cannabis

Summary

Summary: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.

Top Publications

  1. Battistella G, Fornari E, Thomas A, Mall J, Chtioui H, Appenzeller M, et al. Weed or wheel! FMRI, behavioural, and toxicological investigations of how cannabis smoking affects skills necessary for driving. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52545 pubmed publisher
    ..Our goal was to evaluate the impact of cannabis on the driving ability of occasional smokers, by investigating changes in the brain network involved in a ..
  2. Passey M, Sanson Fisher R, D Este C, Stirling J. Tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use during pregnancy: clustering of risks. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;134:44-50 pubmed publisher
    Antenatal substance use poses significant risks to the unborn child. We examined use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women; and compared characteristics of women by the number of ..
  3. Hjorthøj C, Hjorthøj A, Nordentoft M. Validity of Timeline Follow-Back for self-reported use of cannabis and other illicit substances--systematic review and meta-analysis. Addict Behav. 2012;37:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..g. over time. Lowest and highest weighted average agreement rates were: for cannabis, 87.3% (95% confidence interval 86.9% to 87.7%) and 90.9% (90.5% to 91.4%); for cocaine, 79.3% (79.1% to 79...
  4. Caulkins J, Kilmer B, MacCoun R, Pacula R, Reuter P. Design considerations for legalizing cannabis: lessons inspired by analysis of California's Proposition 19. Addiction. 2012;107:865-71 pubmed publisher
    No modern jurisdiction has ever legalized commercial production, distribution and possession of cannabis for recreational purposes...
  5. Haller S, Curtis L, Badan M, Bessero S, Albom M, Chantraine F, et al. Combined grey matter VBM and white matter TBSS analysis in young first episode psychosis patients with and without cannabis consumption. Brain Topogr. 2013;26:641-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabis consumption is temporally associated with the development of first episode psychosis (FEP)...
  6. Englund A, Morrison P, Nottage J, Hague D, Kane F, Bonaccorso S, et al. Cannabidiol inhibits THC-elicited paranoid symptoms and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment. J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27:19-27 pubmed publisher
    Community-based studies suggest that cannabis products that are high in ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but low in cannabidiol (CBD) are particularly hazardous for mental health...
  7. Tsumura Y, Aoki R, Tokieda Y, Akutsu M, Kawase Y, Kataoka T, et al. A survey of the potency of Japanese illicit cannabis in fiscal year 2010. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;221:77-83 pubmed publisher
    In recent years, increased 'cannabis potency', or ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis products, has been reported in many countries. A survey of Japanese illicit cannabis was conducted from April 2010 to March 2011...
  8. De Backer B, Maebe K, Verstraete A, Charlier C. Evolution of the content of THC and other major cannabinoids in drug-type cannabis cuttings and seedlings during growth of plants. J Forensic Sci. 2012;57:918-22 pubmed publisher
    In Europe, authorities frequently ask forensic laboratories to analyze seized cannabis plants to prove that cultivation was illegal (drug type and not fiber type). This is generally done with mature and flowering plants...
  9. Izzo A, Capasso R, Aviello G, Borrelli F, Romano B, Piscitelli F, et al. Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;166:1444-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Both endocannabinoids and TRPA1 may modulate gastrointestinal motility. Here, we investigated the effect of CBC on mouse intestinal motility in physiological and pathological states...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Casadio P, Fernandes C, Murray R, Di Forti M. Cannabis use in young people: the risk for schizophrenia. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35:1779-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs, and despite the widely held belief that it is a safe drug, its long-term use has potentially harmful consequences...
  2. Fiz J, Duran M, Capellà D, Carbonell J, Farre M. Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18440 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of cannabis use and the associated benefits reported by patients with fibromyalgia (FM) who were consumers of this drug...
  3. Hendriks V, Van der Schee E, Blanken P. Treatment of adolescents with a cannabis use disorder: main findings of a randomized controlled trial comparing multidimensional family therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy in The Netherlands. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;119:64-71 pubmed publisher
    To meet the treatment needs of the growing number of adolescents who seek help for cannabis use problems, new or supplementary types of treatment are needed...
  4. van Bakel H, Stout J, Coté A, Tallon C, Sharpe A, Hughes T, et al. The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa. Genome Biol. 2011;12:R102 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties...
  5. van Winkel R, van Beveren N, Simons C. AKT1 moderation of cannabis-induced cognitive alterations in psychotic disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:2529-37 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variation in AKT1 may be associated with sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effects of cannabis as well as with increased risk for psychotic disorder following cannabis use...
  6. Welch K, Stanfield A, McIntosh A, Whalley H, Job D, Moorhead T, et al. Impact of cannabis use on thalamic volume in people at familial high risk of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;199:386-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effects of cannabis on longitudinal thalamus and amygdala-hippocampal complex volumes within a population at high risk of ..
  7. Lopez Quintero C, Pérez de Los Cobos J, Hasin D, Okuda M, Wang S, Grant B, et al. Probability and predictors of transition from first use to dependence on nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;115:120-30 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to estimate general and racial-ethnic specific cumulative probability of developing dependence among nicotine, alcohol, cannabis or cocaine users, and to identify predictors of transition to substance dependence.
  8. Passie T, Emrich H, Karst M, Brandt S, Halpern J. Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by Cannabis resin: a review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence. Drug Test Anal. 2012;4:649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..attacks, and self-mutilation, who discovered that some of his major symptoms were dramatically reduced by smoking cannabis resin...
  9. Alemany S, Arias B, Fatjó Vilas M, Villa H, Moya J, Ibáñez M, et al. Psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis are related to both childhood abuse and COMT genotypes. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2014;129:54-62 pubmed publisher
    To test whether the association between childhood abuse, cannabis use and psychotic experiences (PEs) was moderated by the COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) gene.
  10. Burgdorf J, Kilmer B, Pacula R. Heterogeneity in the composition of marijuana seized in California. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;117:59-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Research suggests that another cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), may offset some of these effects. Thus, there is growing interest in the health consequences of the THC to CBD ratio for marijuana...
  11. Moreno López L, Stamatakis E, Fernández Serrano M, Gomez Rio M, Rodríguez Fernández A, Perez Garcia M, et al. Neural correlates of the severity of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis use in polysubstance abusers: a resting-PET brain metabolism study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39830 pubmed publisher
    ..measured with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) and the severity of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis in a sample of polysubstance users with prolonged abstinence from all drugs used.
  12. Shoyama Y, Tamada T, Kurihara K, Takeuchi A, Taura F, Arai S, et al. Structure and function of ?1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase, the enzyme controlling the psychoactivity of Cannabis sativa. J Mol Biol. 2012;423:96-105 pubmed publisher
    ..cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) into THCA, the precursor of the primary psychoactive agent ?1-tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis sativa...
  13. Bowes L, Chollet A, Fombonne E, Galéra C, Melchior M. Lifecourse SEP and tobacco and cannabis use. Eur J Public Health. 2013;23:322-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the relationship between intergenerational trajectories of social position and tobacco and cannabis use among young adults.
  14. Allsop D, Norberg M, Copeland J, Fu S, Budney A. The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale development: patterns and predictors of cannabis withdrawal and distress. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;119:123-9 pubmed publisher
    Rates of treatment seeking for cannabis are increasing, and relapse is common. Management of cannabis withdrawal is an important intervention point...
  15. Rock E, Bolognini D, Limebeer C, Cascio M, Anavi Goffer S, Fletcher P, et al. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT(1A) somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:2620-34 pubmed publisher
    ..the hypothesis that activation of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) produces the anti-emetic/anti-nausea effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a primary non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis.
  16. Teesson M, Slade T, Swift W, Mills K, Memedovic S, Mewton L, et al. Prevalence, correlates and comorbidity of DSM-IV Cannabis Use and Cannabis Use Disorders in Australia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2012;46:1182-92 pubmed publisher
    To report nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of DSM-IV Cannabis Use and Cannabis Use Disorders in Australia.
  17. Sevigny E. Is today's marijuana more potent simply because it's fresher?. Drug Test Anal. 2013;5:62-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ongoing forensic analysis of seized marijuana samples, to assess the extent to which the observed increase in cannabis potency in the USA between 1970 and 2010 is a function of genuine shifts in illicit marijuana markets or testing ..
  18. Bosker W, Karschner E, Lee D, Goodwin R, Hirvonen J, Innis R, et al. Psychomotor function in chronic daily Cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53127 pubmed publisher
    The present study assessed psychomotor function in chronic, daily cannabis smokers during 3 weeks continuously monitored abstinence on a secure research unit...
  19. Moldzio R, Pacher T, Krewenka C, Kranner B, Novak J, Duvigneau J, et al. Effects of cannabinoids ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:819-24 pubmed publisher
    Cannabinoids derived from Cannabis sativa demonstrate neuroprotective properties in various cellular and animal models. Mitochondrial impairment and consecutive oxidative stress appear to be major molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration...
  20. Degenhardt L, Ferrari A, Calabria B, Hall W, Norman R, McGrath J, et al. The global epidemiology and contribution of cannabis use and dependence to the global burden of disease: results from the GBD 2010 study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76635 pubmed publisher
    Estimate the prevalence of cannabis dependence and its contribution to the global burden of disease.
  21. Swift W, Wong A, Li K, Arnold J, McGregor I. Analysis of cannabis seizures in NSW, Australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70052 pubmed publisher
    Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly ..
  22. Safont G, Corripio I, Escartí M, Portella M, Perez V, Ferrer M, et al. Cannabis use and striatal D2 receptor density in untreated first-episode psychosis: an in vivo SPECT study. Schizophr Res. 2011;129:169-71 pubmed publisher
    The biological basis of the association between cannabis-induced dopamine dysregulation and psychosis remains poorly understood...
  23. Sewell R, Schnakenberg A, Elander J, Radhakrishnan R, Williams A, Skosnik P, et al. Acute effects of THC on time perception in frequent and infrequent cannabis users. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013;226:401-13 pubmed publisher
    ..production tasks, few control for subvocal counting, most had small sample sizes, some did not record subjects' cannabis use, many tested only one dose, and used either oral or inhaled administration of ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), ..
  24. Rubino T, Zamberletti E, Parolaro D. Adolescent exposure to cannabis as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. J Psychopharmacol. 2012;26:177-88 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cannabis is the most consumed drug among adolescent people and its heavy use may affect maturational refinement by ..
  25. Xiong W, Cheng K, Cui T, Godlewski G, Rice K, Xu Y, et al. Cannabinoid potentiation of glycine receptors contributes to cannabis-induced analgesia. Nat Chem Biol. 2011;7:296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a new mechanism underlying cannabinoid potentiation of GlyRs, which could contribute to some of the cannabis-induced analgesic and therapeutic effects.
  26. Banerjee A, Singh A, Srivastava P, Turner H, Krishna A. Effects of chronic bhang (cannabis) administration on the reproductive system of male mice. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2011;92:195-205 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic uptake of bhang, prepared from the Cannabis sativa, on male reproductive physiology in adult male Parkes strain (P) mice...
  27. Cascini F, Aiello C, Di Tanna G. Increasing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?-9-THC) content in herbal cannabis over time: systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2012;5:32-40 pubmed
    The objective of this meta-analysis is to assess the data regarding changes in herbal cannabis potency over time (from 1970 to 2009).
  28. Saha S, Scott J, Varghese D, Degenhardt L, Slade T, McGrath J. The association between delusional-like experiences, and tobacco, alcohol or cannabis use: a nationwide population-based survey. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:202 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to explore the association between DLE and three commonly used substances--tobacco, alcohol and cannabis.
  29. Urban N, Slifstein M, Thompson J, Xu X, Girgis R, Raheja S, et al. Dopamine release in chronic cannabis users: a [11c]raclopride positron emission tomography study. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;71:677-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Less is known about the dopaminergic system in cannabis dependence...
  30. Schwope D, Karschner E, Gorelick D, Huestis M. Identification of recent cannabis use: whole-blood and plasma free and glucuronidated cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled smoked cannabis administration. Clin Chem. 2011;57:1406-14 pubmed publisher
    ..THC-glucuronide has been suggested as a marker of recent cannabis use, but there are no blood data following controlled THC administration to test this hypothesis...
  31. Corey Bloom J, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Jin S, Marcotte T, Bentley H, et al. Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. CMAJ. 2012;184:1143-50 pubmed publisher
    Spasticity is a common and poorly controlled symptom of multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to determine the short-term effect of smoked cannabis on this symptom.
  32. Kim D, Skosnik P, Cheng H, Pruce B, Brumbaugh M, Vollmer J, et al. Structural network topology revealed by white matter tractography in cannabis users: a graph theoretical analysis. Brain Connect. 2011;1:473-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Twelve adult cannabis (CB) users and 13 healthy subjects were evaluated using a graph theoretic analysis of both global and local brain ..
  33. Schulz S. MDMA & cannabis: a mini-review of cognitive, behavioral, and neurobiological effects of co-consumption. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011;4:81-6 pubmed
    Although the prevalence of co-use of cannabis and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is very common among polydrug users in western societies, few studies have tested the consequences on behavior, cognition or neurobiology...
  34. Borgelt L, Franson K, Nussbaum A, Wang G. The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis. Pharmacotherapy. 2013;33:195-209 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabis, or marijuana, has been used for medicinal purposes for many years. Several types of cannabinoid medicines are available in the United States and Canada. Dronabinol (schedule III), nabilone (schedule II), and nabiximols (not U.S...
  35. Keimpema E, Mackie K, Harkany T. Molecular model of cannabis sensitivity in developing neuronal circuits. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2011;32:551-61 pubmed publisher
    Prenatal cannabis exposure can complicate in utero development of the nervous system. Cannabis impacts the formation and functions of neuronal circuitries by targeting cannabinoid receptors...
  36. Stout J, Boubakir Z, Ambrose S, Purves R, Page J. The hexanoyl-CoA precursor for cannabinoid biosynthesis is formed by an acyl-activating enzyme in Cannabis sativa trichomes. Plant J. 2012;71:353-65 pubmed publisher
    The psychoactive and analgesic cannabinoids (e.g. ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) in Cannabis sativa are formed from the short-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) precursor hexanoyl-CoA...
  37. Asbridge M, Hayden J, Cartwright J. Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2012;344:e536 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the acute consumption of cannabis (cannabinoids) by drivers increases the risk of a motor vehicle collision.
  38. Decoster J, Van Os J, Kenis G, Henquet C, Peuskens J, De Hert M, et al. Age at onset of psychotic disorder: cannabis, BDNF Val66Met, and sex-specific models of gene-environment interaction. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011;156B:363-9 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; Inconsistent effects of sex, BDNF Val66Met (rs6265), and cannabis use on age of onset were previously reported...
  39. Noack R, Hofler M, Lueken U. Cannabis use patterns and their association with DSM-IV cannabis dependence and gender. Eur Addict Res. 2011;17:321-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the gender differences in the patterns of cannabis use (CU), namely frequency, times of day, social context and methods and in their association with DSM-IV cannabis dependence.
  40. De Petrocellis L, Ligresti A, Moriello A, Allarà M, Bisogno T, Petrosino S, et al. Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163:1479-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Cannabidiol (CBD) and ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) interact with transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and enzymes of the endocannabinoid system...
  41. Deiana S. Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: a new light for schizophrenia?. Drug Test Anal. 2013;5:46-51 pubmed publisher
    The medical properties of cannabis have been known for many centuries; its first documented use dates back to 2800 BC when it was described for its hallucinogenic and pain-relieving properties...
  42. Morris C, DiNieri J, Szutorisz H, Hurd Y. Molecular mechanisms of maternal cannabis and cigarette use on human neurodevelopment. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:1574-83 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cannabis and cigarettes are the most commonly used illicit and licit substances, respectively, among pregnant women...
  43. Cascini F, Passerotti S, Martello S. A real-time PCR assay for the relative quantification of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene in herbal Cannabis samples. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;217:134-8 pubmed publisher
    ..THCA is actually decarboxylated to produce THC, the main psychoactive component in the Cannabis plant...
  44. Fischer B, Jeffries V, Hall W, Room R, Goldner E, Rehm J. Lower Risk Cannabis use Guidelines for Canada (LRCUG): a narrative review of evidence and recommendations. Can J Public Health. 2011;102:324-7 pubmed
    More than one in ten adults--and about one in three young adults--report past year cannabis use in Canada...
  45. Bélanger R, Akre C, Kuntsche E, Gmel G, Suris J. Adding tobacco to cannabis--its frequency and likely implications. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;13:746-50 pubmed publisher
    Young cannabis users are at increased risk of later cigarette initiation and progression to nicotine addiction...
  46. Russo E. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163:1344-64 pubmed publisher
    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the primary focus of cannabis research since 1964, when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it...
  47. Gagné S, Stout J, Liu E, Boubakir Z, Clark S, Page J. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12811-6 pubmed publisher
    ..THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana)...
  48. Leung L. Cannabis and its derivatives: review of medical use. J Am Board Fam Med. 2011;24:452-62 pubmed publisher
    Use of cannabis is often an under-reported activity in our society...
  49. Wolff V, Lauer V, Rouyer O, Sellal F, Meyer N, Raul J, et al. Cannabis use, ischemic stroke, and multifocal intracranial vasoconstriction: a prospective study in 48 consecutive young patients. Stroke. 2011;42:1778-80 pubmed publisher
    Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between cannabis use and ischemic stroke in a young adult population.
  50. Bright S, Bishop B, Kane R, Marsh A, Barratt M. Kronic hysteria: exploring the intersection between Australian synthetic cannabis legislation, the media, and drug-related harm. Int J Drug Policy. 2013;24:231-7 pubmed publisher
    Having first appeared in Europe, synthetic cannabis emerged as a drug of concern in Australia during 2011. Kronic is the most well-known brand of synthetic cannabis in Australia and received significant media attention...
  51. Shamloul R, Bella A. Impact of cannabis use on male sexual health. J Sex Med. 2011;8:971-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabis (marijuana) is the most widely used illicit drug globally. Given the prevalence of nonprescription illicit drug abuse, there is a growing interest in the study of its potential effects on male sexual health...
  52. Buchowski M, Meade N, Charboneau E, Park S, Dietrich M, Cowan R, et al. Aerobic exercise training reduces cannabis craving and use in non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17465 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise.
  53. Aggarwal S, Carter G, ZumBrunnen C, Morrill R, Sullivan M, Mayer J. From 32 ounces to zero: a medical geographic study of dispensing a cultivated batch of "plum" cannabis flowers to medical marijuana patients in Washington State. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2013;45:141-55 pubmed
    The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships...
  54. Ruhaak L, Felth J, Karlsson P, Rafter J, Verpoorte R, Bohlin L. Evaluation of the cyclooxygenase inhibiting effects of six major cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34:774-8 pubmed
    ..cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), isolated from Cannabis sativa, were evaluated for their effects on prostaglandin production...
  55. Gorelick D, Levin K, Copersino M, Heishman S, Liu F, Boggs D, et al. Diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;123:141-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabis withdrawal occurs in frequent users who quit, but there are no accepted diagnostic criteria for a cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS). This study evaluated diagnostic criteria for CWS proposed in DSM-V and two earlier proposals.
  56. Bruci Z, Papoutsis I, Athanaselis S, Nikolaou P, Pazari E, Spiliopoulou C, et al. First systematic evaluation of the potency of Cannabis sativa plants grown in Albania. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;222:40-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide...
  57. Cousijn J, Goudriaan A, Ridderinkhof K, van den Brink W, Veltman D, Wiers R. Approach-bias predicts development of cannabis problem severity in heavy cannabis users: results from a prospective FMRI study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42394 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated the neural underpinnings of cannabis approach and avoidance tendencies...
  58. Batalla A, Bhattacharyya S, Yucel M, Fusar Poli P, Crippa J, Nogué S, et al. Structural and functional imaging studies in chronic cannabis users: a systematic review of adolescent and adult findings. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55821 pubmed publisher
    The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure ..
  59. Stokes P, Egerton A, Watson B, Reid A, Lappin J, Howes O, et al. History of cannabis use is not associated with alterations in striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability. J Psychopharmacol. 2012;26:144-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabis use in adolescence is emerging as a risk factor for the development of psychosis. In animal studies, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis, modulates striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission...