polygala

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family POLYGALACEAE that contains onjisaponins, xanthones, pyrones, and benzophenones. The name is similar to other snakeroots such as ASARUM; SANICULA; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.

Top Publications

  1. Ikeya Y, Takeda S, Tunakawa M, Karakida H, Toda K, Yamaguchi T, et al. Cognitive improving and cerebral protective effects of acylated oligosaccharides in Polygala tenuifolia. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27:1081-5 pubmed
    We studied the cognitive improving and cerebral protective constituents in the roots of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow, a well-known Chinese traditional medicine prescribed for amnesia, neurasthenia, palpitation, noctural emission and ..
  2. Li T, Zhang W, Yang G, Liu W, Chen H, Shen Y. Saponins from Polygala japonica and their effects on a forced swimming test in mice. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:591-4 pubmed
    ..E (1), F (2), G (3), H (4), and J (5), along with eight known ones (6-13), were isolated from the aerial parts of Polygala japonica. Their structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic means...
  3. Sun X, Ito H, Masuoka T, Kamei C, Hatano T. Effect of Polygala tenuifolia root extract on scopolamine-induced impairment of rat spatial cognition in an eight-arm radial maze task. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:1727-31 pubmed
    The effects of Polygala tenuifolia root fractions and the acyl groups of its constituents on the retrieval process of spatial cognition in rats were studied using an eight-arm radial maze task...
  4. Li C, Yang J, Yu S, Chen N, Xue W, Hu J, et al. Triterpenoid saponins with neuroprotective effects from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia. Planta Med. 2008;74:133-41 pubmed publisher
    The methanol fraction of an ethanolic extract from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. showed antagonistic action on neurotoxicity induced by glutamate and serum deficiency in PC12 cells...
  5. Park C, Choi S, Koo J, Seo J, Kim H, Jeong S, et al. Novel cognitive improving and neuroprotective activities of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow extract, BT-11. J Neurosci Res. 2002;70:484-92 pubmed
    ..We found that the extract of dried root of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow (BT-11, 10 mg/kg, i.p...
  6. Teng H, Fang M, Cai X, Hu Z. Localization and dynamic change of saponin in vegetative organs of Polygala tenuifolia. J Integr Plant Biol. 2009;51:529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..the structure, localization and dynamic changes of total saponin and senegenin of vegetative organs in Polygala tenuifolia Willd...
  7. Hu Y, Li J, Liu P, Chen X, Guo D, Li Q, et al. Protection of SH-SY5Y neuronal cells from glutamate-induced apoptosis by 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose, a bioactive compound isolated from Radix Polygala. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:1-5 pubmed publisher
    The neuroprotective effects of 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose (DISS) from Radix Polygala against glutamate-induced SH-SY5Y neuronal cells injury were evaluated in the present study...
  8. Nakagawa M. Genetic diversity of fragmented populations of Polygala reinii (Polygalaceae), a perennial herb endemic to Japan. J Plant Res. 2004;117:355-61 pubmed
    Genetic variation at 10 allozyme loci was analyzed in 14 populations of Polygala reinii (Polygalaceae), a perennial herb endemic to central Honshu, Japan, with a fragmented geographical distribution...
  9. Capra J, Cunha M, Machado D, Zomkowski A, Mendes B, Santos A, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of scopoletin, a coumarin isolated from Polygala sabulosa (Polygalaceae) in mice: evidence for the involvement of monoaminergic systems. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;643:232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have investigated the possible antidepressant-like effect of scopoletin, a coumarin from Polygala sabulosa in the tail suspension test and forced swimming test...

More Information

Publications80

  1. Chung I, Moore N, Oh W, O Neill M, Ahn J, Park J, et al. Behavioural pharmacology of polygalasaponins indicates potential antipsychotic efficacy. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;71:191-5 pubmed
    Polygalasaponins were extracted from a plant (Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow) that has been prescribed for hundreds of years to treat psychotic illnesses in Korean traditional medicine...
  2. Van Q, Nayak B, Reimer M, Jones P, Fulcher R, Rempel C. Anti-inflammatory effect of Inonotus obliquus, Polygala senega L., and Viburnum trilobum in a cell screening assay. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125:487-93 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of the study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of the mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), Polygala senega (Senega) and Viburnum trilobum (Cranberry) bark extract fractions from locally produced materials in ..
  3. Liu P, Hu Y, Guo D, Lu B, Rahman K, Mu L, et al. Antioxidant activity of oligosaccharide ester extracted from Polygala tenuifolia roots in senescence-accelerated mice. Pharm Biol. 2010;48:828-33 pubmed publisher
    The constituents of the ethanol extract from the root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. (Polygalaceae) were investigated for antioxidant activity in senescence-accelerated mice...
  4. Paul S, Mandal S, Bhattacharyya S, Boujedaini N, Khuda Bukhsh A. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate anticancer property of root extract of Polygala senega. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2010;3:188-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Polygala senega is extensively used in traditional systems of medicine against various lung diseases including cancer. In the present study we tested the anticancer potentials of ethanolic extract of roots of P...
  5. Qiu Y, Wang L, Jia Y, Yang D, Zhang M, Zhang Y, et al. Effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia Willd on human sperm in vitro. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2011;12:448-54 pubmed publisher
    ..study is to analyze sperm membrane changes and the spermicidal effect in treatment with the crude extract from Polygala tenuifolia Willd (PTW) in vitro. The root of PTW was extracted in distilled water...
  6. Tu H, Liu P, Mu L, Liao H, Xie T, Ma L, et al. [Study on antidepressant components of sucrose ester from Polygala tenuifolia]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33:1278-80 pubmed
    To investigate the antidepressant components of Polygala tenuifolia.
  7. Farina M, Franco J, Ribas C, Meotti F, Missau F, Pizzolatti M, et al. Protective effects of Polygala paniculata extract against methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005;57:1503-8 pubmed
    We have examined the possible protective effects of Polygala paniculata extract against methylmercury (MeHg)-induced neurotoxicity in adult mice...
  8. Li H, Wang Q, Zhu D, Yang Y. Reinioside C, a triterpene saponin of Polygala aureocauda Dunn, exerts hypolipidemic effect on hyperlipidemic mice. Phytother Res. 2008;22:159-64 pubmed publisher
    Reinioside C is a triterpene saponin from the the root of Polygala aureocauda Dunn (PAD). This study examined the effects of reinioside C on hyperlipidemic mice in vivo and endothelium cells, macrophages and smooth muscle cells in vitro...
  9. Mukinda J, Eagles P. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity profiles of the aqueous extract of Polygala fruticosa in female mice and rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128:236-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Polygala fruticosa (P.J. Bergius) is one of the most popular medicinal plants in South Africa but to date there is no documented evidence corroborating its safety...
  10. Sun Y, Xie T, Wang D, Liu P. [Effect of Polygala tenuifolia Willd YZ-50 on the mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB in rats with chronic stress depression]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:1199-203 pubmed
    To observe the effect of Polygala tenuifolia Willd YZ-50 on the mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) and its receptor TrkB in rats with chronic stress depression.es.
  11. Katselis G, Estrada A, Gorecki D, Barl B. Adjuvant activities of saponins from the root of Polygala senega L. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;85:1184-94 pubmed
    Eight pure triterpenoid saponin compounds isolated from the root of Polygala senega L., a plant indigenous to the Canadian prairies, were evaluated for their immunological activity in mouse models...
  12. Lapa F, Gadotti V, Missau F, Pizzolatti M, Marques M, Dafre A, et al. Antinociceptive properties of the hydroalcoholic extract and the flavonoid rutin obtained from Polygala paniculata L. in mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;104:306-15 pubmed publisher
    The present study examined the antinociceptive effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Polygala paniculata in chemical and thermal behavioural models of pain in mice...
  13. Frasson A, Dos Santos O, Duarte M, da Silva Trentin D, Giordani R, da Silva A, et al. First report of anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of the medicinal plant Polygala decumbens from the Brazilian semi-arid region, Caatinga. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:2581-7 pubmed publisher
    ..extracts from 23 distinct plants against two isolates from ATCC and four fresh clinical isolates, only the Polygala decumbens root extract was effective in reducing significantly the trophozoite viability...
  14. Klein Júnior L, Santin J, Lemos M, Silveira A, Rocha J, Beber A, et al. Role of gastric mucus secretion, oxinitrergic system and sulfhydryl groups on the gastroprotection elicited by Polygala cyparissias (Polygalaceae) in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013;65:767-76 pubmed publisher
    ..of action for the gastroprotective effect of the acetone extract (PCAE) and methanol fraction (PCMF) of Polygala cyparissias, as well as to evaluate the activity of 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxy-2,7-dimethoxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxy-..
  15. Park H, Jeon S, Kim T, Kang H, Chang Y, Kim Y, et al. Occupational asthma and rhinitis induced by a herbal medicine, Wonji (Polygala tenuifolia). J Korean Med Sci. 2005;20:46-9 pubmed
    ..a few case reports for occupational allergy induced by herbal materials, there is none for that induced by Wonji (Polygala tenuifolia)...
  16. Li T, Zhang W, Yang G, Liu W, Liu R, Zhang C, et al. New flavonol glycosides and new xanthone from Polygala japonica. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2006;8:401-9 pubmed
    Three new flavonol glycosides and a new xanthone were isolated from Polygala japonica HOUTT. with eight known compounds...
  17. Yabe T, Tuchida H, Kiyohara H, Takeda T, Yamada H. Induction of NGF synthesis in astrocytes by onjisaponins of Polygala tenuifolia, constituents of kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine, Ninjin-yoei-to. Phytomedicine. 2003;10:106-14 pubmed
    ..Among 14 kinds of component herbs in NYT, the roots of Polygala tenuifolia and roots of Panax ginseng extracts increased NGF levels from the astrocytes...
  18. Naito R, Tohda C. Characterization of anti-neurodegenerative effects of Polygala tenuifolia in Abeta(25-35)-treated cortical neurons. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:1892-6 pubmed
    Although Polygala tenuifolia WILLD (PT) was classically mentioned as an anti-dementia drug in Chinese and Japanese traditional medicine, basic research showed only enhancement of the cholinergic function...
  19. Xue W, Hu J, Yuan Y, Sun J, Li B, Zhang D, et al. Polygalasaponin XXXII from Polygala tenuifolia root improves hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:1211-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the cognition-enhancing activity and underlying mechanisms of a triterpenoid saponin (polygalasaponin XXXII, PGS32) isolated from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia Willd.
  20. Kawashima K, Miyako D, Ishino Y, Makino T, Saito K, Kano Y. Anti-stress effects of 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid, an active constituent of roots of Polygala tenuifolia (Onji). Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27:1317-9 pubmed
    3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid (TMCA) is one of the constituents in Onji (roots of Polygala tenuifolia WILLD), an herbal medicine used for sedative in Japanese traditional Kampo medicine...
  21. Cheong M, Lee S, Yoo H, Jeong J, Kim G, Kim W, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of Polygala tenuifolia root through inhibition of NF-?B activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 microglial cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:1402-8 pubmed publisher
    The root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd is a well-known traditional Oriental medicine and has been prescribed for treatment of dysfunction in memorial systems and various brain inflammatory diseases...
  22. Wu J, Chen S, Chen S, Tu P. [The chemical constituents of Polygala hongkongensis Hemsl]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007;42:757-61 pubmed
    b>Polygala hongkongensis Polycalaceae is mostly distributed in southern China, such as Guangdong, Jiangxi, Fujian and Sichuan provinces...
  23. Liu J, Yang X, He J, Xia M, Xu L, Yang S. Structure analysis of triterpene saponins in Polygala tenuifolia by electrospray ionization ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2007;42:861-73 pubmed
    Eighteen different triterpene saponins isolated from Polygala tenuifolia were investigated by electrospray ionization ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-ITMS(n)) in positive and negative ion modes...
  24. Wang H, Gao J, Zhu D, Yu B. Two new triterpenoid saponins isolated from Polygala japonica. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006;54:1739-42 pubmed
    Bioassay guided investigation of whole parts of Polygala japonica afforded two new triterpenoid saponins, characterized as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl medicagenic acid 28-O-{beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->4)-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->3)]-..
  25. Yao Y, Jia M, Wu J, Zhang H, Sun L, Chen W, et al. Anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities of polygalasaponins from Polygala tenuifolia in mice. Pharm Biol. 2010;48:801-7 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, the anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities of polygalasaponins extracted from Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow (Polygalaceae) were determined in mice using hole-board, elevated plus maze, open field, and sodium ..
  26. Chen Y, Hsieh C, Wu P, Lin J. Effect of Polygala tenuifolia root on behavioral disorders by lesioning nucleus basalis magnocellularis in rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;95:47-55 pubmed
    We investigated whether an aqueous extract of Polygala tenuifolia Willd (PTW) could improve the rats' memory and behavioral disorders produced by lesioning nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in rats...
  27. Shin E, Oh K, Kim K, Kwon Y, Jhoo J, Jhoo W, et al. Attenuation of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference by Polygala tenuifolia root extract. Life Sci. 2004;75:2751-64 pubmed
    A recent investigation indicated that Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow extract (PTE) possesses a potential antipsychotic effect...
  28. Hu Y, Liao H, Liu P, Guo D, Rahman K. A bioactive compound from Polygala tenuifolia regulates efficiency of chronic stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Pharmazie. 2009;64:605-8 pubmed
    3,6'-Disinapoyl sucrose (DISS) is the active oligosaccharide ester component from roots of Polygala tenuifolia, and its antidepressant effects was found in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST)...
  29. Kim S, Jang S, Lee K, Sung S, Kim Y. Chemical constituents isolated from Polygala japonica leaves and their inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in vitro. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009;24:230-3 pubmed
    A methanolic extract of dried leaves of Polygala japonica Houtt (Polygalaceae) significantly attenuated nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-simulated BV2 microglia...
  30. Le T, Jeong J, Kim D. Clionosterol and ethyl cholestan-22-enol isolated from the rhizome of Polygala tenuifolia inhibit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35:1379-83 pubmed
    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitors were isolated from the rhizome of Polygala tenuifolia WILLD (PT, Polygalaceae), which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for inflammation, dementia, amnesia, neurasthenia and ..
  31. Cheng M, Li C, Ko H, Ko F, Lin Y, Wu T. Antidepressant principles of the roots of Polygala tenuifolia. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:1305-9 pubmed
    ..binding assay-guided fractionation and separation of a water-soluble extract of the roots of Polygala tenuifolia gave five new oligosaccharide derivatives, polygalatenosides A-E (1-5)...
  32. Jiang Y, Zhang W, Tu P, Xu X. Xanthone glycosides from Polygala tenuifolia and their conformational analyses. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:875-9 pubmed
    Seven xanthone glycosides were isolated from the cortexes of Polygala tenuifolia, and their structures were identified as polygalaxanthones VIII-XI (1-4), sibiricoxanthone B (5), 7-O-methylmangiferin (6), and lancerin (7), on the basis of ..
  33. Duarte F, Marder M, Hoeller A, Duzzioni M, Mendes B, Pizzolatti M, et al. Anticonvulsant and anxiolytic-like effects of compounds isolated from Polygala sabulosa (Polygalaceae) in rodents: in vitro and in vivo interactions with benzodiazepine binding sites. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008;197:351-60 pubmed
    b>Polygala sabulosa, a folk medicine, presents dihydrostyryl-2-pyrones (DST) and styryl-2-pyrones (STY), compounds structurally similar to kavalactones...
  34. Meotti F, Ardenghi J, Pretto J, Souza M, d Avila Moura J, Junior A, et al. Antinociceptive properties of coumarins, steroid and dihydrostyryl-2-pyrones from Polygala sabulosa (Polygalaceae) in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006;58:107-12 pubmed
    ..the possible antinociceptive action of the extract, fractions and pure compounds obtained from the whole plant Polygala sabulosa A. W. Bennett (Polygalaceae) in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice...
  35. Jiang Y, Tu P. Four new phenones from the cortexes of Polygala tenuifolia. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2005;53:1164-6 pubmed
    From the 95% EtOH extract of the cortexes of Polygala tenuifolia, four new phenones and three known xanthones were isolated...
  36. Park H, Lee K, Heo H, Lee M, Kim J, Whang W, et al. Effects of Polygala tenuifolia root extract on proliferation of neural stem cells in the hippocampal CA1 region. Phytother Res. 2008;22:1324-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the effect of a Polygala tenuifolia root extract on the proliferation of a stem cell population in the rat hippocampus...
  37. Xu R, Mao F, Zhao Y, Wang W, Fan L, Gao X, et al. UPLC Quantitative Analysis of Multi-Components by Single Marker and Quality Evaluation of Polygala tenuifolia Wild. Extracts. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    The quality control of Polygala tenuifolia Wild. is a major challenge in its clinical application. In this paper, a new strategy for the quality evaluation of P...
  38. Lu L, Li X, Xu P, Zheng Y, Wang X. Tenuigenin down-regulates the release of nitric oxide, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cytokines from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia. Neurosci Lett. 2017;650:82-88 pubmed publisher
    Tenuigenin (TEN), an active component of Polygala tenuifolia root extracts, has been shown to provide neuroprotection in neurodegenerative disorders. To date, most of these studies have focused on the effect that TEN has on neurons...
  39. Jiang Y, Tu P. Tenuifoliose Q, a new oligosaccharide ester from the root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2003;5:279-83 pubmed
    From the cortexes of Polygala tenuifolia Willd., a new oligosaccharide ester, tenuifoliose Q (1), was isolated together with three known compounds...
  40. Lu C, Zhang H, Ji J, Wang G. In vivo anthelmintic activity of Dryopteris crassirhizoma, Kochia scoparia, and Polygala tenuifolia against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1085-90 pubmed publisher
    ..acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of three medicinal plants (Dryopteris crassirhizoma, Kochia scoparia, and Polygala tenuifolia) were screened for antiparasitic properties using in vivo anthelmintic efficacy assay...
  41. Park H, Kim J, Lee Y, Chun H, Choi Y, Shin H, et al. PMC-12, a traditional herbal medicine, enhances learning memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2016;617:254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..complex composition-12 (PMC-12), which is a mixture of four medicinal herbs, that is, Polygonum multiflorum, Polygala tenuifolia, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Acorus gramineus, on hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory in mice...
  42. Dos Santos Nascimento M, Arruda Silva F, Luz A, Venzke D, Queiroz G, Mendes B, et al. 7-prenyloxi-6-methoxycoumarin from Polygala sabulosa A.W. Bennett Regulates p38 MAPK and NF-kB Pathways Inhibiting the Inflammation Induced by Carrageenan in the Mouse Model of Pleurisy. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2015;14:37-46 pubmed
    b>Polygala sabulosa, popularly known as "timutu-pinheirinho," has been used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of bowel and kidney disorders and as an expectorant...
  43. Li C, Zhang D, Yu S. Benzophenone C-glucosides from Polygala glomerata Lour. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2008;10:329-36 pubmed publisher
    ..B (2), C (3), and D (4), along with a known compound arrilanin G (5), have been isolated from the whole plant of Polygala glomerata Lour. Their structures were determined by extensive analyses of their spectral data...
  44. Song Y, Zhou G, Zhou S, Jiang Y, Tu P. Polygalins D-G, four new flavonol glycosides from the aerial parts of Polygala sibirica L. (Polygalaceae). Nat Prod Res. 2013;27:1220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..glycosides (1-4), polygalins D-G, together with 12 known flavonoids (5-16) were isolated from the aerial parts of Polygala sibirica L...
  45. Dao T, Dang T, Nguyen P, Kim E, Thuong P, Oh W. Xanthones from Polygala karensium inhibit neuraminidases from influenza A viruses. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:3688-92 pubmed publisher
    ..10 xanthone derivatives (1-10) were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the EtOAc-soluble extract of Polygala karensium...
  46. Dong X, Li J, Jiang Y, Zheng Y, Dong T, Tu P, et al. [Determination of tenuifolin in Tianwang Buxinwan and Guipiwan by HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:1647-9 pubmed
    ..A quantitative method was developed for the determination of tenuifolin in Tianwang Buxinwan and Guipiwan by HPLC...
  47. Inoue E, Shimizu Y, Shoji M, Tsuchida H, Sano Y, Ito C. Pharmacological properties of N-095, a drug containing red ginseng, polygala root, saffron, antelope horn and aloe wood. Am J Chin Med. 2005;33:49-60 pubmed
    This study sought to establish a pharmacological profile for N-095, a crude drug containing red ginseng, polygala root, saffron, antelope horn and aloe wood...
  48. Shin K, Won B, Heo C, Kim H, Jang D, Park C, et al. BT-11 improves stress-induced memory impairments through increment of glucose utilization and total neural cell adhesion molecule levels in rat brains. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:260-8 pubmed publisher
    In Oriental medicine, roots of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow have been known to be an important herb that exhibits sedative effects in insomnia, palpitation with anxiety, restlessness, and disorientation in humans...
  49. Lee J, Lee J, Cho W, Yim N, Kim H, Yun B, et al. KBH-1, an herbal composition, improves hepatic steatosis and leptin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:355 pubmed publisher
    KBH-1 is an herbal mixture of Saururus chinensis, Curcuma longa and Polygala tenuifolia...
  50. Liu C, Zhang A, Yan G, Shi H, Sun H, Han Y, et al. High-throughput ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for the rapid analysis and characterization of multiple constituents of Radix Polygalae. J Sep Sci. 2017;40:663-670 pubmed publisher
    Radix Polygalae, the dried roots of Polygala tenuifolia and P. sibirica, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plants...
  51. Dang H, Sun L, Liu X, Peng B, Wang Q, Jia W, et al. Preventive action of Kai Xin San aqueous extract on depressive-like symptoms and cognition deficit induced by chronic mild stress. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009;234:785-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that KXS exerts its antidepressant-like and nootropic effects in the CMS model by modulating the HPA axis, monoamine neurotransmitter and cholinergic systems. ..
  52. Guo C, Shen J, Meng Z, Yang X, Li F. Neuroprotective effects of polygalacic acid on scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice. Phytomedicine. 2016;23:149-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Polygala tenuifolia Willd is a Traditional Chinese Medicine used for the treatment of learning and memory deficits...
  53. Yang S, Li X, Cheng L, Wu H, Zhang C, Li K. Tenuigenin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by down-regulating NF-κB activation and suppresses bone loss in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;466:615-21 pubmed publisher
    Tenuigenin, a major active component of polygala tenuifolia root, has been used to treat patients with insomnia, dementia, and neurosis...
  54. Dalĺ Acqua S, Innocenti G, Viola G, Piovan A, Caniato R, Cappelletti E. Cytotoxic compounds from Polygala vulgaris. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002;50:1499-501 pubmed
    To search for antitumor agents from plants, we studied Polygala vulgaris since cytotoxic lignans are known to occur in some Polygala species...
  55. Castro S, Silva S, Stanescu I, Silveira P, Navarro L, Santos C. Pistil anatomy and pollen tube development in Polygala vayredae Costa (Polygalaceae). Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2009;11:405-16 pubmed publisher
    Low seed ovule ratios have been observed in natural populations of Polygala vayredae Costa, a narrowly endemic species from the oriental pre-Pyrenees...
  56. Cristiano R, Pizzolatti M, Delle Monache F, Rezende C, Branco A. Two xanthones from Polygala paniculata and confirmation of the 1-hydroxy-2,3,5-trimethoxy-xanthone at trace level by HRGC-MS. Z Naturforsch C. 2003;58:490-4 pubmed
    b>Polygala paniculata L. yielded the xanthones 1-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2,3-methylenedioxyxanthone (1) and 1,5-dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxyxanthone (2), together with coumarin murragatin and flavonol rutin...
  57. Yong J, Tu P. [Studies on the chemical constituents in root bark of Polygala tenuifolia (II)]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29:751-3 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents of Polygala tenuifolia.
  58. Thelingwani R, Dhansay K, Smith P, Chibale K, Masimirembwa C. Potent inhibition of CYP1A2 by Frutinone A, an active ingredient of the broad spectrum antimicrobial herbal extract from P. fruticosa. Xenobiotica. 2012;42:989-1000 pubmed publisher
    1. Frutinone is an active ingredient extracted from the lipophilic fraction of the Polygala Fruticosa demonstrating various antibacterial and fungal properties...
  59. Yamada H, Adachi M, Isobe M, Nishikawa T. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of polygalolide?A. Chem Asian J. 2013;8:1428-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The construction of the six-membered ether and the ?-lactone provided the tetracyclic compound. Finally, a phenolic moiety was introduced by using a Mukaiyama aldol reaction to furnish polygalolide?A. ..
  60. Zhang F, Song X, Li L, Wang J, Lin L, Li C, et al. Polygala tenuifolia polysaccharide (PTP) inhibits cell proliferation by repressing Bmi-1 expression and downregulating telomerase activity. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:2907-12 pubmed publisher
    In our previous study, we isolated a homogeneous polysaccharide (PTP) with antitumor activity from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia...
  61. Kim K, Lee D, Bae G, Park S, Kang D, Lee H, et al. The inhibition of JNK MAPK and NF-?B signaling by tenuifoliside A isolated from Polygala tenuifolia in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages is associated with its anti-inflammatory effect. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;721:267-76 pubmed publisher
    The root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. (Polygalaceae) is well known for its use in the treatment of neurasthenia, amnesia, and inflammation...
  62. Liu P, Hu Y, Guo D, Wang D, Tu H, Ma L, et al. Potential antidepressant properties of Radix Polygalae (Yuan Zhi). Phytomedicine. 2010;17:794-9 pubmed publisher
    Radix Polygalae ("Yuan Zhi", the roots of Polygala tenuifolia Willd., YZ) is an important herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to mediate depression...
  63. Bai Y, Zhang G, Shi R, Li Y, Tan G, Chen J. [Inhibitory effect of reinioside C on LOX-1 expression induced by ox-LDL]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006;31:659-62 pubmed
  64. Chen Q, Li L. [Protective effect of tenuigenin on cytotoxicity of primary cultures of cortical neurons induced by amyloid beta-protein 1-40 (Abeta(1-40))]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:1336-9 pubmed
    ..To observe the effect of tenuigenin (TEN) on aggregated amyloid beta-protein 1-40 (Abeta(1-40)-induced cytotoxicity of primary cultural cortical neurons in vitro...
  65. Bai Y, Hu C, Chen M, Xu K, Tan G, Shi R, et al. Inhibitory effect of reinioside C on monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein via inhibiting NADPH oxidase/ROS/NF-kappaB pathway. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;380:399-406 pubmed publisher
    ..In present study, the effect of reinioside C, a major compound of Polygala fallax Hemsl., on adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells induced by ox-LDL was investigated...
  66. Wu T, Chen C, Chen C, Jinn T. Traditional Chinese medicines and Alzheimer's disease. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;50:131-5 pubmed publisher
    ..on six herbs for AD therapy-Huperzia serrata, Amaryllidaceae family, Ginkgo biloba, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Polygala tenuifolia, and Salvia officinalis-and focus on the analysis of their active components and possible mechanisms ..
  67. Kou J, Ma R, Zhu D, Yan Y. [Blood-activating and anti-inflammatory actions of Polygala fallax]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2003;26:268-71 pubmed
    To observe the blood-activating and anti-inflammatory actions of Polygala fallax Hesml. (PFH) in this paper.
  68. Lapa F, Soares K, Rattmann Y, Crestani S, Missau F, Pizzolatti M, et al. Vasorelaxant and hypotensive effects of the extract and the isolated flavonoid rutin obtained from Polygala paniculata L. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:875-81 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to investigate the in-vitro and in-vivo cardiovascular effects of the crude hydroalcoholic extract from Polygala paniculata (HEPP) in rats.
  69. Xu X, Zhou J, Li T, Zhang Z, Shan L, Xiang Z, et al. Polygalasaponin G promotes neurite outgrowth of cultured neuron on myelin. Neurosci Lett. 2009;460:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..from traditional Chinese herbs, and found a small molecular compound polygalasaponin G (PS-G), extracted from Polygala japonica, which has a potent neurotrophic activity on PC12 cells and cultured cortical neurons...
  70. Guan S, Yan X, Lin J. [Study on acute toxicity test of different processed products of Radix polygalae]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2012;32:398-401 pubmed
  71. Lv J, Jia H, Jiang Y, Ruan Y, Liu Z, Yue W, et al. Tenuifolin, an extract derived from tenuigenin, inhibits amyloid-beta secretion in vitro. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2009;196:419-25 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have shown that tenuigenin, a crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. that is commonly used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for memory loss, can reduce the secretion of Abeta from cultured cells...