allergic conjunctivitis


Summary: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.

Top Publications

  1. Leonardi A, Brun P, Tavolato M, Plebani M, Abatangelo G, Secchi A. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2003;13:606-10 pubmed
    To quantify the presence of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in allergic conjunctivitis.
  2. Didier A, Malling H, Worm M, Horak F, Jager S, Montagut A, et al. Optimal dose, efficacy, and safety of once-daily sublingual immunotherapy with a 5-grass pollen tablet for seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120:1338-45 pubmed
    ..The 300-IR and 500-IR doses both demonstrated significant efficacy compared with placebo. The risk-benefit ratio favors the use of 300-IR tablets for clinical practice. ..
  3. Micera A, Lambiase A, Stampachiacchiere B, Sgrulletta R, Normando E, Bonini S, et al. Nerve growth factor has a modulatory role on human primary fibroblast cultures derived from vernal keratoconjunctivitis-affected conjunctiva. Mol Vis. 2007;13:981-7 pubmed
    ..The autocrine modulation of differentiation and response of VKC-FBs to NGF exposure with downregulation of type I collagen and upregulation of MMP9 expression supports a relevant role for NGF in tissue remodeling of VKC. ..
  4. Anderson H, Ruggles R, Pandey K, Kapetanakis V, Brunekreef B, Lai C, et al. Ambient particulate pollution and the world-wide prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children: Phase One of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Occup Environ Med. 2010;67:293-300 pubmed publisher
  5. Fukushima A, Sumi T, Fukuda K, Yamaguchi T, Kumagai N, Nishida T, et al. Modulation of murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis by treatment with alpha-galactosylceramide. Immunol Lett. 2006;107:32-40 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated whether alpha-GalCer treatment can also modulate the development of experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EC)...
  6. Leonardi A, Sathe S, Bortolotti M, Beaton A, Sack R. Cytokines, matrix metalloproteases, angiogenic and growth factors in tears of normal subjects and vernal keratoconjunctivitis patients. Allergy. 2009;64:710-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To detect the presence of multiple mediators and growth factors in tears of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) patients with active disease using stationary phase antibody arrays...
  7. Sumi T, Fukushima A, Fukuda K, Kumagai N, Nishida T, Yagita H, et al. Differential contributions of B7-1 and B7-2 to the development of murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Immunol Lett. 2007;108:62-7 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether B7-1 and B7-2 play a role in the development of T cell-mediated experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EC)...
  8. Bielory L. Allergic conjunctivitis and the impact of allergic rhinitis. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2010;10:122-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In the past year, knowledge of the relationships between allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis has increased...
  9. Bielory L, Friedlaender M. Allergic conjunctivitis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2008;28:43-58, vi pubmed publisher
    b>Allergic conjunctivitis is common, especially during the allergy season. Consultation with the allergist to perform skin tests or in vitro tests may be useful and confirmatory in the diagnosis of ocular allergy...

More Information


  1. Fukushima A, Sumi T, Fukuda K, Kumagai N, Nishida T, Okumura K, et al. Roles of galectin-9 in the development of experimental allergic conjunctivitis in mice. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;146:36-43 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated whether administration of anti-galectin-9 antibodies (Abs) affects the development of murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EC), a Th2-mediated disease.
  2. Miyazaki D, Tominaga T, Kakimaru Hasegawa A, Nagata Y, Hasegawa J, Inoue Y. Therapeutic effects of tacrolimus ointment for refractory ocular surface inflammatory diseases. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:988-992.e5 pubmed
    ..To investigate the therapeutic effects of topical tacrolimus ointment on refractory ocular surface inflammatory diseases...
  3. Borazan M, Karalezli A, Akova Y, Akman A, Kiyici H, Erbek S. Efficacy of olopatadine HCI 0.1%, ketotifen fumarate 0.025%, epinastine HCI 0.05%, emedastine 0.05% and fluorometholone acetate 0.1% ophthalmic solutions for seasonal allergic conjunctivitis: a placebo-controlled environmental trial. Acta Ophthalmol. 2009;87:549-54 pubmed publisher
    ..clinical efficacy and ocular surface variables of olopatadine, ketotifen fumarate, epinastine, emedastine and fluorometholone acetate ophthalmic solutions in preventing the signs and symptoms of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC).
  4. Ohbayashi M, Manzouri B, Flynn T, Toda M, Ikeda Y, Nakamura T, et al. Dynamic changes in conjunctival dendritic cell numbers, anatomical position and phenotype during experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Exp Mol Pathol. 2007;83:216-23 pubmed
    ..aims of this study are to characterize the phenotypes and numbers of DCs present in the murine model of allergic conjunctivitis using the technique of immunohistochemistry so as to aid the understanding of the mechanisms involved in ..
  5. Ohashi Y, Ebihara N, Fujishima H, Fukushima A, Kumagai N, Nakagawa Y, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of tacrolimus ophthalmic suspension 0.1% in severe allergic conjunctivitis. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2010;26:165-74 pubmed publisher
    To examine the efficacy of tacrolimus ophthalmic suspension 0.1% in treating severe allergic conjunctivitis.
  6. Ait Khaled N, Pearce N, Anderson H, Ellwood P, Montefort S, Shah J. Global map of the prevalence of symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis in children: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three. Allergy. 2009;64:123-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Phase One of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) measured the global patterns of prevalence and severity of symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis in children in 1993-1997...
  7. Matsuda A, Okayama Y, Terai N, Yokoi N, Ebihara N, Tanioka H, et al. The role of interleukin-33 in chronic allergic conjunctivitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4646-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a novel Th2 cytokine, interleukin-33 (IL-33), was discovered to be a specific ligand for ST2L. The authors investigated the role of IL-33 in chronic allergic conjunctivitis.
  8. Wong A, Barg S, Leung A. Seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2009;3:118-27 pubmed
    Seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis are IgE-mediated, hypersensitivity ophthalmic conditions characterized by ocular pruritus, epiphora, and hyperemia...
  9. Choi H, Lee S. Nonseasonal allergic conjunctivitis in the tropics: experience in a tertiary care institution. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2008;16:141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..types of pathology, clinical features, precipitating factors, and treatment outcomes of patients with allergic conjunctivitis in a tropical climate receiving corneal subspecialist intervention...
  10. Niederkorn J, Chen P, Mellon J, Stevens C, Mayhew E. Allergic conjunctivitis exacerbates corneal allograft rejection by activating Th1 and th2 alloimmune responses. J Immunol. 2010;184:6076-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and airway hyperreactivity exacerbate corneal allograft rejection...
  11. Nagata T, Nabe T, Fujii M, Mizutani N, Kohno S. Effects of multiple dexamethasone treatments on aggravation of allergic conjunctivitis associated with mast cell hyperplasia. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:464-8 pubmed
    In a Japanese cedar pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis model in guinea pigs, symptoms were aggravated by repeated pollen challenges. In addition, the number of mast cells in the conjunctiva was increased by multiple challenges...
  12. Abelson M, Torkildsen G, Williams J, Gow J, Gomes P, McNamara T. Time to onset and duration of action of the antihistamine bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solutions 1.0% and 1.5% in allergic conjunctivitis: a phase III, single-center, prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, conjunctival allerge. Clin Ther. 2009;31:1908-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on a history of clinical effectiveness and tolerability of oral bepotastine besilate in the treatment of allergic symptoms, bepotastine besilate is being tested as a potential ophthalmic medication for allergic conjunctivitis.
  13. Sgrulletta R, Lambiase A, Bonini S. Allergy and infections: long-term improvement of vernal keratoconjunctivitis following viral conjunctivitis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006;16:470-3 pubmed
    ..Viral infection stimulates a Th1 type immune response, potentially attenuating allergen-induced inflammation. The purpose of this report is to describe the effect of viral keratoconjunctivitis in a patient with VKC...
  14. Dahl R, Kapp A, Colombo G, de Monchy J, Rak S, Emminger W, et al. Efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy with grass allergen tablets for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118:434-40 pubmed
    ..The sublingual route also has potential, although definitive evidence from large randomized controlled trials has been lacking...
  15. Calderon M, Birk A, Andersen J, Durham S. Prolonged preseasonal treatment phase with Grazax sublingual immunotherapy increases clinical efficacy. Allergy. 2007;62:958-61 pubmed
    ..Sublingual immunotherapy treatment with grass allergen tablets (Grazax) is initiated preseasonally without up-dosing and treatment is continued throughout the entire grass pollen season...
  16. Fukushima A, Sumi T, Ishida W, Yamada J, Iwakura Y, Ueno H. Endogenous IL-17 does not play a significant role in the development of experimental murine allergic conjunctivitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;147:206-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we aimed to investigate the role IL-17 plays in the development of murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EC) which is also a Th2-mediated disease.
  17. Attas Fox L, Barkana Y, Iskhakov V, Rayvich S, Gerber Y, Morad Y, et al. Topical tacrolimus 0.03% ointment for intractable allergic conjunctivitis: an open-label pilot study. Curr Eye Res. 2008;33:545-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the feasibility of tacrolimus 0.03% dermatological ointment (Protopic) in the treatment of intractable allergic conjunctivitis.
  18. Fukushima A, Sumi T, Fukuda K, Kumagai N, Nishida T, Yamazaki T, et al. B7-H3 regulates the development of experimental allergic conjunctivitis in mice. Immunol Lett. 2007;113:52-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we aimed to investigate whether B7-H3 is involved in the development of murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EC), which is predominantly mediated by Th2 cells...
  19. Torkildsen G, Ousler G, Gomes P. Ocular comfort and drying effects of three topical antihistamine/mast cell stabilizers in adults with allergic conjunctivitis: a randomized, double-masked crossover study. Clin Ther. 2008;30:1264-71 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to compare short-term (5-minute) ocular comfort and drying effects of 3 topical antihistamine/mast cell stabilizers-epinastine, azelastine, and ketotifen-in patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC).
  20. Tominaga T, Miyazaki D, Sasaki S, Mihara S, Komatsu N, Yakura K, et al. Blocking mast cell-mediated type I hypersensitivity in experimental allergic conjunctivitis by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCR2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:5181-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the roles played by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and its preferential receptor CCR2 (MCP-1/CCL2) in acute allergic inflammation...
  21. Marback P, de Freitas D, Paranhos Junior A, Belfort Junior R. [Epidemiological and clinical features of allergic conjunctivitis in a reference center]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2007;70:312-6 pubmed
    To evaluate demographic and clinical features of patients with allergic conjunctivitis in a reference center.
  22. Pelikan Z. Seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis: the possible role of nasal allergy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;37:448-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This work aims to investigate the possible role of nasal allergy in seasonal (SAC) and perennial (PAC) allergic conjunctivitis and the value of nasal challenges with allergens (nasal provocation tests [NPTs]) for the diagnostic ..
  23. Kida T, Fujii A, Sakai O, Iemura M, Atsumi I, Wada T, et al. Bepotastine besilate, a highly selective histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, suppresses vascular hyperpermeability and eosinophil recruitment in in vitro and in vivo experimental allergic conjunctivitis models. Exp Eye Res. 2010;91:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..H(1) receptor antagonist, when compared with other histamine H(1) receptor antagonists, using guinea pig allergic conjunctivitis models and in vitro models of eosinophil recruitment and mast cell membrane stabilization...
  24. Nakano Y, Takahashi Y, Ono R, Kurata Y, Kagawa Y, Kamei C. Role of histamine H(4) receptor in allergic conjunctivitis in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;608:71-5 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the character of histamine H(1) receptor and H(4) receptor in allergic conjunctivitis. Histamine is the most important mediator in allergic conjunctivitis...
  25. Matsuba Kitamura S, Yoshimoto T, Yasuda K, Futatsugi Yumikura S, Taki Y, Muto T, et al. Contribution of IL-33 to induction and augmentation of experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Int Immunol. 2010;22:479-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we tested the pathological role of IL-33 in allergic conjunctivitis (AC)...
  26. Fukushima A, Sumi T, Ishida W, Ojima A, Kajisako M, Koyanagi A, et al. Notch ligand Delta-like4 inhibits the development of murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Immunol Lett. 2008;121:140-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the involvement of Notch ligands in the development of experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EC) in mice.
  27. Palmares J, Delgado L, Cidade M, Quadrado M, Filipe H. Allergic conjunctivitis: a national cross-sectional study of clinical characteristics and quality of life. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010;20:257-64 pubmed
    ..To characterize clinical and demographic aspects of allergic conjunctivitis in Portugal, using a structured questionnaire...
  28. Inada N, Shoji J, Kato H, Kiely S, Mulyanto -, Sawa M. Clinical evaluation of total IgE in tears of patients with allergic conjunctivitis disease using a novel application of the immunochromatography method. Allergol Int. 2009;58:585-9 pubmed publisher
    The determination of total IgE in tears is useful as a diagnostic tool in allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD)...
  29. Giavina Bianchi P, Kalil J, Rizzo L. Development of an animal model for allergic conjunctivitis: influence of genetic factors and allergen concentration on immune response. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86:670-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to develop an animal model that simulates human allergic conjunctivitis and to study how allergic response may be influenced by the allergen dose used for immunization and by ..
  30. Ozcan A, Ersoz T, Dulger E. Management of severe allergic conjunctivitis with topical cyclosporin a 0.05% eyedrops. Cornea. 2007;26:1035-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of topical cyclosporin A 0.05% in the management of severe allergic conjunctivitis.
  31. Del Cuvillo A, Sastre J, Montoro J, Jauregui I, Davila I, Ferrer M, et al. Allergic conjunctivitis and H1 antihistamines. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2009;19 Suppl 1:11-8 pubmed
    b>Allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ophthalmological allergy...
  32. Iovieno A, Lambiase A, Sacchetti M, Stampachiacchiere B, Micera A, Bonini S. Preliminary evidence of the efficacy of probiotic eye-drop treatment in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;246:435-41 pubmed
    ..Probiotics have been shown to improve allergic inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Lactobacillus Acidophilus eye-drops in controlling signs and symptoms of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC)...
  33. Ebihara N, Ohashi Y, Uchio E, Okamoto S, Kumagai N, Shoji J, et al. A large prospective observational study of novel cyclosporine 0.1% aqueous ophthalmic solution in the treatment of severe allergic conjunctivitis. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2009;25:365-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a novel cyclosporine 0.1% aqueous ophthalmic solution in a large population with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC)...
  34. Chung S, Nam K, Kweon M. Staphylococcus aureus accelerates an experimental allergic conjunctivitis by Toll-like receptor 2-dependent manner. Clin Immunol. 2009;131:170-7 pubmed
    b>Allergic conjunctivitis is an inflammatory eye disease mediated by Th2-type cytokines and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization has been suggested as playing a role...
  35. Takamura E, Nomura K, Fujishima H, Fukagawa K, Satake Y, Fukada Y, et al. Efficacy of levocabastine hydrochloride ophthalmic suspension in the conjunctival allergen challenge test in Japanese subjects with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Allergol Int. 2006;55:157-65 pubmed
    ..025% levocabastine hydrochloride in Japanese subjects with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis and its duration of action using the conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test.
  36. Pelikan Z. Allergic conjunctivitis and nasal allergy. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2010;10:295-302 pubmed publisher
    b>Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) can be divided into the primary form (caused by an allergic reaction occurring primarily in the conjunctivae) and the secondary form (induced by allergic reaction originating primarily in the nasal mucosa, ..
  37. Sumi T, Ishida W, Mittler R, Yagita H, Taguchi O, Fukushima A. Regulatory T cells participate in 4-1BB-mediated suppression of experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;148:305-10 pubmed publisher
    ..that treatment with an agonistic anti-4-1BB Ab during the induction phase of murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EC) suppresses the development of this model disease...
  38. Zepeda Ortega B, Rosas Vargas M, Ito Tsuchiya F, del Rio Navarro B, Sienra Monge J. [Allergic conjunctivitis in children]. Rev Alerg Mex. 2007;54:41-53 pubmed
    b>Allergic conjunctivitis is a group of diseases that are frequent in childhood, associated to several allergic diseases affecting the ocular surface. It is related to type 1 hypersensitivity reactions...
  39. Micera A, Lambiase A, Bonini S. The role of neuromediators in ocular allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;8:466-71 pubmed publisher
  40. Komatsu N, Miyazaki D, Tominaga T, Kuo C, Namba S, Takeda S, et al. Transcriptional analyses before and after suppression of immediate hypersensitivity reactions by CCR3 blockade in eyes with experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:5307-13 pubmed publisher
    To characterize the transcriptome of allergic conjunctivitis mediated by eosinophil-related chemokine receptor CCR3 and to identify a candidate for possible therapeutic intervention in eosinophilic inflammation of the eye.
  41. Brunekreef B, Stewart A, Anderson H, Lai C, Strachan D, Pearce N. Self-reported truck traffic on the street of residence and symptoms of asthma and allergic disease: a global relationship in ISAAC phase 3. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1791-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Associations between traffic pollution on the street of residence and a range of respiratory and allergic outcomes in children have been reported in developed countries, but little is known about such associations in developing countries...
  42. Arita R, Itoh K, Maeda S, Maeda K, Furuta A, Tomidokoro A, et al. Meibomian gland duct distortion in patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis. Cornea. 2010;29:858-60 pubmed publisher
    To observe morphologic changes of meibomian glands in patients with and without perennial allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and to assess the relation between morphologic changes of the meibomian glands of both eyelids and tear film parameters.
  43. Shii D, Nakagawa S, Shinomiya K, Yoshimi M, Katsuta O, Oda T, et al. Cyclosporin A eye drops inhibit fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in murine type I allergic conjunctivitis without affecting the early-phase reaction. Curr Eye Res. 2009;34:426-37 pubmed
    ..cyclosporin A eye drops in severe allergic diseases such as vernal keratoconjunctivitis, the inhibitory effects of cyclosporin A eye drops on fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in murine allergic conjunctivitis were evaluated.
  44. Niederkorn J. Immune regulatory mechanisms in allergic conjunctivitis: insights from mouse models. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;8:472-6 pubmed publisher
    This review highlights recent findings regarding the immune regulation of allergic conjunctivitis. Mouse models have facilitated prospective studies that have not been possible in patients...
  45. Shoji J, Inada N, Sawa M. Evaluation of novel scoring system named 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease. Allergol Int. 2009;58:591-7 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study is to evaluate the practical usefulness of a scoring system using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD).
  46. Scoper S, Berdy G, Lichtenstein S, Rubin J, Bloomenstein M, Prouty R, et al. Perception and quality of life associated with the use of olopatadine 0.2% (Pataday) in patients with active allergic conjunctivitis. Adv Ther. 2007;24:1221-32 pubmed
    ..The study enrolled 330 patients, 5 to 94 y of age, who had previously used olopatadine 0.1% for active allergic conjunctivitis. Most patients were white (n=230; 70.1%) and female (n=239; 72.9%)...
  47. Bundoc V, Keane Myers A. IL-10 confers protection from mast cell degranulation in a mouse model of allergic conjunctivitis. Exp Eye Res. 2007;85:575-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first in vivo rodent study which reports a novel role of IL-10 in stabilizing mast cells from degranulation by a secretagogue, by as of yet an unknown mechanism...
  48. Gradman J, Wolthers O. Allergic conjunctivitis in children with asthma, rhinitis and eczema in a secondary outpatient clinic. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2006;17:524-6 pubmed
    Little evidence is available on the prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis in pediatric populations...
  49. Kubo M, Ozaki A, Tanaka S, Okamoto M, Fukushima A. Role of suppressor of cytokine signaling in ocular allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;6:361-6 pubmed
    ..The goal of this article is to evaluate developments in the knowledge of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) protein ocular allergy and the potential of SOCS proteins as targets for therapeutic strategies...
  50. Forte R, Cennamo G, Del Prete S, Napolitano N, Farese E, Del Prete A. Allergic conjunctivitis and latent infections. Cornea. 2009;28:839-42 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in a large series the incidence of latent infection during chronic allergic conjunctivitis.
  51. Miyazaki D, Nakamura T, Ohbayashi M, Kuo C, Komatsu N, Yakura K, et al. Ablation of type I hypersensitivity in experimental allergic conjunctivitis by eotaxin-1/CCR3 blockade. Int Immunol. 2009;21:187-201 pubmed publisher chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), an eotaxin-1 receptor, effects of CCR3 blockade were tested with an allergic conjunctivitis model and in ex vivo isolated connective tissue-type mast cells...
  52. Ueta M, Matsuoka T, Narumiya S, Kinoshita S. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 in conjunctival epithelium regulates late-phase reaction of experimental allergic conjunctivitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123:466-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that the prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))-EP3 pathway negatively regulates allergic reactions in a murine allergic asthma model...
  53. Manzouri B, Flynn T, Ohbayashi M, Ono S. The dendritic cell in allergic conjunctivitis. Ocul Surf. 2008;6:70-8 pubmed
    ..We review what has been learned from studies of both human ocular allergy and murine models and comment on how this compares to allergic reactions in other mucosal tissues...
  54. Okumura N, Fukushima A, Igarashi A, Sumi T, Yamagishi T, Ueno H. Pharmacokinetic analysis of platelet-activating factor in the tears of guinea pigs with allergic conjunctivitis. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2006;22:347-52 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to examine the levels of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lyso-PAF in tears from experimental animals developing allergic conjunctivitis (AC).
  55. Macejko T, Bergmann M, Williams J, Gow J, Gomes P, McNamara T, et al. Multicenter clinical evaluation of bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solutions 1.0% and 1.5% to treat allergic conjunctivitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;150:122-127.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..0% and 1.5% compared with placebo at reducing ocular itching and conjunctival hyperemia in the conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) model of allergic conjunctivitis.
  56. Baig R, Ali A, Ali T, Ali A, Shah M, Sarfaraz A, et al. Prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis in school children of Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60:371-3 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis in children in selected schools in Karachi, Pakistan.
  57. Ishida W, Fukuda K, Kajisako M, Takahashi A, Sumi T, Van Rooijen N, et al. Conjunctival macrophages act as antigen-presenting cells in the conjunctiva during the development of experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Mol Vis. 2010;16:1280-5 pubmed
    Antigen (Ag)-presenting cells (APCs) participate in the development of allergic conjunctivitis (AC). However, the conjunctival APCs that take up Ag in AC have not been identified...