratoconjunctivitis in a nursing home in Madrid. Euro Surveill. 2004;9:27-30 pubmed
    This work describes and analyses an outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis which occurred in 2001 and 2002 in a nursing home for the elderly in Leganes (an area of Madrid)...
  72. Hoelzle K, Wittenbrink M, Corboz L, Hoelzle L. Chlamydophila abortus-induced keratoconjunctivitis in a dog. Vet Rec. 2005;157:632-3 pubmed
  73. Das S, Sahu S, Sharma S, Nayak S, Kar S. Clinical trial of 0.02% polyhexamethylene biguanide versus placebo in the treatment of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;150:110-115.e2 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy of 0.02% polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis caused by microsporidia.
  74. Ruiz Perez F, Wahid R, Faherty C, Kolappaswamy K, Rodriguez L, Santiago A, et al. Serine protease autotransporters from Shigella flexneri and pathogenic Escherichia coli target a broad range of leukocyte glycoproteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12881-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model, a Shigella pic mutant induced greater inflammation than its parent strain...
  75. Alsuhaibani A, Sutphin J, Wagoner M. Confocal microscopy of subepithelial infiltrates occurring after epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Cornea. 2006;25:1102-4 pubmed
    To describe the confocal microscopic findings in subepithelial infiltrates associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC).
  76. Uchio E, Kimura R, Huang Y, Fuchigami A, Kadonosono K, Hayashi A, et al. Antiadenoviral effect of the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin receptor ligand, GRGDSP peptide, in serotypes that cause acute keratoconjunctivitis. Ophthalmologica. 2007;221:326-30 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the antiadenoviral effect of an expected adenoviral receptor inhibitor, GRGDSP peptide,in vitro...
  77. Nakamura M, Hirano E, Kowada K, Ishiguro F, Yamagishi Z, Adhikary A, et al. Surveillance of adenovirus D in patients with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis from Fukui Prefecture, Japan, 1995-2010. J Med Virol. 2012;84:81-6 pubmed publisher
    Human adenoviruses species D (HAdV-D) are known to cause severe epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. However, the isolation rate of HAdV-D is not high, because HAdV-D is usually slow to propagate...
  78. Hamada N, Gotoh K, Hara K, Iwahashi J, Imamura Y, Nakamura S, et al. Nosocomial outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis accompanying environmental contamination with adenoviruses. J Hosp Infect. 2008;68:262-8 pubmed publisher
    An outbreak of acute keratoconjunctivitis involving 27 patients occurred in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kurume University Hospital. Adenoviral DNA was detected in four inpatients, one outpatient and one healthcare worker...
  79. Ooi K, Joshua F, Broadfoot A. Recurrent multi-organism keratoconjunctivitis manifesting as a first presentation of common variable immune deficiency (CVID). Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2007;15:403-5 pubmed
    ..Reports of ocular manifestations of CVID are rare. The authors discuss a patient with recurrent keratoconjunctivitis that presented as an initial manifestation of CVID...