Summary: Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.

Top Publications

  1. Janosik E, Grzesik J. [Influence of different lighting levels at workstations with video display terminals on operators' work efficiency]. Med Pr. 2003;54:123-32 pubmed
  2. Kotegawa Y, Hara N, Ono K, Arimoto A, Mukuno K. [Influence of accommodative response and visual symptoms on visual display terminal adult operators with asthenopia through adequately corrected refractive errors]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2008;112:376-81 pubmed
    Application of adequate correction of refractory errors for the treatment of asthenopia of young visual display terminal (VDT) workers was evaluated from subjective complaints and the effect on accommodation dynamics (step response) ..
  3. Hoffman D, Girshick A, Akeley K, Banks M. Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue. J Vis. 2008;8:33.1-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the implications of this work for vision research and the design and use of displays...
  4. Mocci F, Serra A, Corrias G. Psychological factors and visual fatigue in working with video display terminals. Occup Environ Med. 2001;58:267-71 pubmed
    ..To examine the part played by psychological factors in complaints about visual health reported by banking officers who work at video display terminals (VDTs)...
  5. Blehm C, Vishnu S, Khattak A, Mitra S, Yee R. Computer vision syndrome: a review. Surv Ophthalmol. 2005;50:253-62 pubmed
    ..More work needs to be done to specifically define the processes that cause computer vision syndrome and to develop and improve effective treatments that successfully address these causes...
  6. Abdi S, Rydberg A. Asthenopia in schoolchildren, orthoptic and ophthalmological findings and treatment. Doc Ophthalmol. 2005;111:65-72 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to describe the orthoptic and ophthalmological findings in schoolchildren with asthenopia, to correlate them with asthenopic symptoms and to evaluate the effect of treatment...
  7. Bali J, Navin N, Thakur B. Computer vision syndrome: a study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices in Indian ophthalmologists. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2007;55:289-94 pubmed
  8. Rosenfield M. Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2011;31:502-15 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the physiology underlying CVS is critical to allow more accurate diagnosis and treatment. This will enable practitioners to optimize visual comfort and efficiency during computer operation...
  9. Kim S, Suh Y, Song J, Park J, Kim Y, Huh K, et al. Clinical research on the ophthalmic factors affecting 3D asthenopia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2012;49:248-53 pubmed publisher known to induce ocular and non-ocular symptoms, such as eye discomfort, fatigue, headache, and nausea, which can be referred to as "3D asthenopia". This study investigated ophthalmic factors associated with 3D asthenopia.

More Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wee S, Moon N, Lee W, Jeon S. Ophthalmological factors influencing visual asthenopia as a result of viewing 3D displays. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:1391-4 pubmed publisher
    To identify ophthalmological factors influencing asthenopia as a result of viewing three-dimensional (3D) displays.
  2. Sheedy J, Hayes J, Engle J. Is all asthenopia the same?. Optom Vis Sci. 2003;80:732-9 pubmed
    Any of several conditions can cause asthenopia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the particular sensations or their location vary dependent on the symptom-inducing condition.
  3. Rocha L, Debert Ribeiro M. Working conditions, visual fatigue, and mental health among systems analysts in São Paulo, Brazil. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61:24-32 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the association between working conditions and visual fatigue and mental health among systems analysts living in São Paulo, Brazil...
  4. Ames S, Wolffsohn J, McBrien N. The development of a symptom questionnaire for assessing virtual reality viewing using a head-mounted display. Optom Vis Sci. 2005;82:168-76 pubmed
    ..In addition, symptom duration and whether priming subjects elevates symptom ratings were also investigated...
  5. Solimini A, Mannocci A, Di Thiene D, La Torre G. A survey of visually induced symptoms and associated factors in spectators of three dimensional stereoscopic movies. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:779 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to (1) quantify the occurrence of visually induced symptoms suffered by the spectators during and after viewing a commercial 3D movie and (2) to assess individual and environmental factors associated to those symptoms...
  6. Fenga C, Di Pietro R, Fenga P, Di Nola C, Spinella R, Cacciola A, et al. [Asthenopia in VDT users: our experience]. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2007;29:500-1 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between asthenopia and work with video display terminals (VDT)...
  7. Ranasinghe P, Wathurapatha W, Perera Y, Lamabadusuriya D, Kulatunga S, Jayawardana N, et al. Computer vision syndrome among computer office workers in a developing country: an evaluation of prevalence and risk factors. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9:150 pubmed publisher
    ..The factors associated with the severity of CVS were the duration of occupation and presence of pre-existing eye disease. ..
  8. Deng Q, Ding S, Yang S, Huang J. Cutaneous sarcoidosis and secondary open-angle glaucoma in a patient: case report and literature review. An Bras Dermatol. 2017;92:407-409 pubmed publisher
    The current report presents the case of a 41-year-old male patient with a two-month history of asthenopia and plaques in the frontotemporal region. Computed tomography revealed bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy...
  9. Uhlig C, Dietrich M, Busse H. [Asthenoscopic problems with a subconjunctival worm]. Ophthalmologe. 2002;99:880-1 pubmed
  10. Kromeier M, Schmitt C, Bach M, Kommerell G. Stereoacuity versus fixation disparity as indicators for vergence accuracy under prismatic stress. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2003;23:43-9 pubmed
  11. Kazarian E, Mamikonian V. [Reasons and prophylaxis of fatiguability of the visual analyzer in users of computer video-displays]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2003;119:50-3 pubmed
  12. Chase C, Tosha C, Borsting E, Ridder W. Visual discomfort and objective measures of static accommodation. Optom Vis Sci. 2009;86:883-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Accommodative insufficiency and fatigue should be defined and described by objective methods using extended viewing times to assess function. ..
  13. Ostrovsky A, Ribak J, Pereg A, Gaton D. Effects of job-related stress and burnout on asthenopia among high-tech workers. Ergonomics. 2012;55:854-62 pubmed publisher and double vision, when appearing together, have recently been termed 'computer vision syndrome', or asthenopia. To examine the frequency and intensity of asthenopia among individuals employed in research and development ..
  14. Chen C, Wang J, Li K, Liu Y, Chen X. Visual fatigue caused by watching 3DTV: an fMRI study. Biomed Eng Online. 2015;14 Suppl 1:S12 pubmed publisher
    ..These conclusions are useful for healthy and reasonable 3DTV watching as well as properly designing of 3D scenes. ..
  15. Zhang W, Li H, Zhao N, Hai X, Dong H, Wang J. [Bridge role of Jingming (BL 1) for VDT asthenopia and brainfag based on human instinct]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2017;37:85-87 pubmed publisher
    To explore the bridge role of Jingming (BL 1) for video display terminal (VDT) asthenopia and brainfag...
  16. Ding S, Zuo J. [Acupuncture for treatment of 40 cases of convergence insufficient asthenopia with exotropia]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2008;28:345-7 pubmed
    To explore the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on convergence insufficient asthenopia with exotropia...
  17. Lin Y, Chen C, Hong W, Lin Y. Perceived job stress and health complaints at a bank call center: comparison between inbound and outbound services. Ind Health. 2010;48:349-56 pubmed
    ..13 to 8.24). These analytical results suggest that perceived job stress in the call center profoundly affected worker health. This study identified main types of job stressors requiring further investigation. ..
  18. Amick B, Menendez C, Bazzani L, Robertson M, DeRango K, Rooney T, et al. A field intervention examining the impact of an office ergonomics training and a highly adjustable chair on visual symptoms in a public sector organization. Appl Ergon. 2012;43:625-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of a training-only group effect supports implementing training in conjunction with the highly adjustable chair to reduce visual symptoms. ..
  19. Hemphälä H, Hansson G, Dahlqvist C, Eklund J. Visual ergonomics interventions in mail sorting facilities. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:3433-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The reading distances that the postal workers had while sorting the mail was inverted to the distances in their regular progressive lenses. The new sorting spectacles had a positive effect on head postures and on muscular activity. ..
  20. Kim C, Park S, Won M, Whang M, Lee E. Autonomic nervous system responses can reveal visual fatigue induced by 3D displays. Sensors (Basel). 2013;13:13054-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that galvanic skin response and skin temperature can be used to measure and compare autonomic nervous responses in subjects viewing 2D and 3D displays. ..
  21. Ustinaviciene R, Januskevicius V. Association between occupational asthenopia and psycho-physiological indicators of visual strain in workers using video display terminals. Med Sci Monit. 2006;12:CR296-301 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was to determine the relationship of functional visual strain and symptoms of asthenopia and to evaluate the association between subjective and objective indicators of visual strain...
  22. Abdi S, Lennerstrand G, Pansell T, Rydberg A. Orthoptic findings and asthenopia in a population of Swedish schoolchildren aged 6 to 16 years. Strabismus. 2008;16:47-55 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of refractive errors and binocular disorders in relation to asthenopia in a representative population of Swedish schoolchildren...
  23. Lin Y, Lin P, Hwang S, Jeng S, Liao C. Investigation of legibility and visual fatigue for simulated flexible electronic paper under various surface treatments and ambient illumination conditions. Appl Ergon. 2009;40:922-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These evaluations of simulated electronic paper may provide manufacturers useful information in fulfilling ergonomic requirements for product design. ..
  24. Zunjic A, Ristić L, Milanovic D. Effects of screen filter on visibility of alphanumeric presentation on CRT and LCD monitors. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:3553-9 pubmed publisher
  25. Capó Aponte J, Urosevich T, Temme L, Tarbett A, Sanghera N. Visual dysfunctions and symptoms during the subacute stage of blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury. Mil Med. 2012;177:804-13 pubmed
    ..A reading test should be included in all routine exams as a functional assessment of the integration of oculomotor functions...
  26. Okada Y, Ukai K, Wolffsohn J, Gilmartin B, Iijima A, Bando T. Target spatial frequency determines the response to conflicting defocus- and convergence-driven accommodative stimuli. Vision Res. 2006;46:475-84 pubmed
    b>Asthenopia, or visual fatigue, is a frequent complaint from observers of stereoscopic three-dimensional displays...
  27. Telles S, Naveen K. Effect of yoga on somatic indicators of distress in professional computer users. Med Sci Monit. 2006;12:LE21-2 pubmed
  28. Vidal López J. The role of attributional bias and visual stress on the improvement of reading speed using colored filters. Percept Mot Skills. 2011;112:770-82 pubmed
    ..The presentation method tapped individuals' visual sensitivity and response criteria. The results support some predictions of the theory of attributional bias, but more research is needed to assess each theory of reading speed. ..
  29. Lodin C, Forsman M, Richter H. Eye- and neck/shoulder-discomfort during visually demanding experimental near work. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:3388-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis is required to determent whether the neck/shoulder discomfort was induced by the demanding near work or the static posture, or a combination. ..
  30. Grütter F. [Focal Point “Reading Animal”. Hermann Cohn and the Emergence of the Fin de Siècle Hygiene of Reading]. Ber Wiss. 2015;38:305-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In doing so, the paper demonstrates that optimizing the reading process was closely linked to a fear of overburdening and fatigue which expressed itself in the psychopathological discourse of the time. ..
  31. Cohen Y, Segal O, Barkana Y, Lederman R, Zadok D, Pras E, et al. Correlation between asthenopic symptoms and different measurements of convergence and reading comprehension and saccadic fixation eye movements. Optometry. 2010;81:28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study is needed to evaluate the usefulness of the integration between symptom survey and objective reading examinations as screening tool for the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. ..
  32. Cardona G, García C, Serés C, Vilaseca M, Gispets J. Blink rate, blink amplitude, and tear film integrity during dynamic visual display terminal tasks. Curr Eye Res. 2011;36:190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Frequent breaks and blinking awareness training are recommended for visual display terminal users requiring prolonged periods of visually demanding dynamic computer play or work. ..
  33. Richter H, Zetterlund C, Lundqvist L. Eye-neck interactions triggered by visually deficient computer work. Work. 2011;39:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). The results support the hypothesis which postulates that eye-neck/scapular area symptoms interaction may be due to a functional coupling from and between the eye-neck/scapular area muscles [28]. ..
  34. Sheedy J, Bergstrom N. Performance and comfort on near-eye computer displays. Optom Vis Sci. 2002;79:306-12 pubmed
    ..This is likely due to lack of task movement, partial instead of full immersion, better display resolution, and concordance of the accommodative and vergence stimuli. ..
  35. Piccoli B. A critical appraisal of current knowledge and future directions of ergophthalmology: consensus document of the ICOH Committee on 'Work and Vision'. Ergonomics. 2003;46:384-406 pubmed
    ..The ICOH Scientific Committee on 'Work and Vision' is seeking to systematically develop this matter, yielding a more rational and complete approach to the relationship between work and vision. ..
  36. Omori M, Watanabe T, Takai J, Takada H, Miyao M. An attempt at preventing asthenopia among VDT workers. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2003;9:453-62 pubmed
    ..image stereogram method employed is called Stretch Eye (TM), and we evaluated the effects of Stretch Eye (TM) on asthenopia. An accommodative relaxation of about 1 D was observed in participants while they were gazing at the image...
  37. Thorud H, Helland M, Aarås A, Kvikstad T, Lindberg L, Horgen G. Eye-related pain induced by visually demanding computer work. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:E452-64 pubmed publisher
  38. Siegenthaler E, Bochud Y, Bergamin P, Wurtz P. Reading on LCD vs e-Ink displays: effects on fatigue and visual strain. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2012;32:367-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to the visual display units used in the previous few decades, these more recent electronic displays allow for good and comfortable reading, even for extended periods of time. ..
  39. Helland M, Horgen G, Kvikstad T, Garthus T, Bruenech J, Aarås A. Musculoskeletal, visual and psychosocial stress in VDU operators after moving to an ergonomically designed office landscape. Appl Ergon. 2008;39:284-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, visual discomfort is clearly associated with pain in the neck and shoulder area. ..
  40. Wilson G, Field A, Fullerton S. The big brown eyes of Samuel Pepys. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:969-75 pubmed
    ..Pepys also had an ultimately unjustifiable fear of blindness. ..
  41. Harle D, Evans B. The optometric correlates of migraine. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2004;24:369-83 pubmed
    ..In particular the link between migraine headache and pattern glare is striking. The therapeutic use of precision-tinted spectacles to reduce pattern glare (visual stress) and to help some migraine sufferers is described. ..
  42. Salyga J, Juozulynas A. Association between environment and psycho-emotional stress experienced at sea by Lithuanian and Latvian seamen. Medicina (Kaunas). 2006;42:759-69 pubmed
    ..001). Many of the unique aspects of seafaring are unchangeable. However, it possible to modify, supplement, or develop new strategies to reduce the impact these factors have on the health of individual seafarers. ..
  43. Eastwood Sutherland C, Gale T. Eye-screen distance monitoring for computer use. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:2164-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary results indicate that the system is an excellent method of monitoring eye-screen distance. This type of system will enable future studies of eye-screen distance for computer users. ..
  44. Seghers J, Jochem A, Spaepen A. Posture, muscle activity and muscle fatigue in prolonged VDT work at different screen height settings. Ergonomics. 2003;46:714-30 pubmed
    ..Muscle activity increased significantly in some muscles and for certain screen heights. ..
  45. Tanimoto N, Usui T, Ichibe M, Kuze M, Takagi M, Hasegawa S, et al. Negative scotopic ERG and photopic ERG ON response impairment in a patient with normal dark adaptation. Doc Ophthalmol. 2006;113:171-7 pubmed
    ..An 18-year-old Japanese male patient who complained of severe asthenopia. His corrected visual acuities were 1.2 in both eyes. His fundi were normal...
  46. Chu C, Rosenfield M, Portello J, Benzoni J, Collier J. A comparison of symptoms after viewing text on a computer screen and hardcopy. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2011;31:29-32 pubmed
    ..Ocular symptoms may include asthenopia, accommodative and vergence difficulties and dry eye...
  47. Shibata T, Kim J, Hoffman D, Banks M. The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays. J Vis. 2011;11:11 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the relevance of these findings for a wide variety of situations including the viewing of mobile devices, desktop displays, television, and cinema. ..
  48. Long J, Long A. Applying research to practice: generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:3372-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This will benefit the profession and ensure that ergonomics remains a holistic discipline. ..
  49. Kommerell G, Kromeier M. [Prism correction in heterophoria]. Ophthalmologe. 2002;99:3-9 pubmed
    ..A trial conducted in the Netherlands concerning the therapy of asthenopic complaints showed no statistically significant advantage of prism spectacles determined with the MKH over conventional spectacles...
  50. Jeddi Blouza A, Loukil I, Mhenni A, Khayati L, Mallouche N, Zouari B. [Management of hyperopia in children]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2007;30:255-9 pubmed
    ..To study the prevalence of hyperopia in school-aged children and to analyze the factors that increase the risk of squint or amblyopia in a retrospective study...
  51. Yee R, SPERLING H, Kattek A, Paukert M, Dawson K, Garcia M, et al. Isolation of the ocular surface to treat dysfunctional tear syndrome associated with computer use. Ocul Surf. 2007;5:308-15 pubmed
  52. MacKenzie K, Hoffman D, Watt S. Accommodation to multiple-focal-plane displays: Implications for improving stereoscopic displays and for accommodation control. J Vis. 2010;10:22 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that higher spatial frequencies contribute less to the accommodation response than has previously been thought...
  53. Yang S, Schlieski T, Selmins B, Cooper S, Doherty R, Corriveau P, et al. Stereoscopic viewing and reported perceived immersion and symptoms. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:1068-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study measured prevalence and magnitude of perceived immersion and viewing symptoms in stereoscopic viewing, and related them to viewer's characteristics and viewing position...
  54. Xu Y, Gu G, Yang X, Pan C, Hou W, Zhao W, et al. [Efficacy evaluation of acupoints massage on asthenopia of video display terminal under different exposure dose]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2012;32:351-3 pubmed
    To observe the efficacy differences of acupoints massage for asthenopia of video display terminal (VDT) under different exposure dose.
  55. Glimne S, Seimyr G, Ygge J, Nylen P, Brautaset R. Measuring glare induced visual fatigue by fixation disparity variation. Work. 2013;45:431-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation is based on the results from a study where we investigated how fixation disparity was affected by glare on a VDU. Participants. In total 16 subjects with normal vision participated in this study...
  56. Jebaraj D, Tyrrell R, Gramopadhye A. Industrial inspection performance depends on both viewing distance and oculomotor characteristics. Appl Ergon. 1999;30:223-8 pubmed
    ..These results support existing evidence against the use of near viewing distances and suggest that an oculomotor mechanism links inspection performance and visual fatigue to viewing distance...
  57. Smith Stoner M. Health tips for computer users. Home Healthc Nurse. 2001;19:787-9 pubmed
    ..Computers especially pose specific risks to home care workers. This article reviews health and safety practices related to desktop and hand-held computers...
  58. Ip J, Robaei D, Rochtchina E, Mitchell P. Prevalence of eye disorders in young children with eyestrain complaints. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142:495-7 pubmed
    ..To determine whether eyestrain symptoms predict eye conditions in 6-year-old children...
  59. Ma L, Ahati A, Liu X, Zou Z, Li Y, Wang M, et al. [Epidemiology and related factor analysis of visual fatigue in university students of Haidian District of Beijing]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011;43:365-9 pubmed
    ..To analyze and explore the epidemiological characteristicss and related factors for visual fatigue among university students in Haidian District of Beijing...
  60. Nowomiejska K, Brzozowska A, Zarnowski T, Rejdak R, Weleber R, Schiefer U. Variability in isopter position and fatigue during semi-automated kinetic perimetry. Ophthalmologica. 2012;227:166-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment of factors influencing response variability to repeat presentations of III4e stimuli and the fatigue effect during semi-automated kinetic perimetry (SKP)...
  61. Adler P. Efficacy of treatment for convergence insufficiency using vision therapy. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2002;22:565-71 pubmed
    ..The study also evaluates the associated symptoms before and after therapy...
  62. Ortube M, Rosenbaum A, Goldberg R, Demer J. Orbital imaging demonstrates occult blow out fracture in complex strabismus. J AAPOS. 2004;8:264-73 pubmed
    ..While strabismologists are familiar with diagnostic evaluation of suspected blow out fractures, unsuspected blow out fractures may further complicate difficult cases of strabismus not clinically supposed to be related to orbital trauma...
  63. O Leary C, Evans B. Double-masked randomised placebo-controlled trial of the effect of prismatic corrections on rate of reading and the relationship with symptoms. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2006;26:555-65 pubmed
    ..Although this study evaluated prismatic corrections, we note that interventions for decompensated heterophoria include not only prismatic corrections, but also eye exercises and refractive modification...
  64. Ye Z, Abe Y, Kusano Y, Takamura N, Eida K, Takemoto T, et al. The influence of visual display terminal use on the physical and mental conditions of administrative staff in Japan. J Physiol Anthropol. 2007;26:69-73 pubmed
    ..In order to protect users from the adverse effects associated with VDT work, reducing daily VDT exposure, taking breaks, and rest during VDT work are important...
  65. Bhanderi D, Choudhary S, Doshi V. A community-based study of asthenopia in computer operators. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:51-5 pubmed
    ..Considering the rising number of computer users in India, computer-related asthenopia might take an epidemic form...
  66. Archer S. Management of paretic vertical deviations. Am Orthopt J. 2011;61:6-12 pubmed
    ..In superior oblique paresis the additional factors of torticollis and torsion need to be addressed and aberrant regeneration can alter the surgical plan in third nerve paresis...
  67. Avetisov S, Kazarian E, Mamikonian V, Sheludchenko V, Litvak I, Volachev K, et al. [Results of a complex evaluation of accommodative asthenopia in using different-design video monitors]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2004;120:38-40 pubmed
    ..In case of typing, the ergogram deviations were registered to a greater extent for the liquid-crystal monitors. The value of deviations for computer games was bigger, at the experiment end, for EB rather than for LC...
  68. Wang S, Liu X, Zhang H, Liang F, Guo D. [Investigation of color vision fatigue in car driver]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2005;23:239 pubmed
  69. Iguchi M, Yamane K. [Ophthalmology]. Nihon Rinsho. 2005;63:1791-5 pubmed
    ..For example, dry eye causes the headache. This article mentions to "Headache attributed to disorder of eyes" in ICHD-II, and additionally, describes other causes of headache associated with disease of eye...
  70. Tippin J, Sparks J, Rizzo M. Visual vigilance in drivers with obstructive sleep apnea. J Psychosom Res. 2009;67:143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on visual vigilance during simulated automobile driving...
  71. Kim J, Lee W, Won J, Yoon J, Seok H, Kim Y, et al. The relationship between occupational noise and vibration exposure and headache/eyestrain, based on the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177846 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to find better ways to prevent and manage workers' headache, this study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational noise and vibration exposure on headache/eyestrain...
  72. Sharir M, Zimmerman T, Crandall A, Mamalis N. A comparison of the ocular tolerability of a single dose of timolol and levobunolol in healthy normotensive volunteers. Ann Ophthalmol. 1993;25:133-7 pubmed
    ..05). Timolol induced considerably less burning and stinging on day 1 compared with levobunolol, using a visual analog scale over time (P = .0004). Seventy-nine percent of those stating a preference chose timolol (P < 3 x 10(-9)...
  73. Wu G, Xie L, Yao Z. Muscular asthenopia and eccentric ablation after photorefractive keratectomy. J Refract Surg. 2001;17:380-2 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between muscular asthenopia and eccentric ablation after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK).
  74. Ustinaviciene R, Obelenis V, Ereminas D. Occupational health problems in modern work environment. Medicina (Kaunas). 2004;40:897-904 pubmed
    ..The article analyses the health of transport workers, airlines pilots and stewards, video display terminal workers and its relation to work environment...
  75. Matsumoto Y, Dogru M, Goto E, Ishida R, Kojima T, Onguchi T, et al. Efficacy of a new warm moist air device on tear functions of patients with simple meibomian gland dysfunction. Cornea. 2006;25:644-50 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an original warm moist air device on tear functions and ocular surface of patients with simple meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD)...
  76. Wu S, Yang C, Ho C, Jane D. VDT screen height and inclination effects on visual and musculoskeletal discomfort for Chinese wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries. Ind Health. 2009;47:89-93 pubmed
    ..On average, the optimal screen height choice for wheelchair users was at eye-level height or 5 cm below eye level with a vertical screen inclination...
  77. Pearce J. Early observations on optic neuritis and Uhthoff's sign. Eur Neurol. 2010;63:243-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Amongst many contributions aimed at clarifying this muddle, those of Wilhelm Uhthoff and Edward Nettleship were of outstanding importance and are outlined here...
  78. Pas Wyroslak A, Wagrowska Koski E. [Effect of visual work on the tear film and degree of the eye strain]. Med Pr. 2010;61:527-35 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the visual work on the tear film and the degree of eye strain...
  79. Drew S, Borsting E, Stark L, Chase C. Chromatic aberration, accommodation, and color preference in asthenopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:E1059-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Asthenopia is a common problem associated with near work and reports suggest that colored lenses or overlays may be applied to reduce symptoms...
  80. Kaneko K, Sakamoto K. Spontaneous blinks as a criterion of visual fatigue during prolonged work on visual display terminals. Percept Mot Skills. 2001;92:234-50 pubmed
    ..These experimental results suggested that the parameters regarding the EMG and the EOG for the spontaneous blinks were effective indices for assessing visual fatigue during prolonged VDT work...
  81. Buchner A, Baumgartner N. Text - background polarity affects performance irrespective of ambient illumination and colour contrast. Ergonomics. 2007;50:1036-63 pubmed
  82. Jobke S, Kasten E, Sabel B. [Do patients undergo changes of their personality due to visual field defects? An investigation with FPI-R and NEI-VQ]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2008;225:570-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore it makes sense to assess the patients' degree of handicap. The goal of the present study was to investigate if patients show changes in their personality or a reduced quality of life as a result of their visual field defect...
  83. Yoshihara A, Yamanaka K, Kawakami M. Effects of polyphenol on visual fatigue caused by VDT work. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2009;15:339-43 pubmed
    ..As a subjective evaluation, the first was a questionnaire to ascertain subjective feelings of fatigue. As aspects of a physiological evaluation, the second and third parameters were the accommodative function and the flicker value...
  84. Tiwari R, Saha A, Parikh J. Asthenopia (eyestrain) in working children of gem-polishing industries. Toxicol Ind Health. 2011;27:243-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Age (3)14 years and female gender were significantly associated with the eyestrain. The prevalence of eyestrain in child labourers was 32.2% and was associated with age (3)14 years and female gender...
  85. Rosenfield M, Hue J, Huang R, Bababekova Y. The effects of induced oblique astigmatism on symptoms and reading performance while viewing a computer screen. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2012;32:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ocular symptoms may include asthenopia, accommodative and vergence difficulties and dry eye...
  86. Helland M, Horgen G. Visual challenges using Visual Display Units (VDU) in office landscapes. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:3575-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper discusses the visual challenges and implications in such a transfer. In the oral presentation recommendation on how to avoid visual problems will be given...
  87. Galinsky T, Swanson N, Sauter S, Hurrell J, Schleifer L. A field study of supplementary rest breaks for data-entry operators. Ergonomics. 2000;43:622-38 pubmed
    ..These beneficial effects were obtained without reductions in data-entry performance...
  88. Nakazawa T, Okubo Y, Suwazono Y, Kobayashi E, Komine S, Kato N, et al. Association between duration of daily VDT use and subjective symptoms. Am J Ind Med. 2002;42:421-6 pubmed
    ..Although visual display terminal (VDT) work has become a common task among office workers, surveys which would help to determine the allowable duration of daily VDT use are limited...
  89. Izquierdo J, García M, Buxó C, Izquierdo N. Factors leading to the Computer Vision Syndrome: an issue at the contemporary workplace. Bol Asoc Med P R. 2004;96:103-10 pubmed
    ..Vision and eye related problems are common among computer users, and have been collectively called the Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS)...
  90. Ye Z, Honda S, Abe Y, Kusano Y, Takamura N, Imamura Y, et al. Influence of work duration or physical symptoms on mental health among Japanese visual display terminal users. Ind Health. 2007;45:328-33 pubmed
    ..1). In conclusion, the management of physical health as well as work duration is important for good mental health status among VDT users...
  91. Langelaan M, van Nispen R, Knol D, Moll A, de Boer M, Wouters B, et al. Visual Functioning Questionnaire: reevaluation of psychometric properties for a group of working-age adults. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:775-84 pubmed
    ..However, the questionnaire does not meet some psychometric quality criteria. The objectives of this study were first to obtain the factor structure of the VFQ-25, and second, to obtain interval scales by Rasch analysis...
  92. Hwang J, Cheon J, Wang K. Visual prognosis of optic glioma. Childs Nerv Syst. 2008;24:693-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Prognosis was known to be better in patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) than those with non-NF1. The confusion over management is caused, at least in part, by the uncertain disease course of the tumor...