ficus

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.

Top Publications

  1. Marussich W, Machado C. Host-specificity and coevolution among pollinating and nonpollinating New World fig wasps. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:1925-46 pubmed
    Figs (Ficus spp...
  2. Musabayane C, Gondwe M, Kamadyaapa D, Chuturgoon A, Ojewole J. Effects of Ficus thonningii (Blume) [Morarceae] stem-bark ethanolic extract on blood glucose, cardiovascular and kidney functions of rats, and on kidney cell lines of the proximal (LLC-PK1) and distal tubules (MDBK). Ren Fail. 2007;29:389-97 pubmed
    Previous observations indicate that Ficus thonningii (Blume) [Moraceae] stem-bark extracts may be useful in the control of diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, we investigated in some experimental animal paradigms the effects of F...
  3. Renoult J, Kjellberg F, Grout C, Santoni S, Khadari B. Cyto-nuclear discordance in the phylogeny of Ficus section Galoglychia and host shifts in plant-pollinator associations. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:248 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, host shifts are expected to increase the rate of hybridization events. Pollinators of Ficus section Galoglychia are suspected to have changed host repeatedly, based on several cases of incongruence between ..
  4. Lopez Vaamonde C, Wikström N, Kjer K, Weiblen G, Rasplus J, Machado C, et al. Molecular dating and biogeography of fig-pollinating wasps. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009;52:715-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis also suggests that dispersal has played a more important role in the development of the fig-wasp biota than previously assumed...
  5. Yu H, Nason J, Ge X, Zeng J. Slatkin's Paradox: when direct observation and realized gene flow disagree. A case study in Ficus. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:4441-53 pubmed publisher
    ..seed migration in structuring broad-scale patterns of genetic variation in Ficus hirta, a dioecious fig whose pollen is dispersed by minute, species-specific fig wasps and whose seeds are ..
  6. Usman H, Abdulrahman F, Usman A. Qualitative phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial effects of methanol stem bark extract of Ficus thonningii (Moraceae). Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009;6:289-95 pubmed
    The methanolic stem bark extract of Ficus thonningii (Moraceae) was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial tests...
  7. Jousselin E, Van Noort S, Rasplus J, Greeff J. Patterns of diversification of Afrotropical Otiteselline fig wasps: phylogenetic study reveals a double radiation across host figs and conservatism of host association. J Evol Biol. 2006;19:253-66 pubmed
    We studied the phylogenetic relationships of Otiteselline fig waSPS associated with Ficus in the Afrotropical region using rDNA sequences. African fig species usually host two species of Otiteselline fig waSPS...
  8. Solomon A, Golubowicz S, Yablowicz Z, Grossman S, Bergman M, Gottlieb H, et al. Antioxidant activities and anthocyanin content of fresh fruits of common fig (Ficus carica L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:7717-23 pubmed
    ..C3R contributed 92% of the total antioxidant capacity of the anthocyanin fraction. Fruits of the Mission variety contained the highest levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins and exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity. ..
  9. Rønsted N, Weiblen G, Cook J, Salamin N, Machado C, Savolainen V. 60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis. Proc Biol Sci. 2005;272:2593-9 pubmed
    Figs (Ficus; ca 750 species) and fig wasps (Agaoninae) are obligate mutualists: all figs are pollinated by agaonines that feed exclusively on figs...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Omar M, Mullen W, Crozier A. Identification of proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers, flavone C-Glycosides, and antioxidants in Ficus deltoidea , a malaysian herbal tea. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:1363-9 pubmed publisher
    Phenolic compounds in an aqueous infusion of leaves of Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), a well-known herbal tea in Malaysia, were analyzed by HPLC coupled to photodiode array and fluorescence detectors and an electrospray ionization tandem ..
  2. Watcho P, Ngadjui E, Alango N, Benoît N, Kamanyi A. Reproductive effects of Ficus asperifolia (Moraceae) in female rats. Afr Health Sci. 2009;9:49-53 pubmed
    The reproductive effects of Ficus asperifolia in female rats were investigated in the present study. Sperm-positive adult female rats were orally administered (P.O...
  3. Yang P, Li Z, Peng Y, Yang D. Exchange of hosts: can agaonid fig wasps reproduce successfully in the figs of non-host Ficus?. Naturwissenschaften. 2012;99:199-205 pubmed publisher
    In the obligate mutualism between figs (Ficus) and their specific pollinators (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae), each species of fig wasp typically reproduces in figs of a single host species...
  4. Bankeu J, Mustafa S, Gojayev A, Lenta B, Tchamo Noungoué D, Ngouela S, et al. Ceramide and Cerebroside from the stem bark of Ficus mucuso (Moraceae). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:1661-5 pubmed
    ..sphingolipids mucusamide (1) and mucusoside (2) have been isolated from methanol soluble part of the stem bark of Ficus mucuso WELW...
  5. Owolabi O, Nworgu Z, Falodun A, Ayinde B, Nwako C. Evaluation of tocolytic activity of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Ficus capensis Thunb. (Moraceae). Acta Pol Pharm. 2009;66:293-6 pubmed
    b>Ficus capensis, a wild fig tree is used in herbal medicines to treat pregnancy related ailment and most especially as a remedy for threatened abortion...
  6. Orhan I, Ustün O, Sener B. Estimation of cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects of the leaf extracts of Anatolian Ficus carica var. domestica and their total phenol and flavonoid contents. Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6:375-8 pubmed
    b>Ficus carica var. domestica Tsch. & Rav. (common fig) is widely grown in Turkey and exported for its edible fruits. In this study, the n-hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol, n-butanol, and water extracts of the leaves of F...
  7. Ahmed F, Urooj A. In vitro studies on the hypoglycemic potential of Ficus racemosa stem bark. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90:397-401 pubmed publisher
    ..The present investigation evaluated the possible mechanism of action through which Ficus racemosa stem bark (Moraceae) exerts its hypoglycemic effect using suitable in vitro techniques...
  8. Bafor E, Omogbai E, Ozolua R. Oxytocin inhibiting effect of the aqueous leaf extract of Ficus exasperata (Moraceae) on the isolated rat uterus. Acta Pol Pharm. 2011;68:541-7 pubmed
    The leaves of Ficus exasperata Vahl Enum. Pl. vahl (Moraceae) are used by traditional healers in Southern Nigeria and some parts of Africa to avoid preterm births...
  9. Zakaria Z, Hussain M, Mohamad A, Abdullah F, Sulaiman M. Anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of ficus deltoidea. Biol Res Nurs. 2012;14:90-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Ficus deltoidea (Family Moraceae) leaves have been used traditionally by the Malays to treat ailments such as wounds, sores, and rheumatism...
  10. McLeish M, van Noort S. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:1 pubmed publisher
    ..tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp ..
  11. Lomáscolo S, Levey D, Kimball R, Bolker B, Alborn H. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14668-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that differences among frugivores have shaped the evolution of fruit traits. More broadly, our results underscore the importance of mutualisms in both generating and maintaining biodiversity. ..
  12. Kuete V, Nana F, Ngameni B, Mbaveng A, Keumedjio F, Ngadjui B. Antimicrobial activity of the crude extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Ficus ovata (Moraceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124:556-61 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts from the stem bark of Ficus ovata (FOB), fractions (FOB1-6) and compounds isolated following bio-guided fractionation [3-friedelanone (1), ..
  13. Oliveira A, Valentão P, Pereira J, Silva B, Tavares F, Andrade P. Ficus carica L.: Metabolic and biological screening. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:2841-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Ficus carica L. is one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees. In this work, metabolite profiling was performed on the leaves, pulps and peels of two Portuguese white varieties of F. carica (Pingo de Mel and Branca Tradicional)...
  14. Kislev M, Hartmann A, Bar Yosef O. Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley. Science. 2006;312:1372-4 pubmed
    ..Hence, fig trees could have been the first domesticated plant of the Neolithic Revolution, which preceded cereal domestication by about a thousand years. ..
  15. Ahmed F, Urooj A. Traditional uses, medicinal properties, and phytopharmacology of Ficus racemosa: a review. Pharm Biol. 2010;48:672-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Ficus racemosa Linn...
  16. Chen X, Wu X, Chai W, Feng H, Shi Y, Zhou H, et al. Optimization of extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2013;14:903-15 pubmed publisher
    In this research, the conditions for extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM)...
  17. Wang R, Shi L, Ai S, Zheng Q. Trade-off between reciprocal mutualists: local resource availability-oriented interaction in fig/fig wasp mutualism. J Anim Ecol. 2008;77:616-23 pubmed publisher
    ..2. Our data on obligate co-operation between figs (Ficus racemosa Linn...
  18. Jousselin E, van Noort S, Berry V, Rasplus J, Rønsted N, Erasmus J, et al. One fig to bind them all: host conservatism in a fig wasp community unraveled by cospeciation analyses among pollinating and nonpollinating fig wasps. Evolution. 2008;62:1777-97 pubmed publisher
    The study of chalcid wasps that live within syconia of fig trees (Moraceae, Ficus), provides a unique opportunity to investigate the evolution of specialized communities of insects...
  19. Kim K. Visualization of micromorphology of leaf epicuticular waxes of the rubber tree Ficus elastica by electron microscopy. Micron. 2008;39:976-84 pubmed
    Ultrastructural aspects of leaf epicuticular waxes were investigated in Ficus elastica by scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
  20. Salhi Hannachi A, Chatti K, Saddoud O, Mars M, Rhouma A, Marrakchi M, et al. Genetic diversity of different Tunisian fig (Ficuscarica L.) collections revealed by RAPD fingerprints. Hereditas. 2006;143:15-22 pubmed
    The genetic diversity in Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) was studied using RAPD markers. Thirty-five fig cultivars originating from diverse geographical areas and belonging to three collections were analysed...
  21. Achtak H, Ater M, Oukabli A, Santoni S, Kjellberg F, Khadari B. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L.) in Morocco. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:28 pubmed publisher
    ..large core collections) or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica), within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication.
  22. Kirana H, Agrawal S, Srinivasan B. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa linn. reduces oxidative stress in experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47:822-6 pubmed
    ..Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg orally decreased the fasting blood glucose in streptozotocin induced type ..
  23. Xiao J, Wang N, Li Y, Murphy R, Wan D, Niu L, et al. Molecular approaches to identify cryptic species and polymorphic species within a complex community of fig wasps. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15067 pubmed publisher
    ..e. NUMTs, or the effects of Wolbachia infections. The analyses suggest that combining multiple markers is the best choice for inferring species identifications as any one marker may be unsuitable in a given case...
  24. Verma A, Vijayakumar M, Rao C, Mathela C. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties and DNA damage protective activity of green fruit of Ficus glomerata. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:704-9 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the antioxidant properties of Ficus glomerata fruits using in vitro and in vivo assay. In order to find in vitro antioxidant properties, extract/fractions from F...
  25. Ahmed S, Compton S, Butlin R, Gilmartin P. Wind-borne insects mediate directional pollen transfer between desert fig trees 160 kilometers apart. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20342-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The monoecious African fig tree Ficus sycomorus L...
  26. Cai Q, Chen H, Cai S, Zhao Z, Ruan M, Jia F, et al. [Effect of roots of Ficus hirta on cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity and active components]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:1190-3 pubmed
    ..To investigate the protective effect of the roots of F. hirta against the cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity and it's active components...
  27. Yarmolinsky L, Zaccai M, Ben Shabat S, Mills D, Huleihel M. Antiviral activity of ethanol extracts of Ficus binjamina and Lilium candidum in vitro. N Biotechnol. 2009;26:307-13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ficus binjamina, resistant to plant viruses, and Lilium candidum, which has a high susceptibility to plant viruses were ..
  28. Li H, Chen J, Wang S, Xiong S. Evaluation of six candidate DNA barcoding loci in Ficus (Moraceae) of China. Mol Ecol Resour. 2012;12:783-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Ficus, with about 755 species, diverse habits and complicated co-evolutionary history with fig wasps, is a notoriously difficult group in taxonomy...
  29. Sandabe U, Onyeyili P, Chibuzo G. Phytochemical screening and effect of aqueous extract of Ficus sycomorus L. (Moraceae) stem bark on muscular activity in laboratory animals. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;104:283-5 pubmed
    The stembark of Ficus sycomorus was collected, dried and extracted to screen for some chemical constituents and study its effect on muscle contraction...
  30. Sulaiman M, Hussain M, Zakaria Z, Somchit M, Moin S, Mohamad A, et al. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity of Ficus deltoidea aqueous extract. Fitoterapia. 2008;79:557-61 pubmed publisher
    The aqueous extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves was evaluated for possible antinociceptive activity in three models of nociception, namely, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, formalin and hot plate test...
  31. Rahuman A, Venkatesan P, Geetha K, Gopalakrishnan G, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C. Mosquito larvicidal activity of gluanol acetate, a tetracyclic triterpenes derived from Ficus racemosa Linn. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:333-9 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf and bark of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae) was assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex ..
  32. Jung H, Son H, Minh C, Kim Y, Park Y. Methanol extract of Ficus leaf inhibits the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated microglia via the MAPK pathway. Phytother Res. 2008;22:1064-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study evaluated the effect of a methanol extract of Ficus religiosa leaf (MFL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as ..
  33. McLeish M, Van Noort S, Tolley K. Parasitoid fig-wasp evolutionary diversification and variation in ecological opportunity. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:1483-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply that amplified phenotypic differentiation of specialist insects coevolving with plants is coupled to evolutionarily infrequent changes in ecological opportunity...
  34. Misbah H, Aziz A, Aminudin N. Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Ficus deltoidea fruit extracts and fractions. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:118 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ficus deltoidea is traditionally used in Malaysia for regulating blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels...
  35. Lysenko V. Fluorescence kinetic parameters and cyclic electron transport in guard cell chloroplasts of chlorophyll-deficient leaf tissues from variegated weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.). Planta. 2012;235:1023-33 pubmed publisher
    Residual chlorophyll in chlorophyll-deficient (albino) areas of variegated leaves of Ficus benjamina originates from guard cell chloroplasts. Photosynthetic features of green and albino sectors of F...
  36. Taur D, Nirmal S, Patil R, Kharya M. Antistress and antiallergic effects of Ficus bengalensis bark in asthma. Nat Prod Res. 2007;21:1266-70 pubmed
    Various extracts of Ficus bengalensis bark was screened for it's antiallergic and antistress potential in asthma by milk-induced leucocytosis and milk-induced eosinophilia...
  37. Ayinde B, Omogbai E, Amaechina F. Pharmacognosy and hypotensive evaluation of Ficus exasperata Vahl (Moraceae) leaf. Acta Pol Pharm. 2007;64:543-6 pubmed
    There is already a literature report on the anti-ulcer effect of water extract of Ficus exasperata. Some communities in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria use the decoction of the leaf as hypotensive crude drug...
  38. Fazliana M, Muhajir H, Hazilawati H, Shafii K, Mazleha M. Effects of Ficus deltoidea aqueous extract on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats. Med J Malaysia. 2008;63 Suppl A:103-4 pubmed
    Aqueous extract of Ficus deltoidea var. agustifolia was examined for the subchronic toxicity effects in rats...
  39. McLeish M, Guo D, van Noort S, Midgley G. Life on the edge: rare and restricted episodes of a pan-tropical mutualism adapting to drier climates. New Phytol. 2011;191:210-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use climate models and phylogenetic reconstructions to test whether the Ficus-fig wasp mutualism has adapted and radiated into drier climates and led to ecological speciation in both plant and ..
  40. Guzmán Morales J, Morton Bermea O, Hernández Álvarez E, Rodríguez Salazar M, García Arreola M, Tapia Cruz V. Assessment of atmospheric metal pollution in the urban area of Mexico City, using Ficus benjamina as biomonitor. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;86:495-500 pubmed publisher
    Concentrations of vanadium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, antimony, and lead were measured in Ficus benjamina leaves from the Mexico City urban area in order to assess their enrichment against background values...
  41. Gulecha V, Sivakuma T. Anticancer activity of Tephrosia purpurea and Ficus religiosa using MCF 7 cell lines. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4:526-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate anticancer activity of different fractions of Tephrosia purpurea [TP] (Sharapunkha, Fabaceae) and Ficus religiosa [FR] (Peepal, Moraceae)...
  42. Thakare V, Suralkar A, Deshpande A, Naik S. Stem bark extraction of Ficus bengalensis Linn for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48:39-45 pubmed
    In the present study, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of aqueous extract of Ficus bengalensis (AEFB) and methanolic extract of F. bengalensis (MEFB) was evaluated in animal models...
  43. Ahmed F, Siddesha J, Urooj A, Vishwanath B. Radical scavenging and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities of standardized extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark. Phytother Res. 2010;24:1839-43 pubmed publisher
    ..radical scavenging and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae) stem bark. The extracts were standardized using HPLC...
  44. Hodgkison R, Ayasse M, Kalko E, Häberlein C, Schulz S, Mustapha W, et al. Chemical ecology of fruit bat foraging behavior in relation to the fruit odors of two species of paleotropical bat-dispersed figs (Ficus hispida and Ficus scortechinii). J Chem Ecol. 2007;33:2097-110 pubmed
    ..GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS), a total of 16 main compounds were identified in the ripe fruit odor of Ficus hispida and 13 in the ripe fruit odor of Ficus scortechinii-including alcohols, ketones, esters, and two terpenes...
  45. Cernusak L, Winter K, Aranda J, Turner B, Marshall J. Transpiration efficiency of a tropical pioneer tree (Ficus insipida) in relation to soil fertility. J Exp Bot. 2007;58:3549-66 pubmed
    ..termed transpiration efficiency (TE), to variation in soil fertility was assessed in a tropical pioneer tree, Ficus insipida Willd...
  46. Bauer G, Speck T. Restoration of tensile strength in bark samples of Ficus benjamina due to coagulation of latex during fast self-healing of fissures. Ann Bot. 2012;109:807-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we quantified the contribution of the coagulation of Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) latex to a restoration of the mechanical properties of the bark after external lesions.
  47. Chen Y, Compton S, Liu M, Chen X. Fig trees at the northern limit of their range: the distributions of cryptic pollinators indicate multiple glacial refugia. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:1687-701 pubmed publisher
    ..to investigate the genetic structure and demographic histories of the wasps that pollinate the subtropical Ficus pumila var. pumila in Southeastern China. Deep genetic divergence in both mitochondrial (7.2-11...
  48. Khan Z, Ahmad S, Hagen F, Fell J, Kowshik T, Chandy R, et al. Cryptococcus randhawai sp. nov., a novel anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast isolated from tree trunk hollow of Ficus religiosa (peepal tree) from New Delhi, India. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2010;97:253-9 pubmed publisher
    ..species is described, which was isolated in New Delhi (India) from decaying wood of a tree trunk hollow of Ficus religiosa...
  49. Lu H, Lin J, Chua A, Chung T, Tsai I, Tzen J, et al. Cloning and expression of pathogenesis-related protein 4 from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes associated with ribonuclease, chitinase and anti-fungal activities. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;56:1-13 pubmed publisher
    A cDNA fragment (FaPR4) encoding a class I pathogenesis-related protein 4 (PR-4) from Ficus awkeotsang was obtained by PCR cloning. Plant PR-4s were grouped into class I and II, differing by the presence of ChtBD and hinge...
  50. Devaraj K, Kumar P, Prakash V. Purification, characterization, and solvent-induced thermal stabilization of ficin from Ficus carica. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:11417-23 pubmed publisher
    Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine proteinase isolated from the latex of a Ficus tree, is known to occur in multiple forms. Although crude ficin is of considerable commercial importance, ficin as such has not been fully characterized...
  51. Kuete V, Kamga J, Sandjo L, Ngameni B, Poumale H, Ambassa P, et al. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract, fractions and compounds from Ficus polita Vahl. (Moraceae). BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:6 pubmed publisher
    Many plants of the family Moraceae are used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Ficus polita Vahl...
  52. Yu H, Compton S. Moving your sons to safety: galls containing male fig wasps expand into the centre of figs, away from enemies. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30833 pubmed publisher
    Figs are the inflorescences of fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae). They are shaped like a hollow ball, lined on their inner surface by numerous tiny female flowers. Pollination is carried out by host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae)...
  53. Lev Yadun S, Ne eman G, Abbo S, Flaishman M. Comment on "Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley". Science. 2006;314:1683; author reply 1683 pubmed
    ..Because parthenocarpic fig trees naturally produce both seeded and seedless fruits and are capable of spontaneous reproduction, we argue that the finds do not necessarily indicate cultivation, nor horticulture predating grain crops...
  54. Proffit M, Schatz B, Borges R, Hossaert McKey M. Chemical mediation and niche partitioning in non-pollinating fig-wasp communities. J Anim Ecol. 2007;76:296-303 pubmed
    ..1. The parasitic chalcidoid wasps associated with the species-specific and obligatory pollination mutualisms between Ficus spp. and their agaonid wasp pollinators provide a good model to study the functional organization of communities...
  55. Prajapati S, Tripathi B. Biomonitoring seasonal variation of urban air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Ficus benghalensis leaves. Environ Pollut. 2008;151:543-8 pubmed
    Temporal and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in leaves of Ficus benghalensis were investigated in Varanasi city (India)...
  56. Dunn D, Yu D, Ridley J, Cook J. Longevity, early emergence and body size in a pollinating fig wasp--implications for stability in a fig-pollinator mutualism. J Anim Ecol. 2008;77:927-35 pubmed publisher
    1. Fig trees (Ficus) are pollinated only by agaonid wasps, whose larvae also gall fig ovules. Each ovule develops into either a seed (when pollinated) or a wasp (when an egg is also laid inside) but not both. 2...
  57. Oh M, Hamid M, Ngadiran S, Seo Y, Sarmidi M, Park C. Ficus deltoidea (Mas cotek) extract exerted anti-melanogenic activity by preventing tyrosinase activity in vitro and by suppressing tyrosinase gene expression in B16F1 melanoma cells. Arch Dermatol Res. 2011;303:161-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Ficus deltoidea (Mas cotek) water extract has been widely used for woman health in Malaysia. Our investigation focused to identify anti-melanogenic efficacy of F. deltoidea since it has been known to have strong anti-oxidant activities...
  58. Yang C, Xiao J, Niu L, Ma G, Cook J, Bian S, et al. Chaos of Wolbachia sequences inside the compact fig syconia of Ficus benjamina (Ficus: moraceae). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48882 pubmed publisher
    Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium (inflorescence) habitat for the lives of a complex assemblage of Chalcidoid insects...
  59. Niogret J, Montgomery W, Kendra P, Heath R, Epsky N. Attraction and electroantennogram responses of male Mediterranean fruit fly to volatile chemicals from Persea, Litchi and Ficus wood. J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:483-91 pubmed publisher
    ..capitata respond to material from both hosts (e.g., Litchi chinensis) and non-hosts (e.g., Ficus benjamina) that contain ?-copaene...
  60. Choo C, Sulong N, Man F, Wong T. Vitexin and isovitexin from the Leaves of Ficus deltoidea with in-vivo ?-glucosidase inhibition. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;142:776-81 pubmed publisher
    The leaves of Ficus deltoidea are used as a traditional medicine by diabetes patients in Malaysia.
  61. Raji Y, Oyeyemi W, Shittu S, Bolarinwa A. Gastro-protective effect of methanol extract of Ficus asperifolia bark on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Niger J Physiol Sci. 2011;26:43-8 pubmed
    The gastro-protective and antioxidant effects of methanol extract of Ficus asperifolia bark on indomethacin induced gastric ulcer were investigated in male rats...
  62. Arunachalam K, Parimelazhagan T. Antidiabetic activity of Ficus amplissima Smith. bark extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;147:302-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Ficus amplissima commonly known as kal-itchchi have a long history of use in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani herbal preparations in Indian traditional system of medicine. It has been used in folklore medicine for the treatment of diabetes.
  63. Jiang Z, Huang D, Zhu C, Zhen W. New insights into the phylogeny of fig pollinators using Bayesian analyses. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2006;38:306-15 pubmed
    ..The monophylies of Wiebesia, Blastophaga, Dolichoris are not supported in this analysis. This study also provides a new framework for re-evaluating character evolution and re-inspecting the definition of some genera...
  64. Farsi E, Shafaei A, Hor S, Ahamed M, Yam M, Asmawi M, et al. Genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity studies of a standardized methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2013;68:865-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections...
  65. Cruaud A, Jabbour Zahab R, Genson G, Ungricht S, Rasplus J. Testing the emergence of New Caledonia: fig wasp mutualism as a case study and a review of evidence. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30941 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these groups are the Oreosycea fig trees (Ficus, Moraceae) and their Dolichoris pollinators (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae)...
  66. Haine E, Martin J, Cook J. Deep mtDNA divergences indicate cryptic species in a fig-pollinating wasp. BMC Evol Biol. 2006;6:83 pubmed
    ..In particular, it is now clear that many fig species host two wasp species, so there is more wasp speciation than fig speciation. However, little is known about how fig wasps speciate...
  67. Cook J, West S. Figs and fig wasps. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R978-80 pubmed
  68. Annan K, Houghton P. Antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation of aqueous extracts of Ficus asperifolia Miq. and Gossypium arboreum L., wound-healing plants of Ghana. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;119:141-4 pubmed publisher
    Use of in vitro tests to search for relevant activities in bark of Ficus asperifolia Miq. and leaves of Gossypium arboreum L., used in Ghana for wound healing.
  69. Kanzaki N, Giblin Davis R, Davies K, Ye W, Center B, Thomas W. Teratodiplogaster fignewmani gen. nov., sp. nov. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) from the syconia of Ficus racemose in Australia. Zoolog Sci. 2009;26:569-78 pubmed publisher
    ..nov., sp. nov. This nematode was isolated as adults and juveniles from the syconia of Ficus racemose in Queensland and Western Australia...
  70. Donfack J, Simo C, Ngameni B, Tchana A, Kerr P, Finzi P, et al. Antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract and isolated compounds from Ficus chlamydocarpa. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5:1607-12 pubmed
    ..This paper describes the hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract and four isolated compounds from Ficus chlamydocarpa on CCl4-induced liver damage, as well as the possible antioxidant mechanisms involved in this ..
  71. Solomon A, Golubowicz S, Yablowicz Z, Bergman M, Grossman S, Altman A, et al. EPR studies of O(2)(*-), OH, and (1)O(2) scavenging and prevention of glutathione depletion in fibroblast cells by cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside isolated from fig (Ficus carica L.) fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:7158-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is suggested that C3R in fresh fig fruits is a potent scavenger and may influence endogenous antioxidant systems of consumers...
  72. Basu S, Bandyopadhyay A. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel of midazolam prepared with Ficus carica mucilage. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2010;11:1223-31 pubmed publisher
    ..of the present study was to prepare mucoadhesive in situ nasal gels with mucilage isolated from fig fruits (Ficus carica, family: Moraceae) containing midazolam hydrochloride...
  73. Kobmoo N, Hossaert McKey M, Rasplus J, Kjellberg F. Ficus racemosa is pollinated by a single population of a single agaonid wasp species in continental South-East Asia. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:2700-12 pubmed publisher
    High specificity in the Ficus-agaonid wasp mutualism has lead to the assumption of a mostly 'one-to-one' relationship, albeit with some exceptions...
  74. Ahmed F, Urooj A. Hepatoprotective effects of Ficus racemosa stem bark against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Pharm Biol. 2010;48:210-6 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, the hepatoprotective effects of petroleum ether (FRPE) and methanol (FRME) extract of Ficus racemosa Linn...
  75. Ahmed F, Urooj A. Cardioprotective activity of standardized extract of Ficus racemosa stem bark against doxorubicin-induced toxicity. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:468-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) bark is a rich source of phenolic compounds having diverse biological properties including antioxidant activity...
  76. Rao C, Verma A, Vijayakumar M, Rastogi S. Gastroprotective effect of standardized extract of Ficus glomerata fruit on experimental gastric ulcers in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;115:323-6 pubmed
    Traditionally fruits of Ficus glomerata Roxb (Family: Moraceae) are used to treat anemia and gastrointestinal disorders.
  77. Rønsted N, Weiblen G, Savolainen V, Cook J. Phylogeny, biogeography, and ecology of Ficus section Malvanthera (Moraceae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;48:12-22 pubmed publisher
    We conducted the first molecular phylogenetic study of Ficus section Malvanthera (Moraceae; subgenus Urostigma) based on 32 Malvanthera accessions and seven outgroups representing other sections of Ficus subgenus Urostigma...
  78. Gupta V, Pathania D, Agarwal S, Sharma S. Removal of Cr(VI) onto Ficus carica biosorbent from water. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:2632-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present research is to assess the proficiency and mechanism of biosorption on Ficus carica bast fiber via isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Harkin's-Jura, and Dubinin-Radushkevich), ..
  79. Solomon A, Golubowicz S, Yablowicz Z, Bergman M, Grossman S, Altman A, et al. Protection of fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) against oxidative damage by cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside isolated from fig fruits (Ficus carica L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:6660-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The high antioxidant potential, with several modes of action of purified C3R, may contribute to health benefits gained by the consumption of fresh fig fruits...