mitragyna

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain antimalarial (ANTIMALARIALS) and analgesic (ANALGESICS) indole alkaloids.

Top Publications

  1. Adkins J, Boyer E, McCurdy C. Mitragyna speciosa, a psychoactive tree from Southeast Asia with opioid activity. Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11:1165-75 pubmed
    b>Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (Rubiaceae) is a tree that is commonly found in Southeast Asia. Leaves from this tree have been traditionally been used for both their stimulant properties as well as an opium substitute...
  2. Tapondjou L, Lontsi D, Sondengam B, Choudhary M, Park H, Choi J, et al. Structure-activity relationship of triterpenoids isolated from Mitragyna stipulosa on cytotoxicity. Arch Pharm Res. 2002;25:270-4 pubmed
    Chromatographic separation of the stem bark extract of Mitragyna stipulosa afforded triterpene derivatives ursolic acid (1), quinovic acid (2), quinivic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3, quinovin glycoside C), quinovic acid 3-O-[(2-O-..
  3. Fiot J, Baghdikian B, Boyer L, Mahiou V, Azas N, Gasquet M, et al. HPLC quantification of uncarine D and the anti-plasmodial activity of alkaloids from leaves of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze. Phytochem Anal. 2005;16:30-3 pubmed
    An efficient system for the analysis of the total alkaloids extracted from leaves of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae) by HPLC using a reversed-phase column is described...
  4. Kumarnsit E, Vongvatcharanon U, Keawpradub N, Intasaro P. Fos-like immunoreactivity in rat dorsal raphe nuclei induced by alkaloid extract of Mitragyna speciosa. Neurosci Lett. 2007;416:128-32 pubmed
    b>Mitragyna speciosa (MS) has been traditionally used for medicinal purposes especially in southern Thailand...
  5. Takayama H, Ishikawa H, Kitajima M, Aimi N, Aji B. A new 9-methoxyyohimbine-type indole alkaloid from Mitragyna africanus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004;52:359-61 pubmed
    A new yohimbine-type indole alkaloid (1). was isolated from the stem bark of Mitragyna africanus (WILLD...
  6. Shaik Mossadeq W, Sulaiman M, Tengku Mohamad T, Chiong H, Zakaria Z, Jabit M, et al. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Mitragyna speciosa Korth methanolic extract. Med Princ Pract. 2009;18:378-84 pubmed publisher
    To determine the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Mitragyna speciosa Korth methanol extract in rodents.
  7. Dongmo A, Kamanyi A, Dzikouk G, Nkeh B, Tan P, Nguelefack T, et al. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the stem bark extract of Mitragyna ciliata (Rubiaceae) Aubrév. & Pellegr. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84:17-21 pubmed
    b>Mitragyna ciliata is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hypertension, headache, rheumatism, gonorrhoea and broncho-pulmonary diseases...
  8. Kumarnsit E, Keawpradub N, Nuankaew W. Effect of Mitragyna speciosa aqueous extract on ethanol withdrawal symptoms in mice. Fitoterapia. 2007;78:182-5 pubmed
    Administration of the aqueous extract of Mitragyna speciosa at a dose of 300 mg/kg significantly inhibited ethanol withdrawal-induced behaviors that included rearing, displacement and head weaving...
  9. Parthasarathy S, Bin Azizi J, Ramanathan S, Ismail S, Sasidharan S, Said M, et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous, methanolic and alkaloid extracts from Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae family) leaves. Molecules. 2009;14:3964-74 pubmed publisher
    Studies on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Mitragyna speciosa leaf extracts are lacking. In this study the antioxidant properties of water, methanolic and alkaloid M...

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Azizi J, Ismail S, Mordi M, Ramanathan S, Said M, Mansor S. In vitro and in vivo effects of three different Mitragyna speciosa korth leaf extracts on phase II drug metabolizing enzymes--glutathione transferases (GSTs). Molecules. 2010;15:432-41 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we investigate the effects of three different Mitragyna speciosa extracts, namely methanolic, aqueous and total alkaloid extracts, on glutathione transferase-specific activity in male Sprague Dawley rat liver ..
  2. McWhirter L, Morris S. A case report of inpatient detoxification after kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence. Eur Addict Res. 2010;16:229-31 pubmed publisher
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes. It has reported analgesic, euphoric and antitussive effects via its action as an agonist at opioid receptors...
  3. Kong W, Chik Z, Ramachandra M, Subramaniam U, Aziddin R, Mohamed Z. Evaluation of the effects of Mitragyna speciosa alkaloid extract on cytochrome P450 enzymes using a high throughput assay. Molecules. 2011;16:7344-56 pubmed publisher
    The extract from Mitragyna speciosa has been widely used as an opium substitute, mainly due to its morphine-like pharmacological effects. This study investigated the effects of M...
  4. Matsumoto K, Hatori Y, Murayama T, Tashima K, Wongseripipatana S, Misawa K, et al. Involvement of mu-opioid receptors in antinociception and inhibition of gastrointestinal transit induced by 7-hydroxymitragynine, isolated from Thai herbal medicine Mitragyna speciosa. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;549:63-70 pubmed
    7-hydroxymitragynine, a constituent of the Thai herbal medicine Mitragyna speciosa, has been found to have a potent opioid antinociceptive effect...
  5. Sukrong S, Zhu S, Ruangrungsi N, Phadungcharoen T, Palanuvej C, Komatsu K. Molecular analysis of the genus Mitragyna existing in Thailand based on rDNA ITS sequences and its application to identify a narcotic species: Mitragyna speciosa. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:1284-8 pubmed
    In Thailand, there are four Mitragyna species; M. speciosa, M. hirsuta, M. diversifolia, and M. rotundifolia. One, M. speciosa, is a narcotic plant and has medicinal importance for its opium-like effect. Since the use of M...
  6. Asase A, Kokubun T, Grayer R, Kite G, Simmonds M, Oteng Yeboah A, et al. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants from Ghana: Cassia sieberiana, Haematostaphis barteri, Mitragyna inermis and Pseudocedrela kotschyi. Phytother Res. 2008;22:1013-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Leguminosae), Haematostaphis barteri Hook. f. (Anacardiaceae), Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae) and Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf...
  7. Chittrakarn S, Keawpradub N, Sawangjaroen K, Kansenalak S, Janchawee B. The neuromuscular blockade produced by pure alkaloid, mitragynine and methanol extract of kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.). J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;129:344-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of pure alkaloid, mitragynine and a methanolic extract of kratom leaves were investigated on neuromuscular junction and compound nerve action potential...
  8. Harizal S, Mansor S, Hasnan J, Tharakan J, Abdullah J. Acute toxicity study of the standardized methanolic extract of Mitragyna speciosa Korth in rodent. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;131:404-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) is widely used in Malaysia as a medicinal agent for treating diarrhea, worm infestations and also acts as an analgesic and antipyretic.
  9. Idayu N, Hidayat M, Moklas M, Sharida F, Raudzah A, Shamima A, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of mitragynine isolated from Mitragyna speciosa Korth in mice model of depression. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:402-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa Korth. leaves have been used for decades as a traditional medicine to treat diarrhea, diabetes and to improve blood circulation by natives of Malaysia, Thailand and other regions of Southeast Asia...
  10. Ahmad K, Aziz Z. Mitragyna speciosa use in the northern states of Malaysia: a cross-sectional study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:446-50 pubmed publisher
    The consumption of Mitragyna speciosa (MS) for its psychoactive effects is widely reported amongst people in the villages in Thailand and Malaysia even though its use is illegal.
  11. Kong W, Mohamed Z, Alshawsh M, Chik Z. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics and blood-brain barrier permeability of mitragynine using in vivo microdialysis technique. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017;143:43-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitragynine is an active alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa and has been proposed to be used for opioid withdrawal therapy...
  12. Matsunaga T, Morikawa Y, Kamase K, Horinouchi M, Sasajima Y, Suenami K, et al. Enhancement of Endothelial Barrier Permeability by Mitragynine. Biol Pharm Bull. 2017;40:1779-1783 pubmed publisher
    Persistent inhalation of mitragynine (MG), a major alkaloid in the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, causes various systemic adverse effects such as seizure, diarrhea and arthralgias, but its toxicity to endothelial cells and effects on ..
  13. Fatima N, Tapondjou L, Lontsi D, Sondengam B, Atta Ur Rahman -, Choudhary M. Quinovic acid glycosides from Mitragyna stipulosa--first examples of natural inhibitors of snake venom phosphodiesterase I. Nat Prod Lett. 2002;16:389-93 pubmed
    Phytochemical investigations on the non-alkaloidal extracts of Mitragyna stipulosa bark has led to the isolation of a series of triterpenoids mainly consisting of quinovic acid ([structure: see text]) and its glycoside derivatives [..
  14. Suhaimi F, Yusoff N, Hassan R, Mansor S, Navaratnam V, Müller C, et al. Neurobiology of Kratom and its main alkaloid mitragynine. Brain Res Bull. 2016;126:29-40 pubmed publisher
    Kratom or its main alkaloid, mitragynine is derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth which is indigenous to Southeast Asian countries...
  15. Cheng Z, Yu B, Yang X, Zhang J. [Triterpenoid saponins from bark Mitragyna inermis]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002;27:274-7 pubmed
    To study the constituents of Mitragyna inermis that have an anti-tumor activity on Bel-7402 of hepatic carcinoma...
  16. Cheaha D, Reakkamnuan C, Nukitram J, Chittrakarn S, Phukpattaranont P, Keawpradub N, et al. Effects of alkaloid-rich extract from Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal symptoms and local field potential in the nucleus accumbens of mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;208:129-137 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. (M. speciosa) is among the most well-known plants used in ethnic practice of Southeast Asia...
  17. White C. Pharmacologic and clinical assessment of kratom. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2018;75:261-267 pubmed publisher
    ..The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa contain the biologically active alkaloids of kratom...
  18. Tay Y, Teah Y, Chong Y, Jamil M, Kollert S, Adenan M, et al. Mitragynine and its potential blocking effects on specific cardiac potassium channels. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016;305:22-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa Korth is known for its euphoric properties and is frequently used for recreational purposes. Several poisoning and fatal cases involving mitragynine have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear...
  19. Brown P, Lund J, Murch S. A botanical, phytochemical and ethnomedicinal review of the genus Mitragyna korth: Implications for products sold as kratom. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;202:302-325 pubmed publisher
    The genus Mitragyna (Rubiacaeae) has been traditionally used in parts of Africa, Asia and Oceania...
  20. Nelsen J, Lapoint J, Hodgman M, Aldous K. Seizure and coma following Kratom (Mitragynina speciosa Korth) exposure. J Med Toxicol. 2010;6:424-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed mechanism for this reaction is unclear but suggested mechanisms include adenosine binding or stimulation of adrenergic and/or serotonergic receptors similar to tramadol. ..
  21. Yusoff N, Mansor S, Müller C, Hassan Z. Opioid receptors mediate the acquisition, but not the expression of mitragynine-induced conditioned place preference in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2017;332:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..is the main psychoactive ingredient of the herbal drug preparation Kratom (Ketum), derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa...
  22. Dongmo A, Kamanyi M, Tan P, Bopelet M, Vierling W, Wagner H. Vasodilating properties of the stem bark extract of Mitragyna ciliata in rats and guinea pigs. Phytother Res. 2004;18:36-9 pubmed
    b>Mitragyna ciliata is commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hypertension, headache, rheumatism, gonorrhoea and broncho-pulmonary diseases...
  23. Boyer E, Babu K, Macalino G, Compton W. Self-treatment of opioid withdrawal with a dietary supplement, Kratom. Am J Addict. 2007;16:352-6 pubmed
    We examined the use of Kratom (Mitragyna sp.), a dietary supplement with mu-opioid agonist activity, by members of a cybercommunity who self-treat chronic pain with opioid analgesics from Internet pharmacies...
  24. Kruegel A, Grundmann O. The medicinal chemistry and neuropharmacology of kratom: A preliminary discussion of a promising medicinal plant and analysis of its potential for abuse. Neuropharmacology. 2018;134:108-120 pubmed publisher
    The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (commonly known as kratom), a tree endogenous to parts of Southeast Asia, have been used traditionally for their stimulant, mood-elevating, and analgesic effects and have recently attracted significant ..
  25. Kapp F, Maurer H, Auwärter V, Winkelmann M, Hermanns Clausen M. Intrahepatic cholestasis following abuse of powdered kratom (Mitragyna speciosa). J Med Toxicol. 2011;7:227-31 pubmed publisher
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a common medical plant in Thailand and is known to contain mitragynine as the main alkaloid...
  26. Lesiak A, Musah R. Rapid High-throughput Species Identification of Botanical Material Using Direct Analysis in Real Time High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. J Vis Exp. 2016;: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the technique is demonstrated with two psychoactive plant products, Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) and Datura (Jimsonweed), which were subjected to direct analysis in real time-high resolution ..
  27. Vázquez López J, Schild L, Günther T, Schulz S, Neurath H, Becker A. The effects of kratom on restraint-stress-induced analgesia and its mechanisms of action. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;205:178-185 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa and its extracts are called kratom (dried leaves, extract). They contain several alkaloids with an affinity for different opioid receptors...
  28. Singh D, Müller C, Murugaiyah V, Hamid S, Vicknasingam B, Avery B, et al. Evaluating the hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) users in Malaysia. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;214:197-206 pubmed publisher
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) from the Rubiaceae family is an indigenous tropical medicinal tree of Southeast Asia...
  29. Domingo O, Roider G, Stöver A, Graw M, Musshoff F, Sachs H, et al. Mitragynine concentrations in two fatalities. Forensic Sci Int. 2017;271:e1-e7 pubmed publisher
    Two cases of fatalities are reported of which the recreational use of Mitragyna speciosa ("kratom") could be confirmed. One of these cases presents with one of the highest postmortem mitragynine concentrations published to date...
  30. Jeangkhwoa P, Bandhaya A, Umpunjun P, Chuenboonngarm N, Panvisavas N. Identification of Cannabis sativa L. using the 1-kbTHCA synthase-fluorescence in situ hybridization probe. Sci Justice. 2017;57:101-106 pubmed publisher
    ..e., Humulus lupulus, Mitragyna speciosa, Papaver sp., and Nicotiana tabacum...
  31. Sabetghadam A, Ramanathan S, Sasidharan S, Mansor S. Subchronic exposure to mitragynine, the principal alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;146:815-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa is a popular medicinal plant in Southeast Asia which is commonly used for its morphine-like effects...
  32. Martey O, Armah G, Okine L. Absence of organ specific toxicity in rats treated with Tonica, an aqueous herbal haematinic preparation. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2010;7:231-40 pubmed
    ..sub-chronic toxicity of Tonica, an aqueous herbal haematinic prepared from the stem barks of Khaya senegalensis, Mitragyna stipulosa and Kigelia africana, was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 28, 280 and 560 mg kg(-1) day(-1)..
  33. Prozialeck W, Jivan J, Andurkar S. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2012;112:792-9 pubmed
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Thailand and Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves produce complex stimulant and opioid-like analgesic effects...
  34. Charoonratanaa T, Wungsintaweekul J, Pathompak P, Georgiev M, Choi Y, Verpoorte R. Limitation of mitragynine biosynthesis in Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. through tryptamine availability. Z Naturforsch C. 2013;68:394-405 pubmed
    Metabolite profiles of Mitragyna speciosa were determined by means of 1H NMR-based and HPLC-based analyses...
  35. Bhardwaj M, Bharadwaj L, Trigunayat K, Trigunayat M. Insecticidal and wormicidal plants from Aravalli hill range of India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;136:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. is first time reported with ethnomedicinal claims (against insects and worms)...
  36. Pahaye D, Bum E, Taïwe G, Ngoupaye G, Sidiki N, Moto F, et al. Neuroprotective and Antiamnesic Effects of Mitragyna inermis Willd (Rubiaceae) on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice. Behav Neurol. 2017;2017:5952897 pubmed publisher
    i>Aim. To assess memory improvement and neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of Mitragyna inermis (M. inermis) leaf decoction on the central nervous system. Methodology. Leaf decoction of M...
  37. Kong W, Chik Z, Mohamed Z, Alshawsh M. Physicochemical Characterization of Mitragyna speciosa Alkaloid Extract and Mitragynine Using In Vitro High Throughput Assays. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Mitragynine, a major active alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, acts as an agonist on ?-opioid receptors, producing effects similar to morphine and other opioids. It has been traditionally utilized to alleviate opiate withdrawal symptoms...
  38. Cheng Z, Yu B, Yang X. 27-Nor-triterpenoid glycosides from Mitragyna inermis. Phytochemistry. 2002;61:379-82 pubmed
    From the bark of Mitragyna inermis, two 27-nor-triterpenoid glycosides, named inermiside I (1) and II (2), were isolated and their structures determined based on extensive 2D-NMR and MS spectral analysis as 6-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[..
  39. Ouédraogo S, Ralay Ranaivo H, Ndiaye M, Kaboré Z, Guissou I, Bucher B, et al. Cardiovascular properties of aqueous extract from Mitragyna inermis (wild). J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;93:345-50 pubmed
    Aqueous extracts of Mitragyna inermis (AEMI) used traditionally as antihypertensive agents produced a concentration-dependent (0...
  40. Philipp A, Wissenbach D, Weber A, Zapp J, Maurer H. Phase I and II metabolites of speciogynine, a diastereomer of the main Kratom alkaloid mitragynine, identified in rat and human urine by liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2010;45:1344-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai), a Thai medical plant, is misused as herbal drug of abuse...
  41. Sheleg S, Collins G. A coincidence of addiction to "Kratom" and severe primary hypothyroidism. J Addict Med. 2011;5:300-1 pubmed publisher
    Here we present a case of a coincidence of addiction to "Kratom" (botanically known as Mitragyna speciosa Korth) and developed severe primary hypothyroidism...
  42. Swogger M, Walsh Z. Kratom use and mental health: A systematic review. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018;183:134-140 pubmed publisher
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant native to Southeastern Asia that is receiving increased international attention as a potential therapeutic agent...
  43. Takayama H, Misawa K, Okada N, Ishikawa H, Kitajima M, Hatori Y, et al. New procedure to mask the 2,3-pi bond of the indole nucleus and its application to the preparation of potent opioid receptor agonists with a Corynanthe skeleton. Org Lett. 2006;8:5705-8 pubmed
    ..reaction: see text] ..
  44. Pandey R, Singh S, Gupta M. Heteroyohimbinoid type oxindole alkaloids from Mitragyna parvifolia. Phytochemistry. 2006;67:2164-9 pubmed
    The leaves of the plant Mitragyna parvifolia have afforded two alkaloids, 16,17-dihydro-17beta-hydroxy isomitraphylline (1) and 16, 17-dihydro-17beta-hydroxy mitraphylline (2), together with two known alkaloids, isomitraphylline (3) and ..
  45. Wungsintaweekul J, Choo Malee J, Charoonratana T, Keawpradub N. Methyl jasmonate and yeast extract stimulate mitragynine production in Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. shoot culture. Biotechnol Lett. 2012;34:1945-50 pubmed publisher
    Mitragynine is a pharmacologically-active terpenoid indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa leaves. Treatment with methyl jasmonate (10 ?M) for 24 h and yeast extract (0...
  46. Purintrapiban J, Keawpradub N, Kansenalak S, Chittrakarn S, Janchawee B, Sawangjaroen K. Study on glucose transport in muscle cells by extracts from Mitragyna speciosa (Korth) and mitragynine. Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:1379-87 pubmed publisher
    The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae) have been used in folk medicine for its unique medicinal properties. This study examined the water, methanolic and crude alkaloidal extracts from M...
  47. Kang W, Zhang B, Xu Q, Li L, Hao X. [Study on the chemical constituents of Mitragyna rotundifolia]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2006;29:557-60 pubmed
    ..compounds were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble and ButOH-soluble portions of the EtOH extract from the bark of Mitragyna rotundifolia...
  48. Lydecker A, Sharma A, McCurdy C, Avery B, Babu K, Boyer E. Suspected Adulteration of Commercial Kratom Products with 7-Hydroxymitragynine. J Med Toxicol. 2016;12:341-349 pubmed
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M...
  49. Fuenffinger N, Ritchie M, Ruth A, Gryniewicz Ruzicka C. "Evaluation of ion mobility spectrometry for the detection of mitragynine in kratom products". J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017;134:282-286 pubmed publisher
    ..spectrometry (IMS) method was developed for the rapid detection of mitragynine, the most abundant alkaloid in Mitragyna speciosa also known as kratom...
  50. Sinou V, Fiot J, Taudon N, Mosnier J, Martelloni M, Bun S, et al. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of Mitragyna inermis alkaloids in order to perform pharmacokinetic studies. J Sep Sci. 2010;33:1863-9 pubmed publisher
    In Africa, Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae) is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat malaria. Antimalarial activity is mostly due to the hydromethanolic extract of M...
  51. Manda V, Avula B, Dale O, Ali Z, Khan I, Walker L, et al. PXR mediated induction of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and P-gp by Mitragyna speciosa and its alkaloids. Phytother Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a native herb of Southeast Asia, is widely known for its psychoactive properties...
  52. Matsumoto K, Horie S, Takayama H, Ishikawa H, Aimi N, Ponglux D, et al. Antinociception, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms induced by 7-hydroxymitragynine, an alkaloid from the Thai medicinal herb Mitragyna speciosa. Life Sci. 2005;78:2-7 pubmed
    7-Hydroxymitragynine is a potent opioid analgesic alkaloid isolated from the Thai medicinal herb Mitragyna speciosa. In the present study, we investigated the opioid receptor subtype responsible for the analgesic effect of this compound...
  53. Orio L, Alexandru L, Cravotto G, Mantegna S, Barge A. UAE, MAE, SFE-CO2 and classical methods for the extraction of Mitragyna speciosa leaves. Ultrason Sonochem. 2012;19:591-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia, is well known for its psychoactive properties...
  54. Rosenbaum C, Carreiro S, Babu K. Here today, gone tomorrow…and back again? A review of herbal marijuana alternatives (K2, Spice), synthetic cathinones (bath salts), kratom, Salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines. J Med Toxicol. 2012;8:15-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Kratom, a plant product derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth, has opioid-like effects, and has been used for the treatment of chronic pain and amelioration of ..
  55. Saingam D, Assanangkornchai S, Geater A, Balthip Q. Pattern and consequences of krathom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) use among male villagers in southern Thailand: a qualitative study. Int J Drug Policy. 2013;24:351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Research regarding its effects and health impacts is scarce. This study explored the pattern of krathom use and users' perceptions of the consequences of its use...
  56. Warner M, Kaufman N, Grundmann O. The pharmacology and toxicology of kratom: from traditional herb to drug of abuse. Int J Legal Med. 2016;130:127-38 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae), commonly known as kratom, is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia...
  57. Pantano F, Tittarelli R, Mannocchi G, Zaami S, Ricci S, Giorgetti R, et al. Hepatotoxicity Induced by "the 3Ks": Kava, Kratom and Khat. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:580 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this review is to focus on the different patterns and the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity induced by "the 3Ks", while trying to clarify the numerous aspects that still need to be addressed. ..
  58. Sy G, Sarr A, Dieye A, Faye B. Myorelaxant and antispasmodic effects of the aqueous extract of Mitragyna inermis barks on Wistar rat ileum. Fitoterapia. 2004;75:447-50 pubmed
    b>Mitragyna inermis is used in the Senegal traditional medicine for treating stomach and intestinal disorders. At concentrations of 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg/ml, the aqueous extract of M...
  59. Horie S, Koyama F, Takayama H, Ishikawa H, Aimi N, Ponglux D, et al. Indole alkaloids of a Thai medicinal herb, Mitragyna speciosa, that has opioid agonistic effect in guinea-pig ileum. Planta Med. 2005;71:231-6 pubmed
    Recently, we found that mitragynine, a major constituent of Mitragyna speciosa, has an opioid agonistic activity, but its weak potency could not explain the opium-like effect of this plant...
  60. Vicknasingam B, Narayanan S, Beng G, Mansor S. The informal use of ketum (Mitragyna speciosa) for opioid withdrawal in the northern states of peninsular Malaysia and implications for drug substitution therapy. Int J Drug Policy. 2010;21:283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examines the reasons for ketum consumption in the northern areas of peninsular Malaysia where it is widely used...
  61. Apryani E, Hidayat M, Moklas M, Fakurazi S, Idayu N. Effects of mitragynine from Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves on working memory. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;129:357-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa Korth from Rubiaceae family is a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia particularly in Thailand, Peninsular of Malaysia and Indonesia...
  62. Chan K, Pakiam C, Rahim R. Psychoactive plant abuse: the identification of mitragynine in ketum and in ketum preparations. Bull Narc. 2005;57:249-56 pubmed
    ..In order to confirm that a substance is, in fact, ketum or that a preparation is derived from ketum, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is used to definitively identify the presence of the psychoactive principle mnitragynine...
  63. Philipp A, Wissenbach D, Weber A, Zapp J, Maurer H. Metabolism studies of the Kratom alkaloids mitraciliatine and isopaynantheine, diastereomers of the main alkaloids mitragynine and paynantheine, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011;879:1049-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai), native in Southeast Asia, is increasingly misused as a herbal drug of abuse...
  64. Azizi J, Ismail S, Mansor S. Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves extracts induced the CYP450 catalyzed aminopyrine-N-demethylase (APND) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) activities in male Sprague-Dawley rat livers. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2013;28:95-105 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa leaves have been abused by drug addicts as some of the alkaloids (mainly mitragynine) from the plant possess opiate and cocaine-like effects. These bring to its prohibition in Malaysia in 2004 as consumption of M...
  65. Mohamad Zuldin N, Said I, Mohd Noor N, Zainal Z, Jin Kiat C, Ismail I. Induction and analysis of the alkaloid mitragynine content of a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture system upon elicitation and precursor feeding. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:209434 pubmed publisher
    ..and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture...
  66. Kumarnsit E, Keawpradub N, Nuankaew W. Acute and long-term effects of alkaloid extract of Mitragyna speciosa on food and water intake and body weight in rats. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:339-45 pubmed
    Acute administration of Mitragyna speciosa (MS) extract (45 and 50 mg/kg) significantly resulted in dose-dependent decreases in food and water intakes (P<0.05) in rats...
  67. Maruyama T, Kawamura M, Kikura Hanajiri R, Takayama H, Goda Y. The botanical origin of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa; Rubiaceae) available as abused drugs in the Japanese markets. J Nat Med. 2009;63:340-4 pubmed publisher
    Kratom is the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae). Recently, kratom has been sold in street shops or on the Internet in Japan for the purpose of abuse due to its opium-like effects...
  68. Leon F, Habib E, Adkins J, Furr E, McCurdy C, Cutler S. Phytochemical characterization of the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa grown in U.S.A. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4:907-10 pubmed
    b>Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae) has traditionally been used in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and Indonesia as a substitute for opium. Indole alkaloids are the most common compounds that have been isolated...
  69. Utar Z, Majid M, Adenan M, Jamil M, Lan T. Mitragynine inhibits the COX-2 mRNA expression and prostaglandin E? production induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;136:75-82 pubmed publisher
    corrected] Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae) is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat various types of diseases especially in Thailand and Malaysia...
  70. Posch T, Muller A, Schulz W, Pütz M, Huhn C. Implementation of a design of experiments to study the influence of the background electrolyte on separation and detection in non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis. 2012;33:583-98 pubmed publisher
    ..With this optimization, alkaloid mixtures from a plant extract of Mitragyna speciosa, containing a large number of diastereomeric compounds were successfully separated.
  71. Hassan Z, Muzaimi M, Navaratnam V, Yusoff N, Suhaimi F, Vadivelu R, et al. From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: physiological and behavioural effects related to use, abuse, and addiction. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:138-51 pubmed publisher
    Kratom (or Ketum) is a psychoactive plant preparation used in Southeast Asia. It is derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth. Kratom as well as its main alkaloid, mitragynine, currently spreads around the world...
  72. Ulbricht C, Costa D, Dao J, Isaac R, Leblanc Y, Rhoades J, et al. An evidence-based systematic review of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Diet Suppl. 2013;10:152-70 pubmed publisher
    An evidence-based systematic review of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading ..
  73. Anwar M, Law R, Schier J. Notes from the Field: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exposures Reported to Poison Centers - United States, 2010-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65:748-9 pubmed publisher
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (1). It is typically brewed into a tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules (2)...
  74. Monjanel Mouterde S, Traore F, Gasquet M, Dodero F, Delmas F, Ikoli J, et al. Lack of toxicity of hydroethanolic extract from Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze by gavage in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;103:319-26 pubmed
    In traditional medicine in Mali, extracts derived from Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Family: Rubiaceae) are commonly used to treat malaria...
  75. Kang W, Shi Y, Hao X. [Quinovic acid triterpenoid saponins from bark of Mitragyna rotundifolia]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:2015-8 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents from the bark of Mitragyna rotundifolia.
  76. Chee J, Amirul A, Majid M, Mansor S. Factors influencing the release of Mitragyna speciosa crude extracts from biodegradable P(3HB-co-4HB). Int J Pharm. 2008;361:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The P(3HB-co-4HB) films containing Mitragyna speciosa crude extract were prepared with the ratio varying from 10 to 40% (w/w)...
  77. Maurer H. Chemistry, pharmacology, and metabolism of emerging drugs of abuse. Ther Drug Monit. 2010;32:544-9 pubmed publisher
    ..They have gained popularity and notoriety as rave drugs. The metabolic pathways, the involvement of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in the main pathways, and their roles in hepatic clearance are also summarized...
  78. Philipp A, Wissenbach D, Weber A, Zapp J, Maurer H. Metabolism studies of the Kratom alkaloid speciociliatine, a diastereomer of the main alkaloid mitragynine, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;399:2747-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is currently used as a drug of abuse. When monitoring its abuse in urine, several alkaloids and their metabolites must be considered...
  79. Le D, Goggin M, Janis G. Analysis of mitragynine and metabolites in human urine for detecting the use of the psychoactive plant kratom. J Anal Toxicol. 2012;36:616-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The validated method has been utilized for clinical and forensic analyses of urine for the detection of kratom use...
  80. Ogata J, Uchiyama N, Kikura Hanajiri R, Goda Y. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs. Forensic Sci Int. 2013;227:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa)...
  81. Parthasarathy S, Ramanathan S, Murugaiyah V, Hamdan M, Said M, Lai C, et al. A simple HPLC-DAD method for the detection and quantification of psychotropic mitragynine in Mitragyna speciosa (ketum) and its products for the application in forensic investigation. Forensic Sci Int. 2013;226:183-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitragyna speciosa, a native plant of Thailand and Malaysia known as 'ketum', is a plant of considerable interest. It exhibits strong antinociceptive effect and yet, acts like a psychostimulant...
  82. Trakulsrichai S, Tongpo A, Sriapha C, Wongvisawakorn S, Rittilert P, Kaojarern S, et al. Kratom abuse in Ramathibodi Poison Center, Thailand: a five-year experience. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2013;45:404-8 pubmed
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth), a native tree in Southeast Asia, is misused as an abuse drug and becomes legally widespread to several countries. Currently, it is available through the online market or by some shops...
  83. Scott T, Yeakel J, Logan B. Identification of mitragynine and O-desmethyltramadol in Kratom and legal high products sold online. Drug Test Anal. 2014;6:959-63 pubmed publisher
  84. Matsumoto K, Horie S, Ishikawa H, Takayama H, Aimi N, Ponglux D, et al. Antinociceptive effect of 7-hydroxymitragynine in mice: Discovery of an orally active opioid analgesic from the Thai medicinal herb Mitragyna speciosa. Life Sci. 2004;74:2143-55 pubmed
    Mitragynine is an indole alkaloid isolated from the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa. We previously reported the morphine-like action of mitragynine and its related compounds in the in vitro assays...
  85. Phongprueksapattana S, Putalun W, Keawpradub N, Wungsintaweekul J. Mitragyna speciosa: hairy root culture for triterpenoid production and high yield of mitragynine by regenerated plants. Z Naturforsch C. 2008;63:691-8 pubmed
    Hairy root cultures of Mitragyna speciosa were established by infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 and maintained in McCown woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 0.5 mg/1 naphthaleneacetic acid...
  86. Forrester M. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers. J Addict Dis. 2013;32:396-400 pubmed publisher
    ..The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home. ..
  87. Chittrakarn S, Sawangjaroen K, Prasettho S, Janchawee B, Keawpradub N. Inhibitory effects of kratom leaf extract (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) on the rat gastrointestinal tract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;116:173-8 pubmed publisher
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an indigenous plant of Thailand used traditionally in folk medicine although it is claimed to cause addiction...
  88. Boyer E, Babu K, Adkins J, McCurdy C, Halpern J. Self-treatment of opioid withdrawal using kratom (Mitragynia speciosa korth). Addiction. 2008;103:1048-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Kratom (Mitragynia speciosa korth) is recognized increasingly as a remedy for opioid withdrawal by individuals who self-treat chronic pain...
  89. Arndt T, Claussen U, Güssregen B, Schröfel S, Stürzer B, Werle A, et al. Kratom alkaloids and O-desmethyltramadol in urine of a "Krypton" herbal mixture consumer. Forensic Sci Int. 2011;208:47-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Literature search revealed that "Krypton" is said to contain "Kratom" (leaves of Mitragyna speciosa), but could also contain O-desmethyltramadol (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction ..
  90. Wetzel U, Boldt A, Lauschke J, Weigl J, Schirdewahn P, Dorszewski A, et al. Expression of connexins 40 and 43 in human left atrium in atrial fibrillation of different aetiologies. Heart. 2005;91:166-70 pubmed
    ..To test the hypothesis that atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with changes in the expression of connexins 40 and 43 in the left atrium with more pronounced changes in mitral valve disease than in lone AF...
  91. Philipp A, Wissenbach D, Zoerntlein S, Klein O, Kanogsunthornrat J, Maurer H. Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2009;44:1249-61 pubmed publisher
    Mitragynine (MG) is an indole alkaloid of the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) and reported to have opioid agonistic properties...
  92. Jamil M, Subki M, Lan T, Majid M, Adenan M. The effect of mitragynine on cAMP formation and mRNA expression of mu-opioid receptors mediated by chronic morphine treatment in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148:135-43 pubmed publisher
    corrected] Mitragynine is an indole alkaloid compound of Mitragyna speciosa (M. speciosa) Korth. (Rubiaceae)...