betula

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.

Top Publications

  1. Wirtz K. Adaptive significance of C partitioning and regulation of specific leaf area in Betula pendula. Tree Physiol. 2003;23:181-90 pubmed
    ..1995) and McDonald et al. (1986a, 1986b) for birch seedlings (Betula pendula Roth) during stationary logarithmic growth and during transient changes in response to a range of ..
  2. Koistinen K, Soininen P, Venäläinen T, Häyrinen J, Laatikainen R, PERAKYLA M, et al. Birch PR-10c interacts with several biologically important ligands. Phytochemistry. 2005;66:2524-33 pubmed
    ..S-glutathiolation of PR-10c did not affect kinetin binding. The present results suggest that birch PR-10c is a multifunctional protein, which has diverse roles in plant stress responses. ..
  3. Yli Panula E, Fekedulegn D, Green B, Ranta H. Analysis of airborne betula pollen in Finland; a 31-year perspective. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009;6:1706-23 pubmed publisher
    In this 31-year retrospective study, we examined the influence of meteorology on airborne Betula spp. (birch) pollen concentrations in Turku, Finland...
  4. Thunberg S, Gafvelin G, Nord M, Grönneberg R, Grunewald J, Eklund A, et al. Allergen provocation increases TH2-cytokines and FOXP3 expression in the asthmatic lung. Allergy. 2010;65:311-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate local and systemic regulatory mechanisms in the early asthmatic response to bronchial allergen provocation...
  5. Zhai L, Bergeron Y, Huang J, Berninger F. Variation in intra-annual wood formation, and foliage and shoot development of three major Canadian boreal tree species. Am J Bot. 2012;99:827-37 pubmed publisher
    ..A detailed investigation into growth of different organs during a growing season may help us assess the potential effects of climate change on tree growth in the boreal forest...
  6. Himanen S, Blande J, Klemola T, Pulkkinen J, Heijari J, Holopainen J. Birch (Betula spp.) leaves adsorb and re-release volatiles specific to neighbouring plants--a mechanism for associational herbivore resistance?. New Phytol. 2010;186:722-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that birch (Betula spp...
  7. Gieras A, Cejka P, Blatt K, Focke Tejkl M, Linhart B, Flicker S, et al. Mapping of conformational IgE epitopes with peptide-specific monoclonal antibodies reveals simultaneous binding of different IgE antibodies to a surface patch on the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1. J Immunol. 2011;186:5333-44 pubmed publisher
    ..It may allow discriminating highly allergenic from less allergenic allergen molecules and facilitate the rational design of active and passive allergen-specific immunotherapy strategies...
  8. Linkosalo T, Lappalainen H, Hari P. A comparison of phenological models of leaf bud burst and flowering of boreal trees using independent observations. Tree Physiol. 2008;28:1873-82 pubmed
    ..and tested Thermal Time, Sequential, Parallel and Flexible phenological models of leaf bud burst in birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh.) and flowering in bird cherry (Prunus padus L.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L...
  9. Mattila K, Renkonen R. Modelling of Bet v 1 binding to lipids. Scand J Immunol. 2009;70:116-24 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications89

  1. Ambebe T, Dang Q. Low moisture availability inhibits the enhancing effect of increased soil temperature on net photosynthesis of white birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings grown under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. Tree Physiol. 2009;29:1341-8 pubmed publisher
    White birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh...
  2. Zaborsky N, Brunner M, Wallner M, Himly M, Karl T, Schwarzenbacher R, et al. Antigen aggregation decides the fate of the allergic immune response. J Immunol. 2010;184:725-35 pubmed publisher
    ..time the molecular background of hypoallergenicity by comparing the immunological behavior of hyperallergenic Betula verrucosa major Ag 1a (Bet v 1a) and hypoallergenic Bet v 1d, two isoforms of the major birch pollen allergen ..
  3. Weinbauer M, Stutz H. Successive multiple ionic polymer layer coated capillaries in the separation of proteins - recombinant allergen variants as a case study. Electrophoresis. 2010;31:1805-12 pubmed publisher
    ..sulfate (DS) layers was applied for the separation of recombinant products of the major birch pollen allergen Betula verrucosa (Bet v 1a). The combination with volatile ammonium bicarbonate buffer at pH 6...
  4. Zhang M, Dong J, Jin H, Sun L, Xu M. Ultraviolet-B-induced flavonoid accumulation in Betula pendula leaves is dependent upon nitrate reductase-mediated nitric oxide signaling. Tree Physiol. 2011;31:798-807 pubmed publisher
    ..the responses of nitrate reductase (NR) activity and the expression levels of NIA1 and NIA2 genes in leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) seedlings to UV-B irradiation...
  5. Wang Q, Qi I, Tian J, Zhou W, Ding H, Yu D, et al. [Effects of altitudinal gradient on water use efficiency of Betula ermanii on the northern slope of Changbai Mountains, northeast China]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2011;22:2227-32 pubmed
    Taking Betula ermanii forests distributed at the altitudes 1800-2050 m on the northern slope of Changbai Mountains as test objects, and using leaf carbon isotope content (813 C) as an indicator of B...
  6. Wang N, Thomson M, Bodles W, Crawford R, Hunt H, Featherstone A, et al. Genome sequence of dwarf birch (Betula nana) and cross-species RAD markers. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:3098-111 pubmed publisher
    ..allow development of genome-wide markers for any genus of ecological interest, including plant genera such as Betula (birch) that have previously proved difficult to study due to widespread polyploidy and hybridization...
  7. Qu G, Zheng T, Liu G, Wang W, Zang L, Liu H, et al. Overexpression of a MADS-box gene from birch (Betula platyphylla) promotes flowering and enhances chloroplast development in transgenic tobacco. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63398 pubmed publisher
    In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS), which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla)...
  8. Schwarzer M, Repa A, Daniel C, Schabussova I, Hrncir T, Pot B, et al. Neonatal colonization of mice with Lactobacillus plantarum producing the aeroallergen Bet v 1 biases towards Th1 and T-regulatory responses upon systemic sensitization. Allergy. 2011;66:368-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the effect of neonatal colonization with a recombinant LAB producing the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 in a murine model of type I allergy...
  9. Jermnak U, Yoshinari T, Sugiyama Y, Tsuyuki R, Nagasawa H, Sakuda S. Isolation of methyl syringate as a specific aflatoxin production inhibitor from the essential oil of Betula alba and aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of its related compounds. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012;153:339-44 pubmed publisher
    Methyl syringate was isolated from the essential oil of Betula alba as an aflatoxin production inhibitor. It inhibited aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus with IC(50) values of 0.9 and 0...
  10. Karle A, Oostingh G, Mutschlechner S, Ferreira F, Lackner P, Bohle B, et al. Nitration of the pollen allergen bet v 1.0101 enhances the presentation of bet v 1-derived peptides by HLA-DR on human dendritic cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31483 pubmed publisher
    ..allergens can occur by NO(2) and ozone in polluted air and it has already been shown that nitrated major birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1) exhibits an increased potency to trigger an immune response...
  11. Kofler S, Asam C, Eckhard U, Wallner M, Ferreira F, Brandstetter H. Crystallographically mapped ligand binding differs in high and low IgE binding isoforms of birch pollen allergen bet v 1. J Mol Biol. 2012;422:109-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The intermolecular interactions of Bet v 1 reveal an unexpected complexity that will be indispensable to fully understand its roles within the physiological and allergenic context...
  12. Oh S, Um J, Choi H, Im C, Kim K, Jung J, et al. Betula platyphylla attenuated mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Life Sci. 2012;91:20-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Betula platyphylla (B. platyphylla) has traditionally been used in Korea to treat inflammatory diseases. However, the exact mechanism that accounts for the anti-inflammatory effect of B. platyphylla is not completely understood...
  13. Schenk M, Cordewener J, America A, Van t Westende W, Smulders M, Gilissen L. Characterization of PR-10 genes from eight Betula species and detection of Bet v 1 isoforms in birch pollen. BMC Plant Biol. 2009;9:24 pubmed publisher
    Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula) have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown...
  14. Hoshika Y, Watanabe M, Inada N, Mao Q, Koike T. Photosynthetic response of early and late leaves of white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) grown under free-air ozone exposure. Environ Pollut. 2013;182:242-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Betula platyphylla var. japonica (white birch) has heterophyllous leaves (i.e., early and late leaves) and is a typical pioneer tree species in northern Japan...
  15. Vrtala S, Fohr M, Campana R, Baumgartner C, Valent P, Valenta R. Genetic engineering of trimers of hypoallergenic fragments of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, for allergy vaccination. Vaccine. 2011;29:2140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that the immunogenicity of allergy vaccines can be increased by oligomerization...
  16. Höiby A, Strand V, Robinson D, Sager A, Rak S. Efficacy, safety, and immunological effects of a 2-year immunotherapy with Depigoid birch pollen extract: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010;40:1062-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Rhinoconjunctivitis due to birch pollen sensitization is common in Northern Europe. A depigmented polymerized birch pollen extract - Depigoid has been developed for immunotherapy...
  17. Huynh B, Tual S, Turbelin C, Pelat C, Cecchi L, D Amato G, et al. Short-term effects of airborne pollens on asthma attacks as seen by general practitioners in the Greater Paris area, 2003-2007. Prim Care Respir J. 2010;19:254-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate for the first time the short-term effects of airborne pollen counts on general practitioner (GP) consultations for asthma attacks in the Greater Paris area between 2003-2007...
  18. Möbs C, Slotosch C, Loffler H, Jakob T, Hertl M, Pfutzner W. Birch pollen immunotherapy leads to differential induction of regulatory T cells and delayed helper T cell immune deviation. J Immunol. 2010;184:2194-203 pubmed publisher
  19. Novak N, Thaci D, Hoffmann M, Fölster Holst R, Biedermann T, Homey B, et al. Subcutaneous immunotherapy with a depigmented polymerized birch pollen extract--a new therapeutic option for patients with atopic dermatitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;155:252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the safety and efficacy of SIT with a depigmented polymerized birch pollen extract in AD patients...
  20. Osono T, Hirose D. Altitudinal distribution of microfungi associated with Betula ermanii leaf litter on Mt. Rishiri, northern Japan. Can J Microbiol. 2009;55:783-9 pubmed publisher
    The altitudinal distribution of microfungi associated with Betula ermanii Cham. leaf litter was investigated on Mt. Rishiri (1719 m), northern Japan...
  21. Zeng F, Qian J, Luo W, Zhan Y, Xin Y, Yang C. Stability of transgenes in long-term micropropagation of plants of transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla). Biotechnol Lett. 2010;32:151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of integration and expression level of transgenes in long-term micropropagation clones of transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) was examined...
  22. Nielsen D, Muilenburg V, Herms D. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Environ Entomol. 2011;40:648-53 pubmed publisher
    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp...
  23. Mauro M, Russello M, Incorvaia C, Gazzola G, Frati F, Moingeon P, et al. Birch-apple syndrome treated with birch pollen immunotherapy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;156:416-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a randomized study on patients with birch-apple syndrome to evaluate the outcome of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)...
  24. E Kovac Besović E, Durić K, Kalodera Z, Sofic E. Identification and isolation of pharmacologically active triterpenes in Betuale cortex, Betula pendula Roth., Betulaceae. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2009;9:31-8 pubmed
    Betulae cortex, Betula pendula Roth., Betulaceae, comprise triterpene substances which are confirmed to posses very important pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antiviral...
  25. Lintunen A, Kalliokoski T. The effect of tree architecture on conduit diameter and frequency from small distal roots to branch tips in Betula pendula, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris. Tree Physiol. 2010;30:1433-47 pubmed publisher
    We studied the effect of tree architecture on xylem anatomy in three Betula pendula Roth., three Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and three Pinus sylvestris (L.) trees (mean age 35 years)...
  26. Morales L, Tegelberg R, Brosché M, Keinänen M, Lindfors A, Aphalo P. Effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on gene expression and phenolic accumulation in Betula pendula leaves. Tree Physiol. 2010;30:923-34 pubmed publisher
    ..solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on the expression of flavonoid pathway genes and phenolic accumulation in leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) seedlings grown outdoors...
  27. Mutschlechner S, Egger M, Briza P, Wallner M, Lackner P, Karle A, et al. Naturally processed T cell-activating peptides of the major birch pollen allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:711-8, 718.e1-718.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Although antigen processing and presentation of allergens to CD4(+)T lymphocytes are key events in the pathophysiology of allergic disorders, they still remain poorly understood...
  28. Ishihara M, Kikuzawa K. Annual and spatial variation in shoot demography associated with masting in Betula grossa: comparison between mature trees and saplings. Ann Bot. 2009;104:1195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of masting on the temporal and spatial variations in shoot demography of mature Betula grossa.
  29. Erler A, Hawranek T, Krückemeier L, Asam C, Egger M, Ferreira F, et al. Proteomic profiling of birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen extracts from different origins. Proteomics. 2011;11:1486-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular characterization of pollen extracts is relevant for standardization and development of new reagents for specific immunotherapy...
  30. Puc M. Artificial neural network model of the relationship between Betula pollen and meteorological factors in Szczecin (Poland). Int J Biometeorol. 2012;56:395-401 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to create a forecast model that can accurately predict daily average concentrations of Betula sp. pollen grains in the atmosphere of Szczecin, Poland...
  31. Guo Y, Kang B, Li G, Wang D, Yang G, Wang D. [Species composition and point pattern analysis of standing trees in secondary Betula albosinensis forest in Xiaolongshan of west Qinling Mountains]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2011;22:2574-80 pubmed
    ..was conducted on the species composition and population diameter-class structure of a typical secondary Betula albo-sinensis forest in Xiaolongshan of west Qinling Mountains, and the spatial distribution pattern and ..
  32. Arbellay E, Stoffel M, Bollschweiler M. Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event. Tree Physiol. 2010;30:1290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moench and Betula pendula Roth to debris-flow-induced wounding...
  33. Schabussova I, Hufnagl K, Wild C, Nutten S, Zuercher A, Mercenier A, et al. Distinctive anti-allergy properties of two probiotic bacterial strains in a mouse model of allergic poly-sensitization. Vaccine. 2011;29:1981-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this is the first demonstration of anti-allergic effects of probiotic bacteria in poly-sensitized mice...
  34. Falxa Raymond N, Patterson A, Schuster W, Griffin K. Oak loss increases foliar nitrogen, ?(15)N and growth rates of Betula lenta in a northern temperate deciduous forest. Tree Physiol. 2012;32:1092-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we measured the changes in N use and growth rates of black birch trees (Betula lenta L.) following oak girdling at the Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA...
  35. Deslippe J, Simard S. Below-ground carbon transfer among Betula nana may increase with warming in Arctic tundra. New Phytol. 2011;192:689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that mycorrhizal networks exist in tundra, and facilitate below-ground transfer of C among Betula nana individuals, but not between or within the other tundra species examined...
  36. Gerstmayr M, Ilk N, Jahn Schmid B, Sleytr U, Bohle B. Natural self-assembly of allergen-S-layer fusion proteins is no prerequisite for reduced allergenicity and T cell stimulatory capacity. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;149:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5-2 microm. We were interested in finding out whether self-assembly was crucial for the immunological characteristics of allergen-S-layer fusion proteins...
  37. Carnes J, Himly M, Gallego M, Iraola V, Robinson D, Fernandez Caldas E, et al. Detection of allergen composition and in vivo immunogenicity of depigmented allergoids of Betula alba. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:426-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemical modification of allergen vaccines to reduce IgE binding improves safety while maintaining clinical efficacy. However, this also complicates the characterization of allergoids using techniques as for native allergen extracts...
  38. Huh J, Hong J, Baek Y, Lee J, Choi D, Park D. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effect of Betula platyphylla var. japonica in human interleukin-1?-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes and in experimental animal models. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;135:126-34 pubmed publisher
    Traditional medicine has widely been used Betula platyphylla var. japonica to treat various inflammatory diseases including arthritis.
  39. Vihervuori L, Pasonen H, Lyytikäinen Saarenmaa P. Density and composition of an insect population in a field trial of chitinase transgenic and wild-type silver birch (Betula pendula) clones. Environ Entomol. 2008;37:1582-91 pubmed
    Fifteen silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) lines carrying a sugar beet chitinase IV gene and eight wild-type birch clones were grown in a field trial...
  40. Kontunen Soppela S, Parviainen J, Ruhanen H, Brosché M, Keinänen M, Thakur R, et al. Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) to elevated CO2 and O3 during leaf maturation and senescence. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:959-68 pubmed publisher
    Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) leaves to elevated concentrations of CO(2) and O(3) were studied with microarray analyses from three time points during the summer of 2004 at Aspen FACE...
  41. Ogasa M, Miki N, Yoshikawa K. Changes of hydraulic conductivity during dehydration and rehydration in Quercus serrata Thunb. and Betula platyphylla var. japonica Hara: the effect of xylem structures. Tree Physiol. 2010;30:608-17 pubmed publisher
    ..and diffuse-porous Betula platyphylla var. japonica Hara. The Q...
  42. Geroldinger Simic M, Zelniker T, Aberer W, Ebner C, Egger C, Greiderer A, et al. Birch pollen-related food allergy: clinical aspects and the role of allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:616-22.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with birch pollen allergy often develop allergic reactions to plant foods...
  43. Watanabe Y, Satomura T, Sasa K, Funada R, Koike T. Differential anatomical responses to elevated CO2 in saplings of four hardwood species. Plant Cell Environ. 2010;33:1101-11 pubmed publisher
    ..tree species - two ring-porous (Quercus mongolica and Kalopanax septemlobus) and two diffuse-porous species (Betula maximowicziana and Acer mono) - grown for three growing seasons in a free-air CO(2) enrichment system...
  44. Nabity P, Hillstrom M, Lindroth R, DeLucia E. Elevated CO2 interacts with herbivory to alter chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf temperature in Betula papyrifera and Populus tremuloides. Oecologia. 2012;169:905-13 pubmed publisher
  45. Castellano Méndez M, Aira M, Iglesias I, Jato V, Gonzãlez Manteiga W. Artificial neural networks as a useful tool to predict the risk level of Betula pollen in the air. Int J Biometeorol. 2005;49:310-6 pubmed
    ..The symptoms of Betula pollinosis can be associated with certain levels of pollen in the air...
  46. Miller Rushing A, Primack R. Effects of winter temperatures on two birch (Betula) species. Tree Physiol. 2008;28:659-64 pubmed
    In Massachusetts, low winter temperatures delay the onset of flowering in black birch (Betula lenta L.), but not in gray birch (B. populifolia Marsh.)...
  47. Sofiev M, Siljamo P, Ranta H, Rantio Lehtimäki A. Towards numerical forecasting of long-range air transport of birch pollen: theoretical considerations and a feasibility study. Int J Biometeorol. 2006;50:392-402 pubmed
    ..Utilization of probability forecasting somewhat alleviated the problem, but the development of a European-wide flowering model remains the main obstacle for real-time forecasting of large-scale pollen distribution. ..
  48. Jahn Schmid B, Radakovics A, Lüttkopf D, Scheurer S, Vieths S, Ebner C, et al. Bet v 1142-156 is the dominant T-cell epitope of the major birch pollen allergen and important for cross-reactivity with Bet v 1-related food allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116:213-9 pubmed
    ..Thus T lymphocytes specific for Bet v 1 142-156 might be activated by various Bet v 1-related food allergens in vivo, even out of the pollen season. ..
  49. Ruonala R, Rinne P, Baghour M, Moritz T, Tuominen H, Kangasjärvi J. Transitions in the functioning of the shoot apical meristem in birch (Betula pendula) involve ethylene. Plant J. 2006;46:628-40 pubmed
    ..We have used transgenic ethylene-insensitive birches (Betula pendula), which express the Arabidopsis ethylene receptor gene ETR1 carrying the dominant mutation etr1-1, to ..
  50. Rodriguez Rajo F, Frenguelli G, Jato M. Effect of air temperature on forecasting the start of the Betula pollen season at two contrasting sites in the south of Europe (1995-2001). Int J Biometeorol. 2003;47:117-25 pubmed
    ..In order to identify the chilling and heat requirements to overcome the dormancy period of Betula in the south of Europe, a comparative study was carried out with aerobiological pollen data of a 7-year (1995-2001)..
  51. Riikonen J, Syrjälä L, Tulva I, Mänd P, Oksanen E, Poteri M, et al. Stomatal characteristics and infection biology of Pyrenopeziza betulicola in Betula pendula trees grown under elevated CO2 and O3. Environ Pollut. 2008;156:536-43 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant interactions between elevated CO(2) and O(3) were found. The infection biology of P. betulicola was not correlated with SD or g(s), but it did occasionally correlate positively with the length of the guard cells. ..
  52. Wagner A, Forster Waldl E, Garner Spitzer E, Schabussova I, Kundi M, Pollak A, et al. Immunoregulation by Toxoplasma gondii infection prevents allergic immune responses in mice. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:465-72 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii infection. Our data demonstrate that T. gondii exhibits strong immunomodulating properties which lead to prevention of allergic immune responses and thereby support the hygiene hypothesis...
  53. Morel M, Jacob C, Kohler A, Johansson T, Martin F, Chalot M, et al. Identification of genes differentially expressed in extraradical mycelium and ectomycorrhizal roots during Paxillus involutus-Betula pendula ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:382-91 pubmed
    ..in the ectomycorrhizal root tips (ECM) and the connected extraradical mycelium (EM) for the Paxillus involutus-Betula pendula ectomycorrhizal association grown on peat in a microcosm system...
  54. Strati S, Patiño S, Slidders C, Cundall E, Mencuccini M. Development and recovery from winter embolism in silver birch: seasonal patterns and relationships with the phenological cycle in oceanic Scotland. Tree Physiol. 2003;23:663-73 pubmed
    Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) is increasingly used in the United Kingdom for reforestation...
  55. Aerts R, van Logtestijn R, Karlsson P. Nitrogen supply differentially affects litter decomposition rates and nitrogen dynamics of sub-arctic bog species. Oecologia. 2006;146:652-8 pubmed
    ..The species were Empetrum nigrum (evergreen shrub), Eriophorum vaginatum (graminoid), Betula nana (deciduous shrub) and Rubus chamaemorus (perennial forb)...
  56. Palme A, Su Q, Rautenberg A, Manni F, Lascoux M. Postglacial recolonization and cpDNA variation of silver birch, Betula pendula. Mol Ecol. 2003;12:201-12 pubmed
    Chloroplast PCR-RFLP markers were used to reconstruct the history of the silver birch, Betula pendula Roth, in Europe since the last glacial maximum (LGM)...
  57. Schöll I, Kalkura N, Shedziankova Y, Bergmann A, Verdino P, Knittelfelder R, et al. Dimerization of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 is important for its in vivo IgE-cross-linking potential in mice. J Immunol. 2005;175:6645-50 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that the presentation of two identical epitopes by dimerized allergens is a precondition for cross-linking of IgE on mast cells and B lymphocytes. ..
  58. Hansen K, Khinchi M, Skov P, Bindslev Jensen C, Poulsen L, Malling H. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2004;48:441-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to apple should not be considered as a main criterion for selecting patients for birch pollen immunotherapy at present. ..
  59. Bohle B, Zwölfer B, Heratizadeh A, Jahn Schmid B, Antonia Y, Alter M, et al. Cooking birch pollen-related food: divergent consequences for IgE- and T cell-mediated reactivity in vitro and in vivo. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118:242-9 pubmed
    ..Symptom-free consumed pollen-related food allergens might cause T cell-mediated late-phase skin reactions in patients with pollen allergy and AD. ..
  60. Kim E, Lee H, Kim S, Choi M, Lee S, Han J, et al. The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;116:270-8 pubmed publisher
    The bark of Betula platyphylla Sukat. var. japonica Hara (Asian White Birch, AWB) is one of the herbs used in Eastern countries for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD)...
  61. Gallagher F, Pechmann I, Bogden J, Grabosky J, Weis P. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey. Environ Pollut. 2008;156:699-706 pubmed publisher
    ..0. Biomass production (calculated with RG-Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in ..
  62. Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Jairus T, Kõljalg U. Forest microsite effects on community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi on seedlings of Picea abies and Betula pendula. Environ Microbiol. 2008;10:1189-201 pubmed publisher
    ..the diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings in five most abundant microsites in three Estonian old-growth forests...
  63. Markovic Housley Z, Degano M, Lamba D, von Roepenack Lahaye E, Clemens S, Susani M, et al. Crystal structure of a hypoallergenic isoform of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and its likely biological function as a plant steroid carrier. J Mol Biol. 2003;325:123-33 pubmed
    ..The role of BRs transport in PR-10 proteins may be of crucial importance in the plant defense response to pathological situations as well as in growth and development. ..
  64. Winkler B, Hufnagl K, Spittler A, Ploder M, Kallay E, Vrtala S, et al. The role of Foxp3+ T cells in long-term efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic mucosal tolerance induction in mice. Allergy. 2006;61:173-80 pubmed
  65. Bollen M, Garcia A, Cordewener J, Wichers H, Helsper J, Savelkoul H, et al. Purification and characterization of natural Bet v 1 from birch pollen and related allergens from carrot and celery. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51:1527-36 pubmed
    ..The immune reactivity of the natural allergens was compared with recombinant proteins by Western blot and ELISA and showed similar reactivity. ..
  66. Kronsteiner B, Dullnig V, Stutz H. Validation of capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing separations optimized for the characterization of two recombinant products of the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1a. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:2539-49 pubmed publisher
    ..previously for a quality control of two recombinant products of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1a of Betula verrucosa, were validated including aspects of the International Conference on Harmonization...
  67. Vogel H, Pauling A, Vogel B. Numerical simulation of birch pollen dispersion with an operational weather forecast system. Int J Biometeorol. 2008;52:805-14 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison of the model results and very detailed pollen counts documents the current possibilities and the shortcomings of the method and gives hints for necessary improvements. ..
  68. Ranta H, Oksanen A, Hokkanen T, Bondestam K, Heino S. Masting by Betula-species; applying the resource budget model to north European data sets. Int J Biometeorol. 2005;49:146-51 pubmed
    ..whether a resource budget model created in Japan explains the fluctuations in the annual pollen sums of Betula-species in north European data sets (10-12 years at 4 sites, 20 years at 10 sites)...
  69. Wu Y, Liu Q, He H, Lin B, Yin H. [Effects of light and temperature on seed germination of Picea asperata and Betula albo-sinensis]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2004;15:2229-32 pubmed
    ..of different light and temperature conditions on seed germination of two keystone species (Picea asperata and Betula albo-sinensis) in subalpine coniferous forests were studied by simulating environmental conditions in climatic ..
  70. Huh J, Baek Y, Kim Y, Lee J, Choi D, Park D. Protective effects of butanol fraction from Betula platyphyla var. japonica on cartilage alterations in a rabbit collagenase-induced osteoarthritis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;123:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we determined the osteoarthritic efficacy and mechanism of butanol fraction from the bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (BFBP) in collagenase-induced rabbit model of osteoarthritis (CIA).
  71. Modrzynski M, Zawisza E, Rapiejko P, Przybylski G. [Specific-pollen immunotherapy in the treatment of oral allergy syndrome in patients with tree pollen hypersensitivity]. Przegl Lek. 2002;59:1007-10 pubmed
    ..Eight patients not submitted to SIT and followed up for 24-36 months were used as a control. Sixteen patients (59%) reported a significant reduction (37%) or a total disappearance (22%) of OAS symptoms after SIT...
  72. Pasonen H, Seppänen S, Degefu Y, Rytkonen A, von Weissenberg K, Pappinen A. Field performance of chitinase transgenic silver birches (Betula pendula): resistance to fungal diseases. Theor Appl Genet. 2004;109:562-70 pubmed
    ..This result indicates that the tested transformation may provide a tool for increasing the resistance of silver birch to birch rust...
  73. Eichelmann H, Oja V, Rasulov B, Padu E, Bichele I, Pettai H, et al. Development of leaf photosynthetic parameters in Betula pendula Roth leaves: correlations with photosystem I density. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2004;6:307-18 pubmed
    ..We investigated the development of foliar photosynthesis in the temperate deciduous tree Betula pendula Roth...
  74. Hildén L, Daniel G, Johansson G. Use of a fluorescence labelled, carbohydrate-binding module from Phanerochaete chrysosporium Cel7D for studying wood cell wall ultrastructure. Biotechnol Lett. 2003;25:553-8 pubmed
    ..The labelled CBM was successfully used as a probe for detecting cellulose in lignocellulose material such as never dried spruce and birch wood as well as pulp fibres...
  75. Thórsson A, Palsson S, Sigurgeirsson A, Anamthawat Jónsson K. Morphological variation among Betula nana (diploid), B. pubescens (tetraploid) and their triploid hybrids in Iceland. Ann Bot. 2007;99:1183-93 pubmed
    Introgressive hybridization between two co-existing Betula species in Iceland, diploid dwarf birch B. nana and tetraploid downy birch B. pubescens, has been well documented...
  76. Schaber J, Badeck F. Physiology-based phenology models for forest tree species in Germany. Int J Biometeorol. 2003;47:193-201 pubmed
    ..and Quercus robur), the photoperiod played a more dominant role than for early spring phases (bud burst of Betula pendula and Aesculus hippocastanum)...
  77. Gaucher C, Gougeon S, Mauffette Y, Messier C. Seasonal variation in biomass and carbohydrate partitioning of understory sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) seedlings. Tree Physiol. 2005;25:93-100 pubmed
    ..and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) seedlings growing in the understory of a partially harvested forest...
  78. Tsuda Y, Ide Y. Wide-range analysis of genetic structure of Betula maximowicziana, a long-lived pioneer tree species and noble hardwood in the cool temperate zone of Japan. Mol Ecol. 2005;14:3929-41 pubmed
    b>Betula maximowicziana is a long-lived pioneer tree species in Japanese cool temperate forests that plays an important role in maintenance of the forest ecosystem and has high economic value...
  79. Tiimonen H, Aronen T, Laakso T, Saranpää P, Chiang V, Ylioja T, et al. Does lignin modification affect feeding preference or growth performance of insect herbivores in transgenic silver birch (Betula pendula Roth)?. Planta. 2005;222:699-708 pubmed
    Transgenic silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) lines were produced in order to modify lignin biosynthesis...
  80. Bucher X, Pichler W, Dahinden C, Helbling A. Effect of tree pollen specific, subcutaneous immunotherapy on the oral allergy syndrome to apple and hazelnut. Allergy. 2004;59:1272-6 pubmed
    ..The efficacy of specific immunotherapy (SIT) in pollen allergy is well established. However, its effect on pollen associated food allergy particularly the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is not definitely ascertained...