crocus

Summary

Summary: A plant genus, in the IRIDACEAE family, known as a source of Saffron.

Top Publications

  1. Kanakis C, Tarantilis P, Tajmir Riahi H, Polissiou M. DNA interaction with saffron's secondary metabolites safranal, crocetin, and dimethylcrocetin. DNA Cell Biol. 2007;26:63-70 pubmed
    Saffron comes from the dried red stigmas of the Crocus sativus L. flower...
  2. Ahrazem O, Trapero A, Gómez M, Rubio Moraga A, Gomez Gomez L. Genomic analysis and gene structure of the plant carotenoid dioxygenase 4 family: a deeper study in Crocus sativus and its allies. Genomics. 2010;96:239-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the isolation and analysis of CCD4 genomic DNA regions in Crocus sativus...
  3. Karimi E, Oskoueian E, Hendra R, Jaafar H. Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. stigma phenolic and flavonoid compounds and its antioxidant activity. Molecules. 2010;15:6244-56 pubmed publisher
    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) belongs to the Iridaceae family. The stigma of saffron has been widely used as spice, medicinal plant, and food additive in the Mediterranean and Subtropical countries...
  4. Shamsa A, Hosseinzadeh H, Molaei M, Shakeri M, Rajabi O. Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on male erectile dysfunction: a pilot study. Phytomedicine. 2009;16:690-3 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) was studied on male erectile dysfunction (ED). Twenty male patients with ED were followed for ten days in which each morning they took a tablet containing 200mg of saffron...
  5. Samarghandian S, Borji A, Farahmand S, Afshari R, Davoodi S. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma aqueous extract induces apoptosis in alveolar human lung cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathways activation. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:417928 pubmed publisher
    ..The anticancer activity of the aqueous extract of saffron could be attributed partly to its inhibition of the cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathways activation. ..
  6. Akhondzadeh S, Shafiee Sabet M, Harirchian M, Togha M, Cheraghmakani H, Razeghi S, et al. A 22-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of Crocus sativus in the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;207:637-43 pubmed publisher
    There is increasing evidence to suggest the possible efficacy of Crocus sativus (saffron) in the management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of C...
  7. Kang C, Lee H, Jung E, Seyedian R, Jo M, Kim J, et al. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in muscle cells via multipathway mechanisms. Food Chem. 2012;135:2350-8 pubmed publisher
    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) has been an important subject of research in the past two decades because of its various biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic activities...
  8. Hosseinzadeh H, Sadeghnia H. Safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus (saffron), attenuated cerebral ischemia induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005;8:394-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated whether safranal, an active constituent of Crocus sativus L. stigmas, may ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI)-induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus...
  9. Boskabady M, Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Nemati H, Esmaeilzadeh M. Inhibitory effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on histamine (H1) receptors of guinea pig tracheal chains. Pharmazie. 2010;65:300-5 pubmed
    The inhibitory effects of aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), on histamine (H1) receptors was examined on tracheal chains of guinea pigs...

More Information

Publications97

  1. Hosseinzadeh H, Sadeghnia H, Ghaeni F, Motamedshariaty V, Mohajeri S. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its active constituent, crocin, on recognition and spatial memory after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Phytother Res. 2012;26:381-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that saffron extract and crocin improve spatial cognitive abilities following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and that these effects may be related to the antioxidant effects of these compounds. ..
  2. Noorbala A, Akhondzadeh S, Tahmacebi Pour N, Jamshidi A. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97:281-4 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to compare the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus (stigma) with fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression in a 6-week double-blind, ..
  3. Premkumar K, Thirunavukkarasu C, Abraham S, Santhiya S, Ramesh A. Protective effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract against genetic damage induced by anti-tumor agents in mice. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006;25:79-84 pubmed
    ..Since ancient times, saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.) has been used as a spice and medicinal herb...
  4. Premkumar K, Abraham S, Santhiya S, Gopinath P, Ramesh A. Inhibition of genotoxicity by saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in mice. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2001;24:421-8 pubmed
    Experiments were carried out to ascertain whether or not saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L...
  5. Saleem S, Ahmad M, Ahmad A, Yousuf S, Ansari M, Khan M, et al. Effect of Saffron (Crocus sativus) on neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in cerebral ischemia in rats. J Med Food. 2006;9:246-53 pubmed
    The modifying effects of Crocus sativus (CS) stigma extract on neurobehavioral activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase (..
  6. Sanchez A, Carmona M, Ordoudi S, Tsimidou M, Alonso G. Kinetics of individual crocetin ester degradation in aqueous extracts of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) upon thermal treatment in the dark. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:1627-37 pubmed publisher
  7. Carmona M, Zalacain A, Sanchez A, Novella J, Alonso G. Crocetin esters, picrocrocin and its related compounds present in Crocus sativus stigmas and Gardenia jasminoides fruits. Tentative identification of seven new compounds by LC-ESI-MS. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:973-9 pubmed
    Crocetin esters present in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigmas and in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit are the compounds responsible for their color...
  8. Gomez Gomez L, Rubio Moraga A, Ahrazem O. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pathogenesis-related protein CsPR10 from Crocus sativus. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2011;13:297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding the CsPR10 protein was identified in fresh saffron stigmas (Crocus sativus)...
  9. Moraga A, Nohales P, Pérez J, Gomez Gomez L. Glucosylation of the saffron apocarotenoid crocetin by a glucosyltransferase isolated from Crocus sativus stigmas. Planta. 2004;219:955-66 pubmed
    Saffron, the dry stigma of Crocus sativus L., is considered to be the world's most expensive spice. Three major apocarotenoids--crocin, crocetin and picrocrocin--are responsible for the colour and bitter taste of saffron...
  10. Schmidt M, Betti G, Hensel A. Saffron in phytotherapy: pharmacology and clinical uses. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2007;157:315-9 pubmed
    Saffron (stigmata of Crocus sativus L.) has been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Throughout history, uses against cancer and depressive mood can regularly be identified...
  11. Hosseinzadeh H, Talebzadeh F. Anticonvulsant evaluation of safranal and crocin from Crocus sativus in mice. Fitoterapia. 2005;76:722-4 pubmed
    The anticonvulsant activities of Crocus sativus stigma constituents, safranal and crocin, were evaluated in mice using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions in mice. Safranal (0.15 and 0.35 ml/kg, i.p...
  12. Giaccio M. Crocetin from saffron: an active component of an ancient spice. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2004;44:155-72 pubmed
    The known properties of saffron (Crocus sativus, L.) and its components have been examined. Recently, hormone like effects in green algae and the anti-cancerogenic and anti-toxic effects, have been observed...
  13. Agha Hosseini M, Kashani L, Aleyaseen A, Ghoreishi A, Rahmanpour H, Zarrinara A, et al. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trial. BJOG. 2008;115:515-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this double-blind and placebo-controlled trial was to investigate whether saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) could relieve symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
  14. Laabich A, Vissvesvaran G, Lieu K, Murata K, McGinn T, Manmoto C, et al. Protective effect of crocin against blue light- and white light-mediated photoreceptor cell death in bovine and primate retinal primary cell culture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:3156-63 pubmed
    ..The present study was performed to investigate the effect of crocin on blue light- and white light-induced rod and cone death in primary retinal cell cultures...
  15. Harpke D, Meng S, Rutten T, Kerndorff H, Blattner F. Phylogeny of Crocus (Iridaceae) based on one chloroplast and two nuclear loci: ancient hybridization and chromosome number evolution. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;66:617-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Crocus consists of about 100 species distributed from western Europe and northern Africa to western China, with the center of diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in Asia Minor...
  16. Rubio Moraga A, Trapero A, Ahrazem O, Gomez Gomez L. Crocins transport in Crocus sativus: the long road from a senescent stigma to a newborn corm. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:1506-13 pubmed publisher
    Saffron, the desiccated stigmas of Crocus sativus, is highly appreciated by its peculiar colour, flavour and aroma. The main compounds that accumulated throughout stigma development in C...
  17. Tokgun O, Akca H, Mammadov R, Aykurt C, Deniz G. Convolvulus galaticus, Crocus antalyensis, and Lilium candidum extracts show their antitumor activity through induction of p53-mediated apoptosis on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells. J Med Food. 2012;15:1000-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we first report that Convolvulus galaticus, Crocus antalyensis, and Lilium candidum species have cytotoxic activity on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells...
  18. Tavakkol Afshari J, Brook A, Mousavi S. Study of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of saffron extract in human cancer cell lines. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3443-7 pubmed publisher
    Saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.) has been used as a spice, food colorant and medicinal plant for millennia. In this study cytotoxic effect of saffron extract was evaluated in HepG2 and HeLa cell lines...
  19. Samarghandian S, Tavakkol Afshari J, Davoodi S. Suppression of pulmonary tumor promotion and induction of apoptosis by Crocus sativus L. extraction. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2011;164:238-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries...
  20. Maccarone R, Di Marco S, Bisti S. Saffron supplement maintains morphology and function after exposure to damaging light in mammalian retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:1254-61 pubmed publisher
    To test whether the saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) given as a dietary supplement counteracts the effects of continuous light exposure in the albino rat retina. Three experimental groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were used...
  21. Linardaki Z, Orkoula M, Kokkosis A, Lamari F, Margarity M. Investigation of the neuroprotective action of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in aluminum-exposed adult mice through behavioral and neurobiochemical assessment. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;52:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..AChE activity was further significantly decreased in cerebral tissues of Al+saffron group. The biochemical changes support the neuroprotective potential of saffron under toxicity...
  22. Feizzadeh B, Afshari J, Rakhshandeh H, Rahimi A, Brook A, Doosti H. Cytotoxic effect of saffron stigma aqueous extract on human transitional cell carcinoma and mouse fibroblast. Urol J. 2008;5:161-7 pubmed
    ..Saffron has been suggested to have inhibitory effects on tumoral cells. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of aqueous extract of saffron on human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and mouse non-neoplastic fibroblast cell lines...
  23. Ochiai T, Shimeno H, Mishima K, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M, Tanaka H, et al. Protective effects of carotenoids from saffron on neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1770:578-84 pubmed
    b>Crocus sativus L. (saffron) has been used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food preparations, and in Chinese traditional medicine as an anodyne or tranquilizer...
  24. Poma A, Fontecchio G, Carlucci G, Chichiricco G. Anti-inflammatory properties of drugs from saffron crocus. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2012;11:37-51 pubmed
    The medicinal uses of saffron (Crocus sativus Linnaeus) have a long history beginning in Asian countries since the Late Bronze Age. Recent studies have validated its potential to lower the risk of several diseases...
  25. Premkumar K, Abraham S, Santhiya S, Ramesh A. Protective effects of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on genotoxins-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Phytother Res. 2003;17:614-7 pubmed
    The modifying effects of the aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus Linn...
  26. Fatehi M, Rashidabady T, Fatehi Hassanabad Z. Effects of Crocus sativus petals' extract on rat blood pressure and on responses induced by electrical field stimulation in the rat isolated vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84:199-203 pubmed
    We have investigated the effects of Crocus sativus petals' extract on blood pressure in anaesthetised rats and also on responses of the isolated rat vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS)...
  27. Moraga A, Rambla J, Ahrazem O, Granell A, Gomez Gomez L. Metabolite and target transcript analyses during Crocus sativus stigma development. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:1009-16 pubmed publisher
    Saffron, the desiccated stigmas of Crocus sativus, is highly appreciated for its peculiar colour, flavour and aroma...
  28. Hosseinzadeh H, Sadeghnia H. Effect of safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus (saffron), on methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced DNA damage in mouse organs: an alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. DNA Cell Biol. 2007;26:841-6 pubmed
    The influence of safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus L...
  29. Moshiri E, Basti A, Noorbala A, Jamshidi A, Hesameddin Abbasi S, Akhondzadeh S. Crocus sativus L. (petal) in the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 2006;13:607-11 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to assess the efficacy of petal of Crocus sativus in the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression in a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled and ..
  30. Imenshahidi M, Hosseinzadeh H, Javadpour Y. Hypotensive effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and its constituents, safranal and crocin, in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Phytother Res. 2010;24:990-4 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the effects of saffron (Crocus sativus) stigma aqueous extract and two active constituents, crocin and safranal, were investigated on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate-induced hypertensive rats...
  31. Hosseinzadeh H, Ghenaati J. Evaluation of the antitussive effect of stigma and petals of saffron (Crocus sativus) and its components, safranal and crocin in guinea pigs. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:446-8 pubmed
    The antitussive activity of Crocus sativus stigma and petal extracts and its components, safranal and crocin, was evaluated using the nebolized solution of citric acid 20% in guinea pigs...
  32. Ghadrdoost B, Vafaei A, Rashidy Pour A, Hajisoltani R, Bandegi A, Motamedi F, et al. Protective effects of saffron extract and its active constituent crocin against oxidative stress and spatial learning and memory deficits induced by chronic stress in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;667:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the effects of Crocus sativus L...
  33. Ahrazem O, Rubio Moraga A, López R, Gomez Gomez L. The expression of a chromoplast-specific lycopene beta cyclase gene is involved in the high production of saffron's apocarotenoid precursors. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:105-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Crocus sativus is a triploid sterile plant characterized by its long red stigmas, which produce and store significant quantities of carotenoid derivatives formed from the oxidative cleavage of beta-carotene and zeaxanthin...
  34. Pitsikas N, Sakellaridis N. Crocus sativus L. extracts antagonize memory impairments in different behavioural tasks in the rat. Behav Brain Res. 2006;173:112-5 pubmed
    The effects of extracts of Crocus sativus L. (CSE), on memory were investigated in the rat by using the object recognition and the step-through passive avoidance task...
  35. Premkumar K, Abraham S, Santhiya S, Ramesh A. Inhibitory effects of aqueous crude extract of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on chemical-induced genotoxicity in mice. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12:474-6 pubmed
    Saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.), was evaluated in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test for its possible protective effects against chromosomal damage induced by cisplatin (CIS), mitomycin-C (MMC) and urethane (URE)...
  36. Falsini B, Piccardi M, Minnella A, Savastano C, Capoluongo E, Fadda A, et al. Influence of saffron supplementation on retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:6118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the functional effect of short-term supplementation of saffron, a spice containing the antioxidant carotenoids crocin and crocetin, in early age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
  37. Papandreou M, Kanakis C, Polissiou M, Efthimiopoulos S, Cordopatis P, Margarity M, et al. Inhibitory activity on amyloid-beta aggregation and antioxidant properties of Crocus sativus stigmas extract and its crocin constituents. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:8762-8 pubmed
    b>Crocus sativus stigmas are one of the widely known spices (saffron) and consist of unusually polar carotenoids. Alzheimer's disease is characterized pathologically by deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) fibrils...
  38. Hosseinzadeh H, Younesi H. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Crocus sativus L. stigma and petal extracts in mice. BMC Pharmacol. 2002;2:7 pubmed
    b>Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is used in folk medicine, for example as an antiedematogenic agent. We aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of saffron extracts in mice.
  39. Hosseinzadeh H, Abootorabi A, Sadeghnia H. Protective effect of Crocus sativus stigma extract and crocin (trans-crocin 4) on methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage in mice organs. DNA Cell Biol. 2008;27:657-64 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to examine the effect of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus stigmas (CSE) and crocin (trans-crocin 4) on methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced DNA damage in multiple mice organs using the comet assay...
  40. Chryssanthi D, Dedes P, Karamanos N, Cordopatis P, Lamari F. Crocetin inhibits invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases. Planta Med. 2011;77:146-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The above findings show that crocetin, the main metabolite of crocins, inhibits MDA-MB-231 cell invasiveness via downregulation of MMP expression...
  41. Shati A, Elsaid F, Hafez E. Biochemical and molecular aspects of aluminium chloride-induced neurotoxicity in mice and the protective role of Crocus sativus L. extraction and honey syrup. Neuroscience. 2011;175:66-74 pubmed publisher
  42. Trapero A, Ahrazem O, Rubio Moraga A, Jimeno M, Gomez M, Gomez Gomez L. Characterization of a glucosyltransferase enzyme involved in the formation of kaempferol and quercetin sophorosides in Crocus sativus. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:1335-54 pubmed publisher
    UGT707B1 is a new glucosyltransferase isolated from saffron (Crocus sativus) that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus of stigma and tepal cells...
  43. Hosseinzadeh H, Sadeghnia H, Ziaee T, Danaee A. Protective effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and crocin, its active constituent, on renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage in rats. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005;8:387-93 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L...
  44. Assimopoulou A, Sinakos Z, Papageorgiou V. Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. extract and its bioactive constituents. Phytother Res. 2005;19:997-1000 pubmed
    ..the DPPH radical scavenging activity of a natural product that possesses biological properties, an extract of Crocus sativus L...
  45. Abdullaev F, Espinosa Aguirre J. Biomedical properties of saffron and its potential use in cancer therapy and chemoprevention trials. Cancer Detect Prev. 2004;28:426-32 pubmed
    ..overview of experimental in vitro and in vivo investigations focused on the anticancer activity of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its principal ingredients...
  46. Rubio A, Rambla J, Santaella M, Gómez M, Orzaez D, Granell A, et al. Cytosolic and plastoglobule-targeted carotenoid dioxygenases from Crocus sativus are both involved in beta-ionone release. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:24816-25 pubmed publisher
    Saffron, the processed stigma of Crocus sativus, is characterized by the presence of several apocarotenoids that contribute to the color, flavor, and aroma of the spice...
  47. Modaghegh M, Shahabian M, Esmaeili H, Rajbai O, Hosseinzadeh H. Safety evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus) tablets in healthy volunteers. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:1032-7 pubmed publisher
    Saffron (Crocus sativus) stigma tablets were evaluated for short-term safety and tolerability in healthy adult volunteers. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled design consisting of a 1 week treatment of saffron tablets...
  48. Aung H, Wang C, Ni M, Fishbein A, Mehendale S, Xie J, et al. Crocin from Crocus sativus possesses significant anti-proliferation effects on human colorectal cancer cells. Exp Oncol. 2007;29:175-80 pubmed
    To investigate the anti-proliferative effects of Crocus sativus extract and its major constituent, crocin, on three colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116, SW-480, and HT-29)...
  49. Saffari B, Mohabatkar H, Mohsenzadeh S. T and B-cell epitopes prediction of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus) profilin by bioinformatics tools. Protein Pept Lett. 2008;15:280-5 pubmed
    ..We sought to map T and B-cell epitopes on the Iranian Crocus sativus profilin by bioinformatics tools. The predicted peptides are useful for further vaccine development.
  50. Gomez Gomez L, Trapero Mozos A, Gomez M, Rubio Moraga A, Ahrazem O. Identification and possible role of a MYB transcription factor from saffron (Crocus sativus). J Plant Physiol. 2012;169:509-15 pubmed publisher
    ..No MYB genes are described for saffron, the dried stigma of Crocus sativus, utilized as a colorant for foodstuffs...
  51. Sabatino L, Scordino M, Gargano M, Belligno A, Traulo P, Gagliano G. HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration. Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6:1873-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, the high dyeing power of turmeric allowed the determination of 2%, w/w, addition using exclusively the HPLC/PDA technique...
  52. Ghoshooni H, Daryaafzoon M, Sadeghi Gharjehdagi S, Zardooz H, Sahraei H, Tehrani S, et al. Saffron (Crocus sativus) ethanolic extract and its constituent, safranal, inhibits morphine-induced place preference in mice. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14:939-44 pubmed
    ..The same results were obtained when safranal (1, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was used. It may be concluded that both ethanolic saffron extract and safranal can inhibit the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced CPP in the mice...
  53. Pitsikas N, Boultadakis A, Georgiadou G, Tarantilis P, Sakellaridis N. Effects of the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocins, in an animal model of anxiety. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:1135-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Crocus sativus L. is a plant cultivated in various parts of the world. Crocins are among the active components of Crocus sativus L...
  54. Kanakis C, Tarantilis P, Pappas C, Bariyanga J, Tajmir Riahi H, Polissiou M. An overview of structural features of DNA and RNA complexes with saffron compounds: Models and antioxidant activity. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2009;95:204-12 pubmed publisher
    Saffron is the red dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. flowers and used both as a spice and as a drug in traditional medicine...
  55. Ordoudi S, Befani C, Nenadis N, Koliakos G, Tsimidou M. Further examination of antiradical properties of Crocus sativus stigmas extract rich in crocins. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:3080-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings point out that saffron extracts exhibit a remarkable intracellular antioxidant activity that cannot be revealed using assays repeatedly applied to the evaluation of phenolic-type antioxidants...
  56. Nemati H, Boskabady M, Ahmadzadef Vostakolaei H. Stimulatory effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on beta2-adrenoceptors of guinea pig tracheal chains. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:1038-45 pubmed publisher
    To study the mechanism(s) of the relaxant effects of Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), the stimulatory effect of aqueous-ethanolic extracts of this plant and one of its constituent, safranal was examined on beta-adrenoceptors in tracheal chains ..
  57. Hosseinzadeh H, Noraei N. Anxiolytic and hypnotic effect of Crocus sativus aqueous extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice. Phytother Res. 2009;23:768-74 pubmed publisher
    Saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L.) is used for insomnia and anxiety in traditional medicine. In this study, the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects of saffron aqueous extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, were studied in mice...
  58. Li C, Lee E, Wu T. Antityrosinase principles and constituents of the petals of Crocus sativus. J Nat Prod. 2004;67:437-40 pubmed
    ..together with 31 known compounds were isolated and identified from the methanol extract of the petals of saffron (Crocus sativus). Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods...
  59. Amin B, Hosseinzadeh H. Evaluation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of saffron, Crocus sativus L., and its constituents, safranal and crocin in allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:888-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that ethanolic and aqueous extracts of saffron as well as safranal could be useful in treatment of different kinds of neuropathic pains and as an adjuvant to conventional medicines...
  60. Bouvier F, Suire C, Mutterer J, Camara B. Oxidative remodeling of chromoplast carotenoids: identification of the carotenoid dioxygenase CsCCD and CsZCD genes involved in Crocus secondary metabolite biogenesis. Plant Cell. 2003;15:47-62 pubmed
    ..part responsible for the color, bitter taste, and aroma of saffron, which is obtained from the dried styles of Crocus. We have identified and functionally characterized the Crocus zeaxanthin 7,8(7',8')-cleavage dioxygenase gene (..
  61. Abdullaev F. Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2002;227:20-5 pubmed
    ..Saffron in filaments is the dried, dark red stigmata of Crocus sativus L. flowers and it is used as a spice, food colorant, and a drug in medicine...
  62. Zheng C, Li L, Zou J, Han T, Qin L. Identification of a quinazoline alkaloid produced by Penicillium vinaceum, an endophytic fungus from Crocus sativus. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Endophytic fungi are microorganisms living within the tissues of host plants, and have proven to be rich sources of biologically active secondary metabolites and therefore have attracted increasing attention in recent years...
  63. Reiter B, Sessitsch A. Bacterial endophytes of the wildflower Crocus albiflorus analyzed by characterization of isolates and by a cultivation-independent approach. Can J Microbiol. 2006;52:140-9 pubmed
    The presence and taxonomy of endophytic bacteria of the entire aerial parts of crocus (Crocus albiflorus), a wildflower native in the Alps, were investigated...
  64. Pitsikas N, Zisopoulou S, Tarantilis P, Kanakis C, Polissiou M, Sakellaridis N. Effects of the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocins on recognition and spatial rats' memory. Behav Brain Res. 2007;183:141-6 pubmed
    b>Crocus sativus L. is a plant cultivated in various parts of the world. Its involvement in learning and memory processes has been proposed. Crocins are water-soluble carotenoids and are among the active components of C. sativus L...
  65. Wang Y, Han T, Zhu Y, Zheng C, Ming Q, Rahman K, et al. Antidepressant properties of bioactive fractions from the extract of Crocus sativus L. J Nat Med. 2010;64:24-30 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant properties of stigmas and corms of Crocus sativus L. The aqueous ethanol extract of C. sativus corms was fractionated on the basis of polarity...
  66. Asdaq S, Inamdar M. Potential of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituent, crocin, as hypolipidemic and antioxidant in rats. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;162:358-72 pubmed publisher
  67. Che J, Tang L, Liu Y, He W, Chen F. [Molecular identity of Crocus sativus and its misused substitutes by ITS sequence]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:668-71 pubmed
    To find the patterns of the rDNA ITS sequence variation of Crocus sativus, Chrysanthemum chanetii, Nelumbo nucifera, Zea mays and Garthamus tinctorius and to establish the molecular biological method for the identification of C...
  68. Kalivas A, Pasentsis K, Polidoros A, Tsaftaris A. Heterotopic expression of B-class floral homeotic genes PISTILLATA/GLOBOSA supports a modified model for crocus (Crocus sativus L.) flower formation. DNA Seq. 2007;18:120-30 pubmed
    For uncovering and understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling flower development in cultivated Crocus sativus and particularly the transformation of sepals in outer whorl (whorl 1) tepals, we have cloned and characterized the ..
  69. Safarinejad M, Shafiei N, Safarinejad S. A prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on semen parameters and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Phytother Res. 2011;25:508-16 pubmed publisher
    ..If medical professionals want to prescribe herbal remedies for male infertility, previous rigorous scientific investigations, documenting their safety and efficacy are required...
  70. Amin A, Hamza A, Bajbouj K, Ashraf S, Daoud S. Saffron: a potential candidate for a novel anticancer drug against hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2011;54:857-67 pubmed publisher
  71. Ahrazem O, Rubio Moraga A, Trapero A, Gomez Gomez L. Developmental and stress regulation of gene expression for a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, CstNCED, isolated from Crocus sativus stigmas. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:681-94 pubmed publisher
    ..An NCED gene, CstNCED, was cloned from Crocus sativus stigmas...
  72. Castro Díaz N, Salaun B, Perret R, Sierro S, Romero J, Fernández J, et al. Saponins from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus are efficient adjuvants for protein-based vaccines. Vaccine. 2012;30:388-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here demonstrate the adjuvant properties of novel saponins derived from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus...
  73. Moraga A, Mozos A, Ahrazem O, Gomez Gomez L. Cloning and characterization of a glucosyltransferase from Crocus sativus stigmas involved in flavonoid glucosylation. BMC Plant Biol. 2009;9:109 pubmed publisher
    Flavonol glucosides constitute the second group of secondary metabolites that accumulate in Crocus sativus stigmas. To date there are no reports of functionally characterized flavonoid glucosyltransferases in C...
  74. Licón C, Carmona M, Molina A, Berruga M. Chemical, microbiological, textural, color, and sensory characteristics of pressed ewe milk cheeses with saffron (Crocus sativus L.) during ripening. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:4263-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This resulted in a slightly lower rate of pH decrease during pressing and, as a consequence, lower salt and water content. Compositional differences were not evident by the end of the ripening period...
  75. Seberg O, Petersen G. How many loci does it take to DNA barcode a crocus?. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4598 pubmed publisher
    ..Most tests have been made in a floristic setting, where the genetic distance and therefore the level of variation of the regions between taxa is large, or in a limited set of congeneric species...
  76. Chatterjee S, Poduval T, Tilak J, Devasagayam T. A modified, economic, sensitive method for measuring total antioxidant capacities of human plasma and natural compounds using Indian saffron (Crocus sativus). Clin Chim Acta. 2005;352:155-63 pubmed
    ..We describe a simple, fast and economical 'crocin assay' using the Indian spice saffron...
  77. Lundmark M, Hurry V, Lapointe L. Low temperature maximizes growth of Crocus vernus (L.) Hill via changes in carbon partitioning and corm development. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:2203-13 pubmed publisher
    In Crocus vernus, a spring bulbous species, prolonged growth at low temperatures results in the development of larger perennial organs and delayed foliar senescence...
  78. Abdullaev F. Crocus sativus against cancer. Arch Med Res. 2003;34:354 pubmed
  79. D Alessandro A, Mancini A, Lizzi A, De Simone A, Marroccella C, Gravina G, et al. Crocus sativus stigma extract and its major constituent crocin possess significant antiproliferative properties against human prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2013;65:930-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, these agents could potentially be used as a chemopreventive as well as a chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer management...
  80. Castillo R, Fernández J, Gomez Gomez L. Implications of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in apocarotenoid formation during the stigma development of Crocus sativus and its closer relatives. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:674-89 pubmed
    b>Crocus sativus is a triploid sterile plant characterized by its long red stigmas, which produce and store significant quantities of the apocarotenoids crocetin and crocin, formed from the oxidative cleavage of zeaxanthin...
  81. Hosseinzadeh H, Jahanian Z. Effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma and its constituents, crocin and safranal, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Phytother Res. 2010;24:726-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Crocus sativus L. has been shown to interact with the opioid system. Thus, the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stigma and its constituents were evaluated on morphine-withdrawal syndrome in mice...
  82. Boskabady M, Shafei M, Shakiba A, Sefidi H. Effect of aqueous-ethanol extract from Crocus sativus (saffron) on guinea-pig isolated heart. Phytother Res. 2008;22:330-4 pubmed
    In this study, the effects of an aqueous-ethanol extract from Crocus sativus on heart rate and contractility were examined. Isolated guinea-pig hearts were perfused through the aorta in a Langendorff mode...
  83. D Agostino N, Pizzichini D, Chiusano M, Giuliano G. An EST database from saffron stigmas. BMC Plant Biol. 2007;7:53 pubmed
    Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization...
  84. Hosseinzadeh H, Nassiri Asl M. Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review. Phytother Res. 2013;27:475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'...
  85. Sanchez A, Carmona M, Zalacain A, Carot J, Jabaloyes J, Alonso G. Rapid determination of crocetin esters and picrocrocin from saffron spice (Crocus sativus L.) using UV-visible spectrophotometry for quality control. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:3167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These models may enhance quality control in saffron enterprises...
  86. Das I, Das S, Saha T. Saffron suppresses oxidative stress in DMBA-induced skin carcinoma: A histopathological study. Acta Histochem. 2010;112:317-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, saffron inhibits DMBA-induced skin carcinoma in mice when treated early. This may be due, at least in part, to the induction of cellular defense systems...
  87. Byrami G, Boskabady M, Jalali S, Farkhondeh T. The effect of the extract of Crocus sativus on tracheal responsiveness and plasma levels of IL-4, IFN-?, total NO and nitrite in ovalbumin sensitized guinea-pigs. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;147:530-5 pubmed publisher
    ETHNOMEDICAL RELEVANCE: Anti-inflammatory, anti oxidant and effect of Crocus sativus (C. sativus) on Th1/Th2 balance were described previously.
  88. Bathaie S, Bolhasani A, Hoshyar R, Ranjbar B, Sabouni F, Moosavi Movahedi A. Interaction of saffron carotenoids as anticancer compounds with ctDNA, Oligo (dG.dC)15, and Oligo (dA.dT)15. DNA Cell Biol. 2007;26:533-40 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the results show that saffron and its carotenoids interact with DNA and induce some conformational changes in it. Of these carotenoids, the order of potential of interaction with DNA is crocetin > DMC > crocin...