rhamnus

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Several species have been reclassified to the FRANGULA genus. It is often called buckthorn but should not be confused with other plants called that.

Top Publications

  1. Affek H, Yakir D. Natural abundance carbon isotope composition of isoprene reflects incomplete coupling between isoprene synthesis and photosynthetic carbon flow. Plant Physiol. 2003;131:1727-36 pubmed
    ..natural abundance carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) measurements in myrtle (Myrtus communis), buckthorn (Rhamnus alaternus), and velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) showed that only 72% to 91% of the variations in the delta(13)C ..
  2. Jiang J, Chien H, Chen C, Lin C, Ko W. Potent suppressive effects of 3-O-methylquercetin 5,7,3',4'-O-tetraacetate on ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Planta Med. 2007;73:1156-62 pubmed
    ..QMTA even at 1 micromol/kg significantly inhibited eosinophils, IL-2, and TNF-alpha. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that QMTA has greater potential than 3-MQ for the treatment of asthma...
  3. Ammar R, Kilani S, Bouhlel I, Ezzi L, Skandrani I, Boubaker J, et al. Antiproliferative, antioxidant, and antimutagenic activities of flavonoid-enriched extracts from (Tunisian) Rhamnus alaternus L.: combination with the phytochemical composition. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2008;31:61-80 pubmed
    A pronounced antiproliferative effect on human leukemia K562 cells was shown with flavonoid-enriched extracts from Rhamnus alaternus roots and leaves, with, respectively, IC(50) values of 165 and 210.73 microg/mL...
  4. Welsman J, Bahlai C, Sears M, Schaafsma A. Decline of soybean aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) egg populations from autumn to spring on the primary host, Rhamnus cathartica. Environ Entomol. 2007;36:541-8 pubmed
    ..In North America, the secondary host is soybean, and the primary hosts are Rhamnus cathartica L. (Rhamnaceae) and R. alnifolia L'Her. A location with abundant populations of soybean aphid on R...
  5. Ammar R, Bouhlel I, Valenti K, Sghaier M, Kilani S, Mariotte A, et al. Transcriptional response of genes involved in cell defense system in human cells stressed by H2O2 and pre-treated with (Tunisian) Rhamnus alaternus extracts: combination with polyphenolic compounds and classic in vitro assays. Chem Biol Interact. 2007;168:171-83 pubmed
    The ability of three Rhamnus alaternus leaves extracts on antigenotoxic and gene expression level effects was respectively investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e...
  6. Manojlovic N, Solujic S, Sukdolak S, Milosev M. Antifungal activity of Rubia tinctorum, Rhamnus frangula and Caloplaca cerina. Fitoterapia. 2005;76:244-6 pubmed
    ..of the methanol extracts and the major anthraquinone aglycones, alizarin and emodin, of Rubia tinctorum and Rhamnus frangula in comparison with the antifungal activity of the anthraquinone-containing lichen Caloplaca cerina and ..
  7. Kosalec I, Kremer D, Locatelli M, Epifano F, Genovese S, Carlucci G, et al. Anthraquinone profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of Rhamnus alaternus, R. fallax, R. intermedia and R. pumila. Food Chem. 2013;136:335-41 pubmed publisher
    The quantity of phenols, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, were investigated in bark of Rhamnus alaternus L., R. fallax Boiss., R. intermedia Steud. et Hochst., and R. pumila Turra from natural stands in Croatia...
  8. Genovese S, Tammaro F, Menghini L, Carlucci G, Epifano F, Locatelli M. Comparison of three different extraction methods and HPLC determination of the anthraquinones aloe-emodine, emodine, rheine, chrysophanol and physcione in the bark of Rhamnus alpinus L. (Rhamnaceae). Phytochem Anal. 2010;21:261-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhamnus alpinus L. (Rhamnaceae), a traditional plants in the flora of the Abruzzo region, is known to contain active anthraquinone secondary metabolites. However, the content of anthraquinones varies among R...
  9. Ammar R, Sghaier M, Boubaker J, Bhouri W, Naffeti A, Skandrani I, et al. Antioxidant activity and inhibition of aflatoxin B1-, nifuroxazide-, and sodium azide-induced mutagenicity by extracts from Rhamnus alaternus L. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;174:1-10 pubmed publisher
    The effect of extracts obtained from Rhamnus alaternus L. leaves on genotoxicity and SOS response induced by aflatoxin B(1) (10 microg/assay) as well as nifuroxazide (20 microg/assay) was investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Cerdán M, Sánchez Sánchez A, Jordá J, Amat B, Cortina J, Ruiz Vicedo N, et al. Characterization of water dissolved organic matter under woody vegetation patches in semi-arid Mediterranean soils. Sci Total Environ. 2016;553:340-348 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rhamnus lycioides patches showed the highest accumulation of fumaric acid, which may contribute to its successful ..
  2. Chen G, Wu J, Li N, Guo M. Screening for anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory components from Rhamnus davurica Pall. using bio-affinity ultrafiltration with multiple drug targets. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2018;410:3587-3595 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhamnus davurica Pall. (R. davurica) has been used as a traditional medicine for many years in China and abroad and shown a wide spectrum of biological activities. Previously, we reported the phytochemical fingerprinting profile of R...
  3. Schuh M, Larsen K. Rhamnus cathartica (Rosales: Rhamnaceae) Invasion Reduces Ground-Dwelling Insect Abundance and Diversity in Northeast Iowa Forests. Environ Entomol. 2015;44:647-57 pubmed publisher
    European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is an invasive woody shrub in deciduous forests of the Upper Midwest...
  4. Mekonen T, Giday M, Kelbessa E. Ethnobotanical study of homegarden plants in Sebeta-Awas District of the Oromia Region of Ethiopia to assess use, species diversity and management practices. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015;11:64 pubmed publisher
    ..The cash crops Catha edulis, Rhamnus prinoides and Ruta chalepensis were the most frequently encountered homegarden plants...
  5. Tacherfiout M, Petrov P, Mattonai M, Ribechini E, Ribot J, Bonet M, et al. Antihyperlipidemic effect of a Rhamnus alaternus leaf extract in Triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats and human HepG2 cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;101:501-509 pubmed publisher
    The Mediterranean buckthorn, Rhamnus alaternus L., is a plant used in traditional medicine in Mediterranean countries. We aimed at characterizing its phenolic compounds and explore potential antihyperlipidemic activity of this plant...
  6. Bacha A, Jemel I, Moubayed N, Abdelmalek I. Purification and characterization of a newly serine protease inhibitor from Rhamnus frangula with potential for use as therapeutic drug. 3 Biotech. 2017;7:148 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, Rhamnus frangula was selected as a protease inhibitor source...
  7. Rodrigues R, Pineda R, Barney J, Nilsen E, Barrett J, Williams M. Plant Invasions Associated with Change in Root-Zone Microbial Community Structure and Diversity. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0141424 pubmed publisher
    ..One site was invaded by a grass (Microstegium vimineum), another by a shrub (Rhamnus davurica), and the third by a tree (Ailanthus altissima)...
  8. Chen D, Lv B, Kobayashi S, Xiong Y, Sun P, Lin Y, et al. Madagascine Induces Vasodilatation via Activation of AMPK. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:435 pubmed
    Madagascine (3-isopentenyloxyemodin) can be chemically synthesized or purified from several Rhamnus species, and it is found to have more potent biological activities than the parent compound emodin...
  9. Chen G, Li X, Saleri F, Guo M. Analysis of Flavonoids in Rhamnus davurica and Its Antiproliferative Activities. Molecules. 2016;21: pubmed publisher
    b>Rhamnus davurica Pall. (R. davurica) has been used as a traditional medicinal herb for many years in China and abroad...
  10. Gonçalves R, Silva E, Hioka N, Nakamura C, Bruschi M, Caetano W. An optimized protocol for anthraquinones isolation from Rhamnus frangula L. Nat Prod Res. 2018;32:366-369 pubmed publisher
    ..this way, the expensive commercial AQs: Chrysophanol, physcione and emodine were extracted from plant material (Rhamnus frangula L...
  11. Jamous R, Ali Shtayeh M, Abu Zaitoun S, Markovics A, Azaizeh H. Effects of selected Palestinian plants on the in vitro exsheathment of the third stage larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:308 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that extracts from Rhamnus elaternus, Epilobium hirsutum, Leucaena leucocephala and Rhamnus palaestinus have promising anthelmintic activity,..
  12. Khan S, Andralojc P, Lea P, Parry M. 2'-carboxy-D-arabitinol 1-phosphate protects ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase against proteolytic breakdown. Eur J Biochem. 1999;266:840-7 pubmed
    ..In this way, CA1P may affect the amounts of Rubisco protein available for photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. Rubisco turnover (in the presence of RuBP, Mg2+ and CO2) may confer similar protection against proteases in the light. ..
  13. Vander Wall S, Kuhn K, Gworek J. Two-phase seed dispersal: linking the effects of frugivorous birds and seed-caching rodents. Oecologia. 2005;145:282-7 pubmed
  14. Marcone C, Gibb K, Streten C, Schneider B. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii', 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae', respectively associated with spartium witches'-broom, buckthorn witches'-broom and allocasuarina yellows diseases. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54:1025-9 pubmed
    ..and allocasuarina yellows (AlloY) are witches'-broom and yellows diseases of Spartium junceum (Spanish broom), Rhamnus catharticus (buckthorn) and Allocasuarina muelleriana (Slaty she-oak), respectively...
  15. Bovanová L, Brandsteterova E, Caniová A, Argalásová K, Lux A. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of peroxisomicine A1 (T-514) in genus Karwinskia. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999;732:405-10 pubmed
    ..The extracts were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction (SPE). SPE recoveries of 99.9% and 98.4% were achieved for the T-514 concentrations of 1.4 microg/ml and 0.26 microg/ml, respectively. ..
  16. Valadez Alvizo R, Rodríguez Alvarado A, Martínez de Villarreal L, González Alanís R, Piñeyro Lopez A. Effect of toxins 544 and 514 from Karwinskia humboldtiana (buckthorn) plant upon fetal development of the mouse. Toxicon. 1993;31:1329-32 pubmed
    ..Dams treated with toxin 544, but not with toxin 514, showed a higher incidence of reabsorptions, malformations, as well as lower fetal length compared to the control group. ..
  17. Henselová M, Hudecova D. Differences in the microflora of scarified and unscarified seeds of Karwinskia humboldtiana (Rhamnaceae). Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2001;46:543-8 pubmed
    ..Treatment of scarified seeds with Vitavax 200 WP and Pomarsol Forte 80 WP (3 mg/g seeds) augmented germination by 10-19% compared to treated unscarified seeds, and by 16-31% compared to untreated unscarified seeds...
  18. Du X, Wang S, Rong L. [Characteristics of foliar delta13C values of common shrub species in various microhabitats with different karst rocky desertification degrees]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2011;22:3094-100 pubmed
    By measuring the foliar delta13C values of 5 common shrub species (Rhamnus davurica, Pyracantha fortuneana, Rubus biflorus, Zanthoxylum planispinum, and Viburnum utile) growing in various microhabitats in Wangjiazhai catchment, a typical ..
  19. Nazareno E, Li F, Smith M, Park R, Kianian S, Figueroa M. Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae: a threat to global oat production. Mol Plant Pathol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The asexual phase in the life cycle of Pca occurs in oat, whereas the sexual phase takes place primarily in Rhamnus species as the alternative host...
  20. Gómez C, Espadaler X, Bas J. Ant behaviour and seed morphology: a missing link of myrmecochory. Oecologia. 2005;146:244-6 pubmed
    ..characias seeds allowed small ant species to redistribute the seeds from their nests. On the other hand, Rhamnus alaternus seeds that have a natural handle after the elaiosome removal were removed from the nests by both groups ..
  21. Nanninga C, Buyarski C, Pretorius A, Montgomery R. Increased exposure to chilling advances the time to budburst in North American tree species. Tree Physiol. 2017;:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Quercus ellipsoidalis E. j. Hill, Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and one invasive species (Rhamnus cathartica L.) in Minnesota, USA, to assess the impact of chilling on the timing of leaf budburst...
  22. Wu X, Pei Y, Zhou J. [Chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Rhamnus crenatus]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2005;40:1127-30 pubmed
    To study chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Rhamnus crenatus sieb. et zucc. The chemical constituents were isolated by chromatographic methods and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis...
  23. Garza Ocañas L, Jiang T, Acosta D, Torres Alanis O, Waksman de Torres N, Piñeyro Lopez A. Comparison of the hepatotoxicity of toxin T-514 of Karwinskia humboldtiana and its diastereoisomer in primary liver cell cultures. Toxicon. 1994;32:1287-91 pubmed
    ..Cytotoxicity was evaluated by release of cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and mitochondrial metabolic function (MTT reduction). The diastereoisomer was shown to be almost as hepatoxic in vitro as toxin T-514. ..
  24. Velazco M, Montero R, Rojas E, Gonsebatt M, Sordo M, Pineyro A, et al. Genotoxic effects of Karwinskia humboldtiana toxin T-514 in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Anticancer Drugs. 1996;7:710-5 pubmed
    ..Genotoxicity to lymphocytes was negative. However, proliferation was affected by the toxin, demonstrating a cytostatic activity independent of genotoxic damage. ..
  25. Crossley M, Steffan S, Voegtlin D, Hamilton K, Hogg D. Variable Isotopic Compositions of Host Plant Populations Preclude Assessment of Aphid Overwintering Sites. Insects. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..We compared variation in bulk 13C and 15N content in buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) and soybean aphids in Wisconsin, among known overwintering locations in the northern Midwest...
  26. Meier N, Meier B, Peter S, Wolfram E. In-Silico UHPLC Method Optimization for Aglycones in the Herbal Laxatives Aloe barbadensis Mill., Cassia angustifolia Vahl Pods, Rhamnus frangula L. Bark, Rhamnus purshianus DC. Bark, and Rheum palmatum L. Roots. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..A gradient with the best resolution of the aglycones in all five drugs is proposed, and its suitability demonstrated for the quantification of aglycones in these herbal drugs. ..
  27. Jiang J, Shih C, Wang S, Chen T, Lin C, Ko W. Mechanisms of suppression of nitric oxide production by 3-O-methylquercetin in RAW 264.7 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;103:281-7 pubmed
    b>Rhamnus nakaharai Hayata (Rhamnaceae) is used as a folk medicine in Taiwan for treating constipation, inflammation, tumors, and asthma...
  28. Gulias J, Traveset A, Riera N, Mus M. Critical stages in the recruitment process of Rhamnus alaternus L. Ann Bot. 2004;93:723-31 pubmed
    b>Rhamnus alaternus is a Mediterranean shrub commonly used in reforestation programs...
  29. Aitzetmuller K, Xin Y. [Sea buckthorn and sea buckthorn oils--recent developments in China and central Asia]. Nahrung. 1999;43:228-32 pubmed
    ..The various "health claims", particularly by Russian and Chinese medical authorities, could not be discussed here. However, a number of recent papers are quoted here without further comment...
  30. Waksman N, Benavides Cortez G, Rivas Galindo V. Biologically active anthracenones from roots of Karwinskia parvifolia. Phytochemistry. 1999;50:1041-6 pubmed
    ..Structural assignments were made on the basis of spectroscopic data, including long range correlations as well as geometry optimization by means of semi-empirical methods...
  31. Zhang T, Lee Y, Fang Q, Xiao R, Ito Y. Preliminary applications of cross-axis synchronous flow-through coil planet centrifuge for large-scale preparative counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1988;454:185-93 pubmed
    ..The present system offers advantages of stable balance of the centrifuge, a large column capacity, and high resolution...
  32. Huang S, Liu H, Quan X, Jin Y, Xuan G, An R, et al. Rhamnella gilgitica Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in LPS-Induced Murine Macrophages and Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Rats. Am J Chin Med. 2016;44:1379-1392 pubmed
    Rhamnella gilgitica Mansf. et Melch, which belongs to the rhamnus family (Rhamnaceae), is traditionally used to treat rheumatism, swelling and pain in China. However, little is known about the pharmacological activities of this plant...
  33. Galindo V, Waksman N. Cytotoxic hydroxyanthracenones from fruits of Karwinskia parvifolia. Nat Prod Lett. 2001;15:243-51 pubmed
    ..Compounds 3 and 5 are novel and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling. Compounds 1-5 were significantly cytotoxic against hepatoma cell lines...
  34. Wei B, Lu C, Tsao L, Wang J, Lin C. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of quercetin 3-O-methyl ether and other constituents from Rhamnus species. Planta Med. 2001;67:745-7 pubmed
    ..activities of the isolated flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ether (1), kaempferol (2), and quercetin (3), of Rhamnus nakaharai, and anthraquinone, frangulin B (4), of Rhamnus formosana, were assessed in vitro by determining their ..
  35. Tripathi M, Pandey M, Jha R, Pandey V, Tripathi P, Singh J. Cyclopeptide alkaloids from Zizyphus jujuba. Fitoterapia. 2001;72:507-10 pubmed
    ..A new cyclopeptide alkaloid, jubanine-C (1), together with known alkaloids scutianine-C (4) and zizyphine-A (5), have been isolated from the stem bark of Zizyphus jujuba and identified by spectral analysis...
  36. Querejeta J, Allen M, Caravaca F, Roldan A. Differential modulation of host plant delta13C and delta18O by native and nonnative arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a semiarid environment. New Phytol. 2006;169:379-87 pubmed
    ..Seedlings of Olea europaea and Rhamnus lycioides were inoculated with either a mixture of eight native Glomus species or with the nonnative Glomus ..
  37. Mayhew H, Fabian D, Svoboda S, Wustholz K. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of yellow organic dyestuffs and lake pigments in oil paint. Analyst. 2013;138:4493-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, we demonstrate a reliable sample treatment protocol for SERS-based identification of turmeric, old fustic, Buckthorn berries, Stil de Grain, and Reseda lake as well as for microscopic samples of the corresponding oil paints. ..
  38. Bahlai C, Welsman J, Macleod E, Schaafsma A, Hallett R, Sears M. Role of visual and olfactory cues from agricultural hedgerows in the orientation behavior of multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Environ Entomol. 2008;37:973-9 pubmed
    ..Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) spends much of the year in agricultural hedgerows residing on buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L), and H. axyridis is frequently observed feeding on aphids in this habitat...
  39. Teng C, Lin C, Lin C, Chung M, Huang T. Frangulin B, an antagonist of collagen-induced platelet aggregation and adhesion, isolated from Rhamnus formosana. Thromb Haemost. 1993;70:1014-8 pubmed
    Emodin and its glycoside frangulin B were isolated from the plant Rhamnus formosana...
  40. Molla Y, Nedi T, Tadesse G, Alemayehu H, Shibeshi W. Evaluation of the in vitro antibacterial activity of the solvent fractions of the leaves of Rhamnus prinoides L'Herit (Rhamnaceae) against pathogenic bacteria. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:287 pubmed publisher
    Medicinal plants play great roles in the treatment of various infectious diseases. Rhamnus prinoides is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of bacterial diseases...
  41. Bahlai C, Welsman J, Schaafsma A, Sears M. Development of soybean aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on its primary overwintering host, Rhamnus cathartica. Environ Entomol. 2007;36:998-1006 pubmed
    Thermally dependent development of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) and common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) were examined in growth chambers in spring 2005...
  42. Lázaro Nogal A, Forner A, Traveset A, Valladares F. Contrasting water strategies of two Mediterranean shrubs of limited distribution: uncertain future under a drier climate. Tree Physiol. 2013;33:1284-95 pubmed publisher
    ..and Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris Chodat...
  43. Delanoy L, Archibold O. Efficacy of control measures for European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) in Saskatchewan. Environ Manage. 2007;40:709-18 pubmed
    ..Field-tested strategies to reduce costs and improve efficiencies are discussed...
  44. Gulias J, Flexas J, Abadia A, Madrano H. Photosynthetic responses to water deficit in six Mediterranean sclerophyll species: possible factors explaining the declining distribution of Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris, an endemic Balearic species. Tree Physiol. 2002;22:687-97 pubmed
    We sought to explain the declining distribution in the Balearic Islands of the endemic shrub Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris R...
  45. Ko W, Chen M, Wang S, Lai Y, Chen J, Lin C. 3-O-methylquercetin more selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase subtype 3. Planta Med. 2003;69:310-5 pubmed
    b>Rhamnus nakaharai Hayata (Rhamnaceae), has been used as a folk medicine in Taiwan for treating constipation, inflammation, tumors and asthma...
  46. Stocker P, Yousfi M, Djerridane O, Perrier J, Amziani R, El Boustani S, et al. Effect of flavonoids from various Mediterranean plants on enzymatic activity of intestinal carboxylesterase. Biochimie. 2004;86:919-25 pubmed
    ..Mediterranean plants from the Algerian Atlas used traditionally in Arab folk medicine, Arenaria serpyllifolia, Rhamnus alaternus and Thapsia garganica, were found to inhibit the enzymatic activities of both rat intestine and ..
  47. Longo L, Vasapollo G, Rescio L. Identification of anthocyanins in Rhamnus alaternus L. berries. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:1723-7 pubmed
    Anthocyanin composition in berries of Rhamnus alaternus L., a perennial wild shrub typical of the Mediterranean area, was determined for the first time. The pigments were extracted from the berries with 0...
  48. Ng L, Lin C, Lu C. Antioxidative effects of 6-methoxysorigenin and its derivatives from Rhamnus nakaharai. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2007;55:382-4 pubmed
    ..6-methoxysorigenin-8-O-glucoside (3), alpha-sorinin (4), and 6-methoxysorigenin-8-rutinoside (5)] isolated from Rhamnus nakaharai together with two acylates (peracetate and perpropionate) of 2 were evaluated for antioxidant ..
  49. Garza Ocañas L, Hsieh G, Acosta D, Torres Alanis O, Piñeyro Lopez A. Toxicity assessment of toxins T-514 and T-544 of buckthorn (Karwinskia humboldtiana) in primary skin and liver cell cultures. Toxicology. 1992;73:191-201 pubmed
    ..Both toxins were shown to be highly hepatotoxic; T-514 was more toxic than T-544. In the skin cell cultures, the toxicity of the toxins was not as severe and was not expressed until 12 h of exposure...
  50. Ito Y, Oka H, Lee Y. Improved high-speed counter-current chromatograph with three multilayer coils connected in series. II. Separation of various biological samples with a semi-preparative column. J Chromatogr. 1990;498:169-78 pubmed
    ..The sample quantities ranging from 50 to 500 mg were efficiently separated within a few hours. The separation of tetracycline derivatives was remarkably improved by adding ammonium acetate to the solvent system...
  51. Bhouri W, Sghaier M, Kilani S, Bouhlel I, Dijoux Franca M, Ghedira K, et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and antigenotoxic activity of two flavonoids from Rhamnus alaternus L. (Rhamnaceae): kaempferol 3-O-?-isorhamninoside and rhamnocitrin 3-O-?-isorhamninoside. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:1167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..3-O-?-isorhamninoside (K3O-ir) and rhamnocitrin 3-O-?-isorhamninoside (R3O-ir), isolated from the leaves of Rhamnus alaternus L...
  52. Lin C, Chung M, Gan K, Lu C. Flavonol and anthraquinone glycosides from Rhamnus formosana. Phytochemistry. 1991;30:3103-6 pubmed
    Two new flavonol triglycosides, and a new anthraquinone glycoside, have been isolated from the roots of Rhamnus formosana...
  53. Caravaca F, Figueroa D, Roldán A, Azcón Aguilar C. Alteration in rhizosphere soil properties of afforested Rhamnus lycioides seedlings in short-term response to mycorrhizal inoculation with Glomus intraradices and organic amendment. Environ Manage. 2003;31:412-20 pubmed
    ..two reafforestation methods involving mycorrhizal inoculation and compost addition on soil quality parameters and Rhamnus lycioides seedling growth...
  54. Chiavaroli A, La V, Orlando G, Menghini L, Epifano F, Grenier D. Rhamnus alpinus leaf extract suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced, monocyte-derived macrophage chemokine secretion. Inflammation. 2008;31:313-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Rhamnus alpinus extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chemokine secretion by human macrophage-like cells...
  55. Pandey M, Singh A, Singh U, Singh S, Pandey V. A new chalcone glycoside from Rhamnus nipalensis. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22:1657-9 pubmed publisher
    A new chalcone glycoside, chalcone-2',4-dihydroxy-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside has been isolated from Rhamnus nipalensis together with sitosterol, lupeol, di-O-methyldaidzein, kaempferol-4'-methylether, quercetin, physcion, sitosterol glucoside,..
  56. Ko W, Shih C, Chen M, Lai Y, Chen J, Chen C, et al. Suppressive effects of 3-O-methylquercetin on ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Planta Med. 2004;70:1123-7 pubmed
    b>Rhamnus nakaharai Hayata (Rhamnaceae) has been used as a folk medicine in Taiwan for treating constipation, inflammation, tumors, and asthma...
  57. Epifano F, Genovese S, Kremer D, Randic M, Carlucci G, Locatelli M. Re-investigation of the anthraquinone pool of Rhamnus spp.: madagascin from the fruits of Rhamnus cathartica and R. intermedia. Nat Prod Commun. 2012;7:1029-32 pubmed
    ..ongoing studies aimed at revealing the presence of oxyprenylated anthraquinones in plants belonging to the genus Rhamnus, in this paper we describe the extraction and HPLC separation of madagascin (3-isopentenyloxyemodin) from the ..
  58. Ozipek M, Calis I, Ertan M, Ruedi P. Rhamnetin 3-p-coumaroylrhamninoside from Rhamnus petiolaris. Phytochemistry. 1994;37:249-53 pubmed
    From the berries of Rhamnus petiolaris a new acylated flavonol glycoside was isolated and identified as rhamnetin 3-O-[3"-O-(p-coumaroyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)- alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside...
  59. van Gorkom B, de Vries E, Karrenbeld A, Kleibeuker J. Review article: anthranoid laxatives and their potential carcinogenic effects. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999;13:443-52 pubmed
    ..Studies in humans have also suggested tumour promoting activities for these laxatives. Although the short-term use of these substances is generally safe, long-term use cannot be recommended...
  60. Martinez H, Bermudez M, Rangel Guerra R, de Leon Flores L. Clinical diagnosis in Karwinskia humboldtiana polyneuropathy. J Neurol Sci. 1998;154:49-54 pubmed
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    ..Cases were from rural communities with low levels of schooling and poor socioeconomic conditions...
  62. Rhainds M, Yoo H, Bledsoe L, Sadof C, Yaninek S, O Neil R. Impact of developmental maturity of soybean on the seasonal abundance of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Environ Entomol. 2010;39:484-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), alternates between a primary overwintering host (buckthorn, Rhamnus sp.) and a secondary summer host (soybean, Glycine max)...
  63. Terencio M, Sanz M, Paya M. A hypotensive procyanidin-glycoside from Rhamnus lycioides ssp. lycioides. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;30:205-14 pubmed
    A lyophilized hot water extract of the aerial parts of Rhamnus lycioides L. (Rhamnaceae) produced a lowering of systemic arterial blood pressure in normotensive anaesthetized Wistar rats...
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    ..For example, the aphid specialist Aphis glycines survives only on the primary host buckthorn (Rhamnus spp.) and the secondary host soybean (Glycine max) in North America where it is invasive...
  65. Schmidt N, O Neal M, Anderson P, Lagos D, Voegtlin D, Bailey W, et al. Spatial distribution of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a summary of the suction trap network. J Econ Entomol. 2012;105:259-71 pubmed
    ..The goal of the STN was to monitor movement of A. glycines from their overwintering host Rhamnus spp...
  66. Tapia Y, Cala V, Eymar E, Frutos I, Garate A, Masaguer A. Phytoextraction of cadmium by four Mediterranean shrub species. Int J Phytoremediation. 2011;13:567-79 pubmed
    ..accumulation capacities of the native Mediterranean, perennial shrubs Atriplex halimus, Phyllirea angustifolia, Rhamnus alaternus and Rosmarinus officinalis were tested by growing transplanted specimens in a pine bark compost ..
  67. Locatelli M, Epifano F, Genovese S, Carlucci G, Koncic M, Kosalec I, et al. Anthraquinone profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of bark extracts of Rhamnus catharticus and R. orbiculatus. Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6:1275-80 pubmed
    ..as well as the total phenol and total flavonoid contents were determined in methanol extracts of the barks of Rhamnus catharticus L. and R. orbiculatus Bornm. The most abundant anthraquinone derivatives in R...
  68. Fuentes D, Disante K, Valdecantos A, Cortina J, Vallejo V. Sensitivity of Mediterranean woody seedlings to copper, nickel and zinc. Chemosphere. 2007;66:412-20 pubmed
    ..species commonly used in ecological restoration, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia lentiscus, Juniperus oxycedrus, and Rhamnus alaternus, grown in nutrient solutions containing a range of copper, nickel and zinc concentrations...
  69. Martínez de Villarreal L, Velazco Campos R, Piñeyro Lopez A, González Alanís R. Effects of toxin T-544 from the Karwinskia humboldtiana (buckthorn) plant upon mouse embryos explanted at 11 days. Toxicon. 1990;28:449-52 pubmed
    ..05 and 0.2 microgram/ml of toxin compared with controls. Embryo protein content was significantly lower in those embryos exposed to 0.1 microgram/ml of T-544 compared with control group...
  70. Querejeta J, Barea J, Allen M, Caravaca F, Roldán A. Differential response of delta13C and water use efficiency to arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two aridland woody plant species. Oecologia. 2003;135:510-5 pubmed
    ..was significantly enhanced by inoculation with Glomus intraradices in Olea europaea ssp sylvestris, but not in Rhamnus lycioides...
  71. Deconinck E, De Leersnijder C, Custers D, Courselle P, De Beer J. A strategy for the identification of plants in illegal pharmaceutical preparations and food supplements using chromatographic fingerprints. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:2341-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Fingerprints were developed for three non-regulated common herbal products--Rhamnus purshiana, Passiflora incarnata L...
  72. Bahlai C, Sikkema S, Hallett R, Newman J, Schaafsma A. Modeling distribution and abundance of soybean aphid in soybean fields using measurements from the surrounding landscape. Environ Entomol. 2010;39:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has important applications in predicting areas that are at elevated risk of developing economically damaging populations of soybean aphid and which may act as sources for further infestation...
  73. Bermúdez de Rocha M, Lozano Meléndez F, Tamez Rodríguez V, Díaz Cuello G, Piñeyro Lopez A. [The incidence of poisoning by Karwinskia humboldtiana in Mexico]. Salud Publica Mex. 1995;37:57-62 pubmed
    ..In 98 patients there was not antecedent of ingestion and detection was negative in 95 of them. We estimated that the sensibility and specificity of detection method are 89% and 96.9% respectively...
  74. Nunes P, Marinho L, Nunes M, Soares E. Antipyretic activity of an aqueous extract of Zizyphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae). Braz J Med Biol Res. 1987;20:599-601 pubmed
    ..These results lend support to the popular use of infusions of this plant in folk medicine as a remedy for fever and suggest that the characterization of the principle(s) responsible for such activity deserves further investigation...
  75. Gundidza M, Sibanda M. Antimicrobial activities of ziziphus abyssinica and berchemia discolor. Cent Afr J Med. 1991;37:80-3 pubmed
    ..The aqueous extracts showed significant activity against S. aureus and C. albicans...
  76. Garza Ocañas L, Hsieh G, Acosta D, Torres Alanis O, Piñeyro Lopez A. Toxicity assessment of toxins T-514 and T-544 of buckthorn (Karwinskia humboldtiana) in primary skin and liver cell cultures. Toxicology. 1992;73:259-67 pubmed
    ..Both toxins were shown to be highly hepatotoxic; T-514 was more toxic than T-544. In the skin cell cultures, the toxicity of the toxins was not as severe and was not expressed until 12 h of exposure...
  77. Porceddu M, Mattana E, Pritchard H, Bacchetta G. Thermal niche for in situ seed germination by Mediterranean mountain streams: model prediction and validation for Rhamnus persicifolia seeds. Ann Bot. 2013;112:1887-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a soil heat sum model was used to predict field emergence of Rhamnus persicifolia, an endemic tree species living at the edge of mountain streams of central eastern Sardinia.
  78. Locatelli M, Genovese S, Carlucci G, Kremer D, Randic M, Epifano F. Development and application of high-performance liquid chromatography for the study of two new oxyprenylated anthraquinones produced by Rhamnus species. J Chromatogr A. 2012;1225:113-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhamnus spp. is known to contain biologically active anthraquinone secondary metabolites but the presence of oxyprenylated ones is not reported...
  79. Ammar R, Neffati A, Skandrani I, Sghaier M, Bhouri W, Ghedira K, et al. Anti-lipid peroxidation and induction of apoptosis in the erythroleukaemic cell line K562 by extracts from (Tunisian) Rhamnus alaternus L. (Rhamnaceae). Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:1047-58 pubmed publisher
    Total oligomer flavonoids (TOF) enriched and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts from Rhamnus alaternus induce apoptotic death in human chronic myelogenous leukaemia K562 cell line, as demonstrated by gel electrophoresis, which demonstrates the ..