Summary: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.

Top Publications

  1. Casagrande K, Falginella L, Castellarin S, Testolin R, Di Gaspero G. Defence responses in Rpv3-dependent resistance to grapevine downy mildew. Planta. 2011;234:1097-109 pubmed publisher
  2. Bozkurt T, Schornack S, Banfield M, Kamoun S. Oomycetes, effectors, and all that jazz. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2012;15:483-92 pubmed publisher
    Plant pathogenic oomycetes secrete a diverse repertoire of effector proteins that modulate host innate immunity and enable parasitic infection...
  3. Di Gaspero G, Copetti D, Coleman C, Castellarin S, Eibach R, Kozma P, et al. Selective sweep at the Rpv3 locus during grapevine breeding for downy mildew resistance. Theor Appl Genet. 2012;124:277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The coexistence of multiple resistance alleles or paralogues in the same chromosomal region but in different haplotypes counteracts efforts to pyramidise them in a diploid individual via conventional breeding. ..
  4. Ellis J, Catanzariti A, Dodds P. The problem of how fungal and oomycete avirulence proteins enter plant cells. Trends Plant Sci. 2006;11:61-3 pubmed
    ..This signal is surprisingly similar to the host targeting signal used by the malaria pathogen Plasmodium fulciparum to target virulence proteins to the mammalian host cell. ..
  5. Cabral A, Stassen J, Seidl M, Bautor J, Parker J, Van den Ackerveken G. Identification of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis transcript sequences expressed during infection reveals isolate-specific effectors. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19328 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that differences in host colonization can be conditioned by isolate-specific effectors. ..
  6. Blum M, Gamper H, Waldner M, Sierotzki H, Gisi U. The cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3) gene of oomycetes: structure, phylogeny and influence on sensitivity to carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicides. Fungal Biol. 2012;116:529-42 pubmed publisher
    Proper disease control is very important to minimize yield losses caused by oomycetes in many crops...
  7. Jiang R, de Bruijn I, Haas B, Belmonte R, Löbach L, Christie J, et al. Distinctive expansion of potential virulence genes in the genome of the oomycete fish pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003272 pubmed publisher
    b>Oomycetes in the class Saprolegniomycetidae of the Eukaryotic kingdom Stramenopila have evolved as severe pathogens of amphibians, crustaceans, fish and insects, resulting in major losses in aquaculture and damage to aquatic ecosystems...
  8. Taylor T, Krings M, Kerp H. Hassiella monospora gen. et sp. nov., a microfungus from the 400 million year old Rhynie chert. Mycol Res. 2006;110:628-32 pubmed
    ..When combined, these features are suggestive of the oogonia/oosporangia in certain extant members of the Peronosporomycetes (Oomycota). ..
  9. Panstruga R, Dodds P. Terrific protein traffic: the mystery of effector protein delivery by filamentous plant pathogens. Science. 2009;324:748-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The current explosion of information is opening new research avenues in molecular plant pathology and is providing new opportunities to limit the impact of plant disease on food production. ..

More Information

Publications132 found, 100 shown here

  1. Sekimoto S, Beakes G, Gachon C, Müller D, Küpper F, Honda D. The development, ultrastructural cytology, and molecular phylogeny of the basal oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii, infecting the filamentous phaeophyte algae Ectocarpus siliculosus and Pylaiella littoralis. Protist. 2008;159:299-318 pubmed publisher
    ..of peripheral vesicles, most likely homologous to the dorsal encystment vesicles and K-bodies observed in other oomycetes. Following zoospore liberation the walls of the empty cyst were left behind, forming the so-called net ..
  2. Torto Alalibo T, Collmer C, Lindeberg M, Bird D, Collmer A, Tyler B. Common and contrasting themes in host cell-targeted effectors from bacterial, fungal, oomycete and nematode plant symbionts described using the Gene Ontology. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9 Suppl 1:S3 pubmed publisher
    ..secretion (in bacteria), physical injection (nematodes and insects) and protein translocation signal sequences (oomycetes and fungi)...
  3. Hugot K, Rivière M, Moreilhon C, Dayem M, Cozzitorto J, Arbiol G, et al. Coordinated regulation of genes for secretion in tobacco at late developmental stages: association with resistance against oomycetes. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:858-70 pubmed
    ..Further characterization of these genes will permit the formulation of hypotheses to explain resistance and to establish the connection with development. ..
  4. Radwan O, Mouzeyar S, Nicolas P, Bouzidi M. Induction of a sunflower CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene analogue during incompatible interaction with Plasmopara halstedii. J Exp Bot. 2005;56:567-75 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Ha-NTIR11g RGA may play a critical role in protecting sunflower cells against P. halstedii. The transcript accumulation of R gene-mediated signalling components was also examined. ..
  5. Birch P, Boevink P, Gilroy E, Hein I, Pritchard L, Whisson S. Oomycete RXLR effectors: delivery, functional redundancy and durable disease resistance. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2008;11:373-9 pubmed publisher
    To manipulate host defences, plant pathogenic oomycetes secrete and translocate RXLR effectors into plant cells...
  6. Krings M, Taylor T, Galtier J, Dotzler N. A fossil peronosporomycete oogonium with an unusual surface ornament from the Carboniferous of France. Fungal Biol. 2010;114:446-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This fossil represents only the third record of an unequivocal peronosporomycete from the Carboniferous, and thus provides important details about the evolutionary history of this group of organisms...
  7. Eulgem T, Somssich I. Networks of WRKY transcription factors in defense signaling. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2007;10:366-71 pubmed
    ..A key mechanism triggering strong immune responses appears to be based on the inactivation of defense-suppressing WRKY proteins. ..
  8. Kale S. Oomycete and fungal effector entry, a microbial Trojan horse. New Phytol. 2012;193:874-81 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that effector blocking technologies could be developed and utilized in a variety of important crop species against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. ..
  9. Larroque M, Barriot R, Bottin A, Barre A, Rouge P, Dumas B, et al. The unique architecture and function of cellulose-interacting proteins in oomycetes revealed by genomic and structural analyses. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:605 pubmed publisher
    b>Oomycetes are fungal-like microorganisms evolutionary distinct from true fungi, belonging to the Stramenopile lineage and comprising major plant pathogens...
  10. Wick P, Gansel X, Oulevey C, Page V, Studer I, Dürst M, et al. The expression of the t-SNARE AtSNAP33 is induced by pathogens and mechanical stimulation. Plant Physiol. 2003;132:343-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, the expression of AtSNAP33 after pathogen attack is regulated by SA-dependent and SA-independent pathways. Mechanical stimulation also led to an increase of AtSNAP33 transcripts. ..
  11. Lopez Lastra C, Scorsetti A, Marti G, Garcia J. Host range and specificity of an Argentinean isolate of the aquatic fungus Leptolegnia chapmanii (Oomycetes: Saprolegniales), a pathogen of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Mycopathologia. 2004;158:311-5 pubmed
    ..renatoi and I. paranensis were not infected by Leptolegnia. None of the non-target fauna treated was infected by L. chapmanii with exception of members of the Family Chironomidae which were susceptible at low infection rates. ..
  12. Kamoun S. Molecular genetics of pathogenic oomycetes. Eukaryot Cell. 2003;2:191-9 pubmed
  13. Zipfel C, Felix G. Plants and animals: a different taste for microbes?. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2005;8:353-60 pubmed
    ..This suggests a convergent evolution of microbe sensing by the innate immune systems of these various organisms. ..
  14. Phillips A, Anderson V, Robertson E, Secombes C, van West P. New insights into animal pathogenic oomycetes. Trends Microbiol. 2008;16:13-9 pubmed
    Many species of oomycetes cause economic and environmental damage owing to their ability to infect a range of plants and animals...
  15. Wu J, Zhang Y, Zhang H, Huang H, Folta K, Lu J. Whole genome wide expression profiles of Vitis amurensis grape responding to downy mildew by using Solexa sequencing technology. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:234 pubmed publisher
  16. Bailey K, Cevik V, Holton N, Byrne Richardson J, Sohn K, Coates M, et al. Molecular cloning of ATR5(Emoy2) from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, an avirulence determinant that triggers RPP5-mediated defense in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:827-38 pubmed publisher
    ..arabidopsidis Emoy2 genome revealed the presence of 173 open reading frames that potentially encode for secreted proteins similar to ATR5(Emoy2), in which they share some motifs such as EER but there is no canonical RXLR motif. ..
  17. Díez Navajas A, Wiedemann Merdinoglu S, Greif C, Merdinoglu D. Nonhost versus host resistance to the grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, studied at the tissue level. Phytopathology. 2008;98:776-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations illustrate that, for P. viticola, haustorium formation is not only a key stage for the establishment of biotrophy but also for the host specificity and the recognition by grapevine resistance factors. ..
  18. Sekimoto S, Yokoo K, Kawamura Y, Honda D. Taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, and ultrastructural morphology of Olpidiopsis porphyrae sp. nov. (Oomycetes, straminipiles), a unicellular obligate endoparasite of Bangia and Porphyra spp. (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Mycol Res. 2008;112:361-74 pubmed publisher
    ..porphyrae with zoospore initials containing K-bodies and tubular mitochondrial cristae is characteristic of oomycetes. Group I intron-like multiple insertions were found in the SSU rRNA gene of O. porphyrae...
  19. Strullu Derrien C, Kenrick P, Rioult J, Strullu D. Evidence of parasitic Oomycetes (Peronosporomycetes) infecting the stem cortex of the Carboniferous seed fern Lyginopteris oldhamia. Proc Biol Sci. 2011;278:675-80 pubmed publisher
    ..structure of the oogonia and antheridia and features observed within the hyphae demonstrate a relationship with Oomycetes (Peronosporomycetes)...
  20. Nechwatal J, Wielgoss A, Mendgen K. Diversity, host, and habitat specificity of oomycete communities in declining reed stands (Phragmites australis) of a large freshwater lake. Mycol Res. 2008;112:689-96 pubmed publisher
    We studied the diversity of oomycetes in a declining reed belt (Phragmites australis) of Lake Constance, Germany, using conventional baiting with specific reed and standard oak baits, accompanied by molecular techniques...
  21. Grouffaud S, van West P, Avrova A, Birch P, Whisson S. Plasmodium falciparum and Hyaloperonospora parasitica effector translocation motifs are functional in Phytophthora infestans. Microbiology. 2008;154:3743-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest common mechanisms for protein translocation in both malaria and oomycete pathosystems. ..
  22. Göker M, Voglmayr H, Riethmüller A, Oberwinkler F. How do obligate parasites evolve? A multi-gene phylogenetic analysis of downy mildews. Fungal Genet Biol. 2007;44:105-22 pubmed
    Plant parasitism has independently evolved as a nutrition strategy in both true fungi and Oomycetes (stramenopiles)...
  23. Winnenburg R, Baldwin T, Urban M, Rawlings C, Köhler J, Hammond Kosack K. PHI-base: a new database for pathogen host interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:D459-64 pubmed
    ..g. NCBI taxonomy and EMBL). We welcome new data for inclusion in PHI-base, which is freely accessed at www4.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/phibase/. ..
  24. Blair J, Coffey M, Park S, Geiser D, Kang S. A multi-locus phylogeny for Phytophthora utilizing markers derived from complete genome sequences. Fungal Genet Biol. 2008;45:266-77 pubmed
    ..A more resolved phylogeny of Phytophthora species will allow for better interpretations of the overall evolutionary history of the genus. ..
  25. Stassen J, Van den Ackerveken G. How do oomycete effectors interfere with plant life?. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011;14:407-14 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Oomycetes secrete effectors that can be active in the host's extracellular environment, for example inhibiting host ..
  26. Schardl C, Craven K. Interspecific hybridization in plant-associated fungi and oomycetes: a review. Mol Ecol. 2003;12:2861-73 pubmed
    Fungi (kingdom Mycota) and oomycetes (kingdom Stramenopila, phylum Oomycota) are crucially important in the nutrient cycles of the world. Their interactions with plants sometimes benefit and sometimes act to the detriment of humans...
  27. Lamour K, Win J, Kamoun S. Oomycete genomics: new insights and future directions. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;274:1-8 pubmed
    The oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms that are relatively closely related to photosynthetic algae such as brown algae and diatoms...
  28. Rouxel M, Mestre P, Comont G, Lehman B, Schilder A, Delmotte F. Phylogenetic and experimental evidence for host-specialized cryptic species in a biotrophic oomycete. New Phytol. 2013;197:251-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Downy mildews, a major group of biotrophic oomycetes, are prime candidates for testing speciation by host plant specialization...
  29. Kortekamp A. Expression analysis of defence-related genes in grapevine leaves after inoculation with a host and a non-host pathogen. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2006;44:58-67 pubmed
    ..cubensis led to a reduced browning reaction (as a result of a hypersensitive reaction) in Gloire and significantly reduced the intensity of sporulation in Riesling after a subsequent inoculation with P. viticola. ..
  30. Kortekamp A. Growth, occurrence and development of septa in Plasmopara viticola and other members of the Peronosporaceae using light- and epifluorescence-microscopy. Mycol Res. 2005;109:640-8 pubmed
    ..stem and branches of the sporangiophores, but not in the intercellular hyphae, which was in contrast to other oomycetes, such as P. tabacina, Pseudoperonospora cubensis and P...
  31. Thines M, Göker M, Spring O, Oberwinkler F. A revision of Bremia graminicola. Mycol Res. 2006;110:646-56 pubmed
    ..lactucae, and for the sister-group relationship of B. graminicola and V. oplismeni with Hyaloperonospora. Consequently, a new genus, Graminivora, is described to accommodate B. graminicola. ..
  32. Hardham A. Cell biology of plant-oomycete interactions. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:31-9 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have shown that the plant defence response to invading oomycetes is similar to that mounted against fungi, but biochemical differences between oomycete and fungal surface ..
  33. Díez Navajas A, Greif C, Poutaraud A, Merdinoglu D. Two simplified fluorescent staining techniques to observe infection structures of the oomycete Plasmopara viticola in grapevine leaf tissues. Micron. 2007;38:680-3 pubmed
    ..We tested modifications of some parameters of the procedures to determine the most appropriate for high throughput analyses adapted to our pathosystem and equipment facilities. ..
  34. Bouzidi M, Parlange F, Nicolas P, Mouzeyar S. Expressed Sequence Tags from the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii, an obligate parasite of the sunflower. BMC Microbiol. 2007;7:110 pubmed
    ..Annotation of the ESTs revealed a number of genes that could function in virulence. We provide a first glimpse into the gene content of P. halstedii. These resources should accelerate research on this important pathogen. ..
  35. Soanes D, Talbot N. Moving targets: rapid evolution of oomycete effectors. Trends Microbiol. 2008;16:507-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe recent progress in characterizing RXLR-EER effectors and discuss why so many of these rapidly evolving proteins are encoded by the genomes of plant pathogenic oomycetes.
  36. Borhan M, Gunn N, Cooper A, Gulden S, Tör M, Rimmer S, et al. WRR4 encodes a TIR-NB-LRR protein that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana to four physiological races of Albugo candida. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008;21:757-68 pubmed publisher
    ..candida race 4. This residual incompatibility is independent of functional EDS1. ..
  37. Gachon C, Strittmatter M, Müller D, Kleinteich J, Küpper F. Detection of differential host susceptibility to the marine oomycete pathogen Eurychasma dicksonii by real-time PCR: not all algae are equal. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:322-8 pubmed publisher
  38. Borhan M, Holub E, Kindrachuk C, Omidi M, Bozorgmanesh Frad G, Rimmer S. WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed Brassica crops. Mol Plant Pathol. 2010;11:283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops. ..
  39. Choi Y, Thines M, Runge F, Hong S, Telle S, Shin H. Evidence for high degrees of specialisation, evolutionary diversity, and morphological distinctiveness in the genus Bremia. Fungal Biol. 2011;115:102-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding might stimulate the search for durable resistance genes in genera closely related to the genus Lactuca and in divergent species of the genus itself. ..
  40. Grenville Briggs L, van West P. The biotrophic stages of oomycete-plant interactions. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2005;57:217-43 pubmed
  41. Choi Y, Kiss L, Vajna L, Shin H. Characterization of a Plasmopara species on Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and notes on P. halstedii, based on morphology and multiple gene phylogenies. Mycol Res. 2009;113:1127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings might serve as a basis for a taxonomical reassessment of the P. halstedii complex and also for the delimitation of several well-defined species within this complex. ..
  42. Ah Fong A, Judelson H. New role for Cdc14 phosphatase: localization to basal bodies in the oomycete phytophthora and its evolutionary coinheritance with eukaryotic flagella. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16725 pubmed publisher
    ..An ancestral role of Cdc14 in the flagellar stage of eukaryotes is thereby proposed...
  43. Kemen E, Gardiner A, Schultz Larsen T, Kemen A, Balmuth A, Robert Seilaniantz A, et al. Gene gain and loss during evolution of obligate parasitism in the white rust pathogen of Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001094 pubmed publisher
    ..A. laibachii is a member of the Chromalveolata, which incorporates Heterokonts (containing the oomycetes), Apicomplexa (which includes human parasites like Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii), and four other ..
  44. Boubakri H, Wahab M, Chong J, Bertsch C, Mliki A, Soustre Gacougnolle I. Thiamine induced resistance to Plasmopara viticola in grapevine and elicited host-defense responses, including HR like-cell death. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;57:120-33 pubmed publisher
  45. Coates M, Beynon J. Hyaloperonospora Arabidopsidis as a pathogen model. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2010;48:329-45 pubmed publisher
    ..pathogen of the model plant Arabidopsis, has been very useful in the understanding of the relationship between oomycetes and their host plants...
  46. Tian M, Win J, Savory E, Burkhardt A, Held M, Brandizzi F, et al. 454 Genome sequencing of Pseudoperonospora cubensis reveals effector proteins with a QXLR translocation motif. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:543-53 pubmed publisher
    ..cubensis. Furthermore, the massive duplication of PcQNE suggests that they might play pivotal roles in pathogen fitness and pathogenicity...
  47. Chou S, Krasileva K, Holton J, Steinbrenner A, Alber T, Staskawicz B. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis ATR1 effector is a repeat protein with distributed recognition surfaces. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ATR1 is a modular repeat protein belonging to an ancient family of oomycete effectors that rapidly evolves to escape host detection and adopt diverse virulence functions. ..
  48. Thines M. Characterisation and phylogeny of repeated elements giving rise to exceptional length of ITS2 in several downy mildew genera (Peronosporaceae). Fungal Genet Biol. 2007;44:199-207 pubmed
  49. Van Damme M, Huibers R, Elberse J, Van den Ackerveken G. Arabidopsis DMR6 encodes a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase that is defense-associated but required for susceptibility to downy mildew. Plant J. 2008;54:785-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, resistance could be caused by the accumulation of a toxic DMR6 substrate, or by the absence of a DMR6 metabolic product that is required for H. parasitica infection. ..
  50. Lu Y, Schornack S, Spallek T, Geldner N, Chory J, Schellmann S, et al. Patterns of plant subcellular responses to successful oomycete infections reveal differences in host cell reprogramming and endocytic trafficking. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:682-97 pubmed publisher
    Adapted filamentous pathogens such as the oomycetes Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) and Phytophthora infestans (Pi) project specialized hyphae, the haustoria, inside living host cells for the suppression of host defence and ..
  51. Salvaudon L, Héraudet V, Shykoff J. Parasite-host fitness trade-offs change with parasite identity: genotype-specific interactions in a plant-pathogen system. Evolution. 2005;59:2518-24 pubmed
    ..Our results thus highlight the importance of taking into account both host and parasite genetic variation because their interaction can lead to unexpected evolutionary outcomes. ..
  52. Thines M, Göker M, Oberwinkler F, Spring O. A revision of Plasmopara penniseti, with implications for the host range of the downy mildews with pyriform haustoria. Mycol Res. 2007;111:1377-85 pubmed
    ..All of these genera are apparently restricted to dicotyledonous hosts. ..
  53. Alonso Villaverde V, Voinesco F, Viret O, Spring J, Gindro K. The effectiveness of stilbenes in resistant Vitaceae: ultrastructural and biochemical events during Plasmopara viticola infection process. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011;49:265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..viticola penetration. In this cultivar, the concentration of all identified stilbenes exceeds 1×10³ ?mol mg(-1) FW. The critical role of stilbenes in the resistance of Vitis spp. is discussed. ..
  54. Baxter L, Tripathy S, Ishaque N, Boot N, Cabral A, Kemen E, et al. Signatures of adaptation to obligate biotrophy in the Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis genome. Science. 2010;330:1549-1551 pubmed publisher
    ..These attributes comprise a genomic signature of evolution toward obligate biotrophy...
  55. Robideau G, de Cock A, Coffey M, Voglmayr H, Brouwer H, Bala K, et al. DNA barcoding of oomycetes with cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and internal transcribed spacer. Mol Ecol Resour. 2011;11:1002-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Proper identification to the species level is a critical first step in any investigation of oomycetes, whether it is research driven or compelled by the need for rapid and accurate diagnostics during a pathogen ..
  56. Perumal R, Isakeit T, Menz M, Katile S, No E, Magill C. Characterization and genetic distance analysis of isolates of Peronosclerospora sorghi using AFLP fingerprinting. Mycol Res. 2006;110:471-8 pubmed
    ..The AFLP banding patterns are consistent with metalaxyl resistance and the new pathotype having evolved from pathotype 3. ..
  57. Choi Y, Shin H, Ploch S, Thines M. Evidence for uncharted biodiversity in the Albugo candida complex, with the description of a new species. Mycol Res. 2008;112:1327-34 pubmed publisher
  58. Radwan O, Mouzeyar S, Venisse J, Nicolas P, Bouzidi M. Resistance of sunflower to the biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara halstedii is associated with a delayed hypersensitive response within the hypocotyls. J Exp Bot. 2005;56:2683-93 pubmed
    ..By contrast, this HR triggers a SAR which takes places in the upper part of the hypocotyls and eventually leads to the arrest of parasite growth. A model describing the resistance of plants to root-infecting oomycetes is proposed.
  59. Gaulin E, Madoui M, Bottin A, Jacquet C, Mathe C, Couloux A, et al. Transcriptome of Aphanomyces euteiches: new oomycete putative pathogenicity factors and metabolic pathways. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1723 pubmed publisher
    ..The genus Aphanomyces is phylogenically distinct from well-studied oomycetes such as Phytophthora sp., and contains species pathogenic on plants and aquatic animals...
  60. Hein I, Gilroy E, Armstrong M, Birch P. The zig-zag-zig in oomycete-plant interactions. Mol Plant Pathol. 2009;10:547-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we consider the complex molecular interplay between plants and plant pathogenic oomycetes, drawing on recent literature to illustrate what is known about oomycete PAMPs and elicitors of defence ..
  61. Krasileva K, Dahlbeck D, Staskawicz B. Activation of an Arabidopsis resistance protein is specified by the in planta association of its leucine-rich repeat domain with the cognate oomycete effector. Plant Cell. 2010;22:2444-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data suggest molecular epistasis between signaling activity of the TIR domain and the recognition function of the LRR and allow us to propose a model for ATR1 recognition by RPP1. ..
  62. Soylu S. Ultrastructural characterisation of the host-pathogen interface in white blister-infected Arabidopsis leaves. Mycopathologia. 2004;158:457-64 pubmed
    ..By contrast, the extrahaustorial membrane, where the host PM surrounded the haustorium, was consistently very lightly stained...
  63. Morgan W, Kamoun S. RXLR effectors of plant pathogenic oomycetes. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:332-8 pubmed
    b>Oomycetes are a phylogenetically distinct group of organisms that include some of the most devastating plant pathogens...
  64. Bellin D, Peressotti E, Merdinoglu D, Wiedemann Merdinoglu S, Adam Blondon A, Cipriani G, et al. Resistance to Plasmopara viticola in grapevine 'Bianca' is controlled by a major dominant gene causing localised necrosis at the infection site. Theor Appl Genet. 2009;120:163-76 pubmed publisher
  65. Radwan O, Bouzidi M, Vear F, Philippon J, de Labrouhe D, Nicolas P, et al. Identification of non-TIR-NBS-LRR markers linked to the Pl5/ Pl8 locus for resistance to downy mildew in sunflower. Theor Appl Genet. 2003;106:1438-46 pubmed
    ..These and other results indicate that different Pl loci conferring resistance to the same pathogen races may contain different sequences...
  66. Kortekamp A, Zyprian E. Characterization of Plasmopara-resistance in grapevine using in vitro plants. J Plant Physiol. 2003;160:1393-400 pubmed
    ..viticola indicated that there is a strong correlation between the POX activity in leaves of in vitro-plants and the resistance of grapevine plants to P. viticola in the field...
  67. Voglmayr H, Riethmüller A. Phylogenetic relationships of Albugo species (white blister rusts) based on LSU rDNA sequence and oospore data. Mycol Res. 2006;110:75-85 pubmed
    ..The DNA sequence data further indicate that Albugo candida and Albugo tragopogonis each may consist of several distinct lineages, but additional data need to be collected before further taxonomic conclusions can be made...
  68. Kamoun S. A catalogue of the effector secretome of plant pathogenic oomycetes. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2006;44:41-60 pubmed
    The oomycetes form a phylogenetically distinct group of eukaryotic microorganisms that includes some of the most notorious pathogens of plants...
  69. Dotzler N, Krings M, Agerer R, Galtier J, Taylor T. Combresomyces cornifer gen. sp. nov., an endophytic peronosporomycete in Lepidodendron from the Carboniferous of central France. Mycol Res. 2008;112:1107-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the organism occurs exclusively in the periderm of L. rhodumnense, it is not known whether it represents a symptomless endophyte, pathogen, or saprotroph...
  70. Ellis J, Rafiqi M, Gan P, Chakrabarti A, Dodds P. Recent progress in discovery and functional analysis of effector proteins of fungal and oomycete plant pathogens. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2009;12:399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Advances are being made in the identification and in understanding the evolution of effectors and of host uptake signals used by eukaryotic effectors to enter host cells...
  71. Nemri A, Atwell S, Tarone A, Huang Y, Zhao K, Studholme D, et al. Genome-wide survey of Arabidopsis natural variation in downy mildew resistance using combined association and linkage mapping. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10302-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that combining association and linkage mapping could accelerate resistance gene discovery in plants...
  72. Schornack S, Van Damme M, Bozkurt T, Cano L, Smoker M, Thines M, et al. Ancient class of translocated oomycete effectors targets the host nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17421-6 pubmed publisher
    ..CRN host translocation requires a conserved motif that is present in all examined plant pathogenic oomycetes, including the phylogenetically divergent species Aphanomyces euteiches that does not form haustoria, ..
  73. Seidl M, Van den Ackerveken G, Govers F, Snel B. A domain-centric analysis of oomycete plant pathogen genomes reveals unique protein organization. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:628-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Oomycetes comprise a diverse group of organisms that morphologically resemble fungi but belong to the stramenopile lineage within the supergroup of chromalveolates...
  74. Links M, Holub E, Jiang R, Sharpe A, Hegedus D, Beynon E, et al. De novo sequence assembly of Albugo candida reveals a small genome relative to other biotrophic oomycetes. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:503 pubmed publisher
    ..Albugo candida is a biotrophic oomycete that parasitizes various species of Brassicaceae, causing a disease (white blister rust) with remarkable convergence in behaviour to unrelated rusts of basidiomycete fungi...
  75. Latijnhouwers M, de Wit P, Govers F. Oomycetes and fungi: similar weaponry to attack plants. Trends Microbiol. 2003;11:462-9 pubmed
    Fungi and Oomycetes are the two most important groups of eukaryotic plant pathogens. Fungi form a separate kingdom and are evolutionarily related to animals...
  76. Borhan M, Holub E, Beynon J, Rozwadowski K, Rimmer S. The arabidopsis TIR-NB-LRR gene RAC1 confers resistance to Albugo candida (white rust) and is dependent on EDS1 but not PAD4. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2004;17:711-9 pubmed
    ..White rust resistance was completely abolished by eds1-1 but was not affected by either pad4-1 or NahG...
  77. Choi Y, Hong S, Shin H. A re-consideration of Pseudoperonospora cubensis and P. humuli based on molecular and morphological data. Mycol Res. 2005;109:841-8 pubmed
    ..We therefore reduce P. humuli to the status of a taxonomic synonym of P. cubensis...
  78. Baldwin T, Winnenburg R, Urban M, Rawlings C, Koehler J, Hammond Kosack K. The pathogen-host interactions database (PHI-base) provides insights into generic and novel themes of pathogenicity. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2006;19:1451-62 pubmed
    ..In this context, the importance of standardizing pathogenicity assays as well as integrating databases to aid comparative genomics is discussed...
  79. Win J, Morgan W, Bos J, Krasileva K, Cano L, Chaparro Garcia A, et al. Adaptive evolution has targeted the C-terminal domain of the RXLR effectors of plant pathogenic oomycetes. Plant Cell. 2007;19:2349-69 pubmed
    ..The three examined plant pathogenic oomycetes carry complex and diverse sets of RXLR effector genes that have undergone relatively rapid birth and death ..
  80. Le Henanff G, Heitz T, Mestre P, Mutterer J, Walter B, Chong J. Characterization of Vitis vinifera NPR1 homologs involved in the regulation of pathogenesis-related gene expression. BMC Plant Biol. 2009;9:54 pubmed publisher
  81. Malacarne G, Vrhovsek U, Zulini L, Cestaro A, Stefanini M, Mattivi F, et al. Resistance to Plasmopara viticola in a grapevine segregating population is associated with stilbenoid accumulation and with specific host transcriptional responses. BMC Plant Biol. 2011;11:114 pubmed publisher
    ..viticola of the Merzling × Teroldego cross by profiling the stilbenoid content of the leaves of an entire population and the transcriptome of resistant and susceptible individuals following infection...
  82. Schwander F, Eibach R, Fechter I, Hausmann L, Zyprian E, Töpfer R. Rpv10: a new locus from the Asian Vitis gene pool for pyramiding downy mildew resistance loci in grapevine. Theor Appl Genet. 2012;124:163-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Possibilities for using the resistance locus Rpv10 in a grapevine breeding programme are discussed. Furthermore, the marker data revealed 'Severnyi' × 'Muscat Ottonel' as the true parentage for the male parent of 'Solaris'...
  83. Soanes D, Richards T, Talbot N. Insights from sequencing fungal and oomycete genomes: what can we learn about plant disease and the evolution of pathogenicity?. Plant Cell. 2007;19:3318-26 pubmed
  84. Cooper A, Latunde Dada A, Woods Tör A, Lynn J, Lucas J, Crute I, et al. Basic compatibility of Albugo candida in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica juncea causes broad-spectrum suppression of innate immunity. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008;21:745-56 pubmed publisher
    ..juncea to H. arabidopsis. Broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance conferred by RPW8 also was suppressed in Arabidopsis thaliana to two morphotypes of Erysiphe spp. following pre-infection with A. candida subsp. arabidopsis...
  85. Heller A, Thines M. Evidence for the importance of enzymatic digestion of epidermal walls during subepidermal sporulation and pustule opening in white blister rusts (Albuginaceae). Mycol Res. 2009;113:657-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Their subepidermal mode of sporulation is unique amongst Oomycetes and leads to blister-like structures on their hosts similar to those produced by true rusts (Uredinales)...
  86. Schornack S, Huitema E, Cano L, Bozkurt T, Oliva R, Van Damme M, et al. Ten things to know about oomycete effectors. Mol Plant Pathol. 2009;10:795-803 pubmed publisher
    Long considered intractable organisms by fungal genetic research standards, the oomycetes have recently moved to the centre stage of research on plant-microbe interactions...
  87. Polesani M, Bortesi L, Ferrarini A, Zamboni A, Fasoli M, Zadra C, et al. General and species-specific transcriptional responses to downy mildew infection in a susceptible (Vitis vinifera) and a resistant (V. riparia) grapevine species. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:117 pubmed publisher
    ..Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis) species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in this important crop species are not well understood...
  88. Thines M, Kamoun S. Oomycete-plant coevolution: recent advances and future prospects. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2010;13:427-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Oomycetes are a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms that have colonised many ecological niches; yet more than 60% of the known species are parasitic on plants...
  89. Bruce C, van West P, Grenville Briggs L. Proteomic studies of plant-pathogenic oomycetes and fungi. Methods Biochem Anal. 2006;49:271-83 pubmed
  90. Dodds P, Rafiqi M, Gan P, Hardham A, Jones D, Ellis J. Effectors of biotrophic fungi and oomycetes: pathogenicity factors and triggers of host resistance. New Phytol. 2009;183:993-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..Genome sequence information indicates that oomycetes may express several hundred such host-translocated effectors...
  91. Jürges G, Kassemeyer H, Dürrenberger M, Düggelin M, Nick P. The mode of interaction between Vitis and Plasmopara viticola Berk. & Curt. Ex de Bary depends on the host species. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2009;11:886-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the interaction between host and pathogen is under control of specific signals that have been subject to evolutionary diversification...
  92. Panjabi Massand P, Yadava S, Sharma P, Kaur A, Kumar A, Arumugam N, et al. Molecular mapping reveals two independent loci conferring resistance to Albugo candida in the east European germplasm of oilseed mustard Brassica juncea. Theor Appl Genet. 2010;121:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In both the cases, closely linked flanking markers were developed based on synteny between Arabidopsis and B. juncea. These flanking markers will assist introgression of resistance-conferring loci in the susceptible varieties...