colchicum

Summary

Summary: A genus of poisonous, liliaceous plants. The roots (corms) of Colchicum autumnale, the fall crocus or meadow saffron, yield COLCHICINE, which is used as a biochemical tool and to treat gout. Other members of this genus yield saffron dye, flavoring agents, and aromatics.

Top Publications

  1. Sannohe S, Makino Y, Kita T, Kuroda N, Shinozuka T. Colchicine poisoning resulting from accidental ingestion of meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale). J Forensic Sci. 2002;47:1391-6 pubmed
    ..Colchicine was detected in the bile with high-performance liquid chromatography/sonicspray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/SSI-MS)...
  2. Klintschar M, Beham Schmidt C, Radner H, Henning G, Roll P. Colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale): pathological and medicolegal aspects. Forensic Sci Int. 1999;106:191-200 pubmed
    Although intoxications with colchicine, the alkaloid of Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), are well known, in most cases the intoxications are evoked by oral or parenteral preparations traditionally used as medication against gout...
  3. Al Fayyad M, Alali F, Alkofahi A, Tell A. Determination of colchicine content in Colchicum hierosolymitanum and Colchicum tunicatum under cultivation. Nat Prod Lett. 2002;16:395-400 pubmed
    Corms of Colchicum hierosolymitanum and Colchicum tunicatum were collected, identified and planted under field condition. We report here and for the first time the presence of colchicine in an appreciable amount in both species...
  4. Danel V, Wiart J, Hardy G, Vincent F, Houdret N. Self-poisoning with Colchicum autumnale L. flowers. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2001;39:409-11 pubmed
    A 44-year-old man ingested about 40 flowers of Colchicum autumnale L. The patient presented with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain 2 hours after ingestion and had diarrhea 14 hours after ingestion...
  5. Brvar M, Kozelj G, Mozina M, Bunc M. Acute poisoning with autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale L.). Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2004;116:205-8 pubmed
    b>Colchicum autumnale, commonly known as the autumn crocus or meadow saffron, contains the antimitotic colchicine, which binds to tubulin and prevents it forming microtubules that are part of the cytoskeleton in all cells.
  6. Brvar M, Ploj T, Kozelj G, Mozina M, Noc M, Bunc M. Case report: fatal poisoning with Colchicum autumnale. Crit Care. 2004;8:R56-9 pubmed
    b>Colchicum autumnale, commonly known as the autumn crocus, contains alkaloid colchicine with antimitotic properties.
  7. Al Mahmoud M, Alali F, Tawaha K, Qasaymeh R. Phytochemical study and cytotoxicity evaluation of Colchicum stevenii Kunth (Colchicaceae): a Jordanian meadow saffron. Nat Prod Res. 2006;20:153-60 pubmed
    Isolation, characterization, and biological evaluation of active components of Colchicum stevenii Kunth (Colchicaceae) are described. Colchicum stevenii is an unexplored Jordanian specie with toxic reputation...
  8. Alali F, Tawaha K, El Elimat T. Determination of (-)-demecolcine and (-)-colchicine content in selected Jordanian Colchicum species. Pharmazie. 2007;62:739-42 pubmed
    In our continuing attempt to investigate Jordanian Colchicum species as a potential and viable source of colchicinoids; the distributions of the most interesting colchicinoid alkaloids (-)-demecolcine and (-)-colchicine in different ..
  9. Alali F, Tahboub Y, Al Daraysih I, El Elimat T. LC-MS and LC-PDA vs. phytochemical analysis of Colchicum brachyphyllum. Pharmazie. 2008;63:860-5 pubmed
    ..The dereplication strategy was applied to investigate the alkaloid rich fraction of Colchicum brachyphyllum Boiss. & Haussk. ex Boiss. (Colchicaceae) which has been previously analyzed phytochemically...

More Information

Publications67

  1. Brncic N, Viskovic I, Peric R, Dirlić A, Vitezic D, Cuculic D. Accidental plant poisoning with Colchicum autumnale: report of two cases. Croat Med J. 2001;42:673-5 pubmed
    ..We report two cases of plant poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, in which the patients had identical initial symptoms but developed extremely different clinical ..
  2. Nair V, Kumar R, Singh S, Gupta Y. Investigation into the anti-inflammatory and antigranuloma activity of Colchicum luteum Baker in experimental models. Inflammation. 2012;35:881-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoblot analysis for TNF-R1 also demonstrated a significant reduction in the receptor protein expression on stimulated macrophages. Result of the present study thus demonstrates and validates the antigranuloma activity of CLHE...
  3. Nair V, Singh S, Gupta Y. Evaluation of the disease modifying activity of Colchicum luteum Baker in experimental arthritis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133:303-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Colchicum luteum (CL) has been traditionally used in the Unani system of medicine as a chief ingredient of many polyherbal formulations for the treatment of joint pain and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
  4. Alali F, El Elimat T, Li C, Qandil A, Alkofahi A, Tawaha K, et al. New colchicinoids from a native Jordanian meadow saffron, colchicum brachyphyllum: isolation of the first naturally occurring dextrorotatory colchicinoid. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:173-8 pubmed
    As part of our continuing investigation of Jordanian Colchicum species, the biologically active components of Colchicum brachyphyllum were pursued...
  5. Shah S, Alweis R, Shah S, Arshad M, Manji A, Arfeen A, et al. Effects of colchicine on pericardial diseases: a review of the literature and current evidence. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect. 2016;6:31957 pubmed publisher
    Colchicine, extracted from the colchicum autumnale plant, used by the ancient Greeks more than 20 centuries ago, is one of the most ancient drugs still prescribed even today...
  6. Gründemann C, Diegel C, Sauer B, Garcia Käufer M, Huber R. Immunomodulatory effects of preparations from Anthroposophical Medicine for parenteral use. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:219 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Colchicum officinale tuber D3, Mandragora D3, Rosmarinus officinale 5% and Bryophyllum 5% were selected for the ..
  7. Cortinovis C, Caloni F. Alkaloid-Containing Plants Poisonous to Cattle and Horses in Europe. Toxins (Basel). 2015;7:5301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Cattle and horses are particularly at risk of poisoning by Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), Datura stramonium (jimson weed), Equisetum ..
  8. Kumar A, Singh B, Mahajan G, Sharma P, Bharate S, Mintoo M, et al. A novel colchicine-based microtubule inhibitor exhibits potent antitumor activity by inducing mitochondrial mediated apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:13121-13136 pubmed
    Colchicine, an antimitotic alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale, is a classical drug for treatment of gout and familial Mediterranean fever...
  9. Fiehn C. [A rare cause of severe panniculitis]. Z Rheumatol. 2017;76:166-169 pubmed publisher
    ..With the exception of mild COPD, the patient had no other typical clinical symptoms of AAT deficiency. Treatment with colchicum reduced the frequency and severity of the flares.
  10. Jaber A, Seraphin D, Guilet D, Osuga J, Cheble E, Ibrahim G, et al. Bithiophenic MALDI matrices as valuable leads for the selective detection of alkaloids. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2017;409:6791-6801 pubmed publisher
    ..PFPT3P), was tested on highly complex samples such as the crude extracts of Colchicum autumnale, RYTMOPASC ® solution (a herbal pharmaceutical containing sparteine and rubijervine), as well as ..
  11. Alkadi H, Khubeiz M, Jbeily R. Colchicine: A Review About Chemical Structure and Clinical Using. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Colchicine is an alkaloids extracted from the colchicum autumnale plant, and it contains a molecular formula C22H25NO6, and it consists of three rings...
  12. Spasevska I, Ayoub A, Winter P, Preto J, Wong G, Dumontet C, et al. Modeling the Colchicum autumnale Tubulin and a Comparison of Its Interaction with Colchicine to Human Tubulin. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..One of these compounds is colchicine, a plant alkaloid produced by Colchicum autumnale. While C...
  13. Kamphues J, Meyer H. [Meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale) in hay and colic in horses]. Tierarztl Prax. 1990;18:273-5 pubmed
    ..The hay was heavily contaminated by autumn crocus (colchicum autumnale)--about 1.48% of total mass...
  14. Kupper J, Rentsch K, Mittelholzer A, Artho R, Meyer S, Kupferschmidt H, et al. A fatal case of autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale) poisoning in a heifer: confirmation by mass-spectrometric colchicine detection. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:119-22 pubmed
    A heifer developed severe signs of acute gastrointestinal irritation 48 hr after ingesting fresh leaves of Colchicum autumnale growing on a damp meadow...
  15. Ahmad B, Khan H, Bashir S, Nisar M, Hassan M. Inhibition activities of Colchicum luteum baker on lipoxygenase and other enzymes. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2006;21:449-52 pubmed
    In vitro enzymes inhibition activities of the crude methanolic extract and various fractions of Colchicum luteum Baker (Liliaceae) including chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous were carried out against actylcholinesterase, ..
  16. Boonen A, Van De Putte L. Colchicum autumnale from Het Cruydtboeck by Rembertus Dodonaeus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61:492 pubmed
  17. Gharaibeh A, Al Serini A, Qasaymeh R, Ma aya h A, Tawaha K, El Elimat T, et al. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/visible photodiode array analysis of selected colchicum species. Z Naturforsch C. 2012;67:451-60 pubmed
    ..It aimed at quickly identifying Colchicum constituents using LC-MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy) and LC-UV/Vis PDA (liquid chromatography-..
  18. Bahrani S, Ghaedi M, Dashtian K, Ostovan A, Mansoorkhani M, Salehi A. MOF-5(Zn)-Fe2O4 nanocomposite based magnetic solid-phase microextraction followed by HPLC-UV for efficient enrichment of colchicine in root of colchicium extracts and plasma samples. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1067:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..13ngmL-1) and R2=0.9971. Finally, the UAD-MSPME-HPLC-UV method was successfully applied for determination of colchicine autumn and spring root of colchicium extracts and plasma samples...
  19. Gabrscek L, Lesnicar G, Krivec B, Voga G, Sibanc B, Blatnik J, et al. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004;42:85-8 pubmed
    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum)...
  20. Alali F, Gharaibeh A, Ghawanmeh A, Tawaha K, Oberlies N. Colchicinoids from Colchicum crocifolium Boiss.: a case study in dereplication strategies for (-)-colchicine and related analogues using LC-MS and LC-PDA techniques. Phytochem Anal. 2008;19:385-94 pubmed publisher
    As a part of a project designed to investigate Colchicum species in Jordan, the chemical constituents of Colchicum crocifolium Boiss. (Colchicaceae) were investigated using LC-MS and LC-UV/Vis PDA...
  21. Endo Y. [Acute colchicine poisoning by plant ingestions]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2007;20:283-7 pubmed
  22. Muzaffar A, Brossi A, Hamel E. Partial synthesis and antitubulin activity of minor colchicum alkaloids: N-acetoacetyl-deacetylcolchicine and 2-demethylspeciosine (speciocolchine). J Nat Prod. 1990;53:1021-4 pubmed
    Two minor Colchicum alkaloids, N-acetoacetyl-deacetylcolchicine [1] and 2-demethylspeciosine [7], were synthesized. The diacetate 8 of 2-demethylspeciosine was also prepared...
  23. Alali F, Gharaibeh A, Ghawanmeh A, Tawaha K, Qandil A, Burgess J, et al. Colchicinoids from Colchicum crocifolium Boiss. (Colchicaceae). Nat Prod Res. 2010;24:152-9 pubmed publisher
    A new colchicinoid from Colchicum crocifolium Boiss...
  24. Amrollahi Sharifabadi M, Seghatoleslami A, Amrollahi Sharifabadi M, Bayani F, Mirjalili M. Fatal colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of Colchicum persicum: a case report. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2013;34:295-8 pubmed publisher
    ..cause of death was disclosed after determination of colchicine in the plant and botanical identification as Colchicum persicum...
  25. Wollersen H, Erdmann F, Risse M, Dettmeyer R. Accidental fatal ingestion of colchicine-containing leaves--toxicological and histological findings. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2009;11 Suppl 1:S498-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The plants she had collected were identified as autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale)...
  26. Yamada M, Matsui T, Kobayashi Y, Furuoka H, Haritani M, Kobayashi M, et al. Supplementary report on experimental autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale L.) poisoning in cattle: morphological evidence of apoptosis. J Vet Med Sci. 1999;61:823-5 pubmed
    ..lymphocytes in the lymphoid and hemopoietic systems of cattle experimentally administered with autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale L.)...
  27. Alali F, Tawaha K, El Elimat T, Qasaymeh R, Li C, Burgess J, et al. Phytochemical studies and cytotoxicity evaluations of Colchicum tunicatum Feinbr and Colchicum hierosolymitanum Feinbr (Colchicaceae): two native Jordanian meadow saffrons. Nat Prod Res. 2006;20:558-66 pubmed
    As a part of our continuing investigation of Jordanian Colchicum species, the biologically active components of Colchicum hierosolymitanum Feinbr and Colchicum tunicatum Feinbr (Colchicaceae) were pursued...
  28. Basova N, Rozengart E, Suvorov A. Cholinergic activity of isoquinoline alkaloids from the showy autumn crocus (Colchicum speciosum Stev.). Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2006;406:27-31 pubmed
  29. Alali F, El Alali A, Tawaha K, El Elimat T. Seasonal variation of colchicine content in Colchicum brachyphyllum and Colchicum tunicatum (Colchicaceae). Nat Prod Res. 2006;20:1121-8 pubmed
    As part of our continuing investigation of Jordanian Colchicum species, (-)-colchicine content in C. brachyphyllum Boiss. & Haussk...
  30. Poutaraud A, Desbiez C, Lemaire O, Lecoq H, Herrbach E. Characterisation of a new potyvirus species infecting meadow saffron Colchicum autumnale). Arch Virol. 2004;149:1267-77 pubmed
    The alkaloids contained in Colchicum autumnale seeds are used in numerous medicines. Good quality seeds are difficult to obtain from this undomesticated plant. Therefore, a research program was set up aiming to cultivate C...
  31. Kotevoglu N, Sahin F, Ozkiris S, Bankaoglu M, Sakiz D, Kuran B. Protracted febrile myalgia of familial Mediterranean fever. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2004;22:S69-70 pubmed
    ..We report a 13-year-old girl with PFM, and discuss the magnetic resonance imaging findings of the involved calf muscles. To our knowledge these are the only images of the pathology in the literature...
  32. Fabre A. [The autumn crocus: two millenniums of actuality]. Hist Sci Med. 2005;39:143-54 pubmed
    b>Colchicum holds a singular place in the History of Medicine. Many names were given through the ages: "ephemera", "finger of Hermes", "pater noster", "tue-chiens"...
  33. Solak Y, Atalay H, Polat I, Biyik Z. Colchicine treatment in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: many points in common. Med Hypotheses. 2010;74:314-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Colchicine, originally extracted from Colchicum autunale, is an anti-inflammatory drug that has been in continuous use for more than 3000 years...
  34. Bemer V, Van Damme E, Peumans W, Perret R, Truffa Bachi P. Colchicum autumnale agglutinin activates all murine T-lymphocytes but does not induce the proliferation of all activated cells. Cell Immunol. 1996;172:60-9 pubmed
    ..different from the ones associated with the already known mitogens, we found that an agglutinin isolated from Colchicum autumnale tubers, Colchicum autumnale agglutinin (CAA), possesses interesting properties...
  35. Ellington E, Bastida J, Viladomat F, Codina C. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of colchicine and related alkaloids from seeds of Colchicum autumnale L. Phytochem Anal. 2003;14:164-9 pubmed
    A method for the extraction of the alkaloids colchicine, 3-demethylcolchicine and colchicoside from seeds of Colchicum autumnale by supercritical carbon dioxide has been established...
  36. Pandalis G. [Confusion of wild garlic/meadow saffron/lily of the valley. That is even beyond the lay person]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2003;145:14 pubmed
  37. Hamel E, Ho H, Kang G, Lin C. Cornigerine, a potent antimitotic Colchicum alkaloid of unusual structure. Interactions with tubulin. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988;37:2445-9 pubmed
    Cornigerine is a natural product analog of colchicine produced by Colchicum cornigerum in which the vicinal 2- and 3-methoxy groups are condensed into a methylenedioxy bridge...
  38. Charra B, Hachimi A, Arsalane H, Benslama A, Motaouakkil S. [Colchicum autumnale L. poisoning]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2007;26:1081-2 pubmed
  39. Sundov Z, Nincevic Z, Definis Gojanovic M, Glavina Durdov M, Jukic I, Hulina N, et al. Fatal colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron-case report. Forensic Sci Int. 2005;149:253-6 pubmed
    A 62-year-old male died of colchicine poisoning after accidental ingestion of Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron). He ate a salad of plant with green leaves regarded as wild garlic (Allium ursinum)...
  40. Rueffer M, Zenk M. Microsome-mediated transformation of O-methylandrocymbine to demecolcine and colchicine. FEBS Lett. 1998;438:111-3 pubmed
    Microsomal preparations from immature seeds of Colchicum autumnale L. catalyse the ring expansion reaction of O-methylandrocymbine to demecolcine in the presence of NADPH and O2...
  41. Yamada M, Nakagawa M, Haritani M, Kobayashi M, Furuoka H, Matsui T. Histopathological study of experimental acute poisoning of cattle by autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale L.). J Vet Med Sci. 1998;60:949-52 pubmed
    Crude or dehydrated bulbs of autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale L.) were fed to eleven calves. All the calves developed severe diarrhea and died or euthanized within 63 hr...
  42. Misaki A, Kakuta M, Meah Y, Goldstein I. Purification and characterization of the alpha-1,3-mannosylmannose-recognizing lectin of Crocus vernus bulbs. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:25455-61 pubmed
    ..The immobilized lectin may provide a useful tool for purification and analysis of biologically important polysaccharides and glycoproteins...
  43. Bhat A, Naguwa S, Cheema G, Gershwin M. Colchicine revisited. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1173:766-73 pubmed publisher
  44. Nagesh K, Menezes R, Rastogi P, Naik N, Rasquinha J, Senthilkumaran S, et al. Suicidal plant poisoning with Colchicum autumnale. J Forensic Leg Med. 2011;18:285-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Colchicum autumnale is commonly known as autumn crocus, and as 'gowri gedde' in the southern region of Karnataka State in South India. It contains an alkaloid called colchicine, which blocks the cell division by inhibiting mitosis...
  45. Ghatak C, Rao V, Pramanik R, Sarkar S, Sarkar N. Nanocavity effect on photophysical properties of colchicine: a proof by circular dichroism study and picosecond time-resolved analysis in various reverse micellar assemblies. J Phys Chem B. 2011;115:6644-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we have noticed that the B ring of the colchinoids also have a pronounced effect on the interaction nature as well as on conformational change of these compounds after entrapment...
  46. Pirildar S, Sütlüpinar N, Atasever B, Erdem Kuruca S, Papouskova B, Simanek V. Chemical constituents of the different parts of Colchicum baytopiorum and their cytotoxic activities on K562 and HL60 cell lines. Pharm Biol. 2010;48:32-9 pubmed publisher
    The plant chemistry and cytotoxic activity of Colchicum baytopiorum CD Brickell (Liliaceae/Colchicaceae), an endemic species growing in Turkey, has been studied for the first time...
  47. Ahmad B, Khan H, Bashir S, Ali M. Antimicrobial bioassay of Colchicum luteum Baker. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2006;21:765-9 pubmed
    The methanolic extract of the corms of Colchicum luteum Baker (Liliaceae) and its subsequent fractions in different solvent systems were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities...
  48. Boyer F, Hanna I. Synthesis of allocolchicines using sequential ring-closing enyne metathesis-Diels-Alder reactions. Org Lett. 2007;9:715-8 pubmed
    ..reaction: see text]...
  49. Rosengart E, Basova N, Suvorov A. [Comparative study of cholinergic activity of troponol and isoquinoline alkaloids]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2006;42:328-34 pubmed
  50. Yamada M, Kobayashi Y, Furuoka H, Matsui T. Comparison of enterotoxicity between autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale L.) and colchicine in the guinea pig and mouse : enterotoxicity in the guinea pig differs from that in the mouse. J Vet Med Sci. 2000;62:809-13 pubmed
  51. Rüstemoğlu A, Gul U, Gümüş Akay G, Gonul M, Yigit S, Bozkurt N, et al. MDR1 gene polymorphisms may be associated with Behçet's disease and its colchicum treatment response. Gene. 2012;505:333-9 pubmed publisher
    ..86-23.30) and T allele (p=0.009; OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.18-3.70) plays a substantial role in the colchicine response. Our study showed that MDR1 genes and their polymorphisms may affect a patient's BD susceptibility and colchicine response...
  52. Ebrahimzadeh M, Nabavi S, Nabavi S, Bahramian F, Bekhradnia A. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of H. officinalis L. var. angustifolius, V. odorata, B. hyrcana and C. speciosum. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2010;23:29-34 pubmed
    ..The content of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were measured in plant extracts. The data obtained in the in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potency of all extracts...
  53. Stedtler U. [Confusing the broad-leaf garlic plant and meadow saffron]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2003;145:16 pubmed
  54. Kumar A, Elitok S, Kettritz R. Colchicum ad nauseum. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18:2197-8 pubmed
  55. Poulev A, Deus Neumann B, Bombardelli E, Zenk M. Immunoassays for the quantitative determination of colchicine. Planta Med. 1994;60:77-83 pubmed
    ..The colchicine content in the newly established suspension culture of Colchicum variegatum as well as the influence of various culture media on the colchicine production of this cell culture ..
  56. Körner A, Kohn S. Development and optimization of a stability indicating method on a monolithic reversed-phase column for Colchicum dry extract. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1089:148-57 pubmed
    ..for separation of related alkaloids and degradation products from colchicine in dry extract preparations from Colchicum seeds...
  57. Alali F, Tawaha K, Qasaymeh R. Determination of colchicine in Colchicum steveni and C. hierosolymitanum (Colchicaceae): comparison between two analytical methods. Phytochem Anal. 2004;15:27-9 pubmed
    The amounts of colchicine present in two Jordanian species of Colchicum, namely, C. steveni Kunth and C. hierosolymitanum Feibrun (Colchicaceae), have been determined...
  58. Dyer S. Plant exposures: wilderness medicine. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2004;22:299-313, vii pubmed
    ..This article discusses poisonous plants, the symptoms that might arise if they are ingested, and the treatments that should be administered to patients...