gardenia

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain genepin, from which geniposide is obtained for use as a crosslinking agent in ADHESIVES, and 3-caffeoyl-4-sinapoylquinic acid.

Top Publications

  1. Koo H, Lee S, Shin K, Kim B, Lim C, Park E. Geniposide, an anti-angiogenic compound from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides. Planta Med. 2004;70:467-9 pubmed
    The EtOH extract of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) fruits was previously found to possess potent anti-angiogenic activity in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay...
  2. Nagatoshi M, Terasaka K, Owaki M, Sota M, Inukai T, Nagatsu A, et al. UGT75L6 and UGT94E5 mediate sequential glucosylation of crocetin to crocin in Gardenia jasminoides. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:1055-61 pubmed publisher
    Crocin is an apocarotenoid glycosyl ester accumulating in fruits of Gardenia jasminoides and used as a food coloring and nutraceutical...
  3. Koo H, Song Y, Kim H, Lee Y, Hong S, Kim S, et al. Antiinflammatory effects of genipin, an active principle of gardenia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;495:201-8 pubmed
    ..In summary, we demonstrate that genipin possesses antiinflammatory and is a specific hydroxyl radical scavenger. Its antiangiogenic and NO production-inhibitory properties are also presented...
  4. Hatzilazarou S, Syros T, Yupsanis T, Bosabalidis A, Economou A. Peroxidases, lignin and anatomy during in vitro and ex vitro rooting of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) microshoots. J Plant Physiol. 2006;163:827-36 pubmed
    In vitro and ex vitro rooting of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) microshoots with or without indolic-3-butyric acid (IBA) was studied in order to improve acclimatization of microplants after root formation and transplantation...
  5. Peng C, Huang C, Hsu S, Wang C. Penta-acetyl geniposide-induced apoptosis involving transcription of NGF/p75 via MAPK-mediated AP-1 activation in C6 glioma cells. Toxicology. 2007;238:130-9 pubmed
    ..These results further highlight the potential therapeutic effects of (Ac)(5)GP in chemoprevention or as an anti-tumor agent...
  6. Ragasa C, Pimenta L, Rideout J. Iridoids from Gardenia jasminoides. Nat Prod Res. 2007;21:1078-84 pubmed
    The dichloromethane extract of the air-dried flowers of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. afforded a new iridoid natural product (1), and a diastereomeric mixture of two new iridoids (2a and 2b) in a 2 : 1 ratio...
  7. Kuratsune H, Umigai N, Takeno R, Kajimoto Y, Nakano T. Effect of crocetin from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis on sleep: a pilot study. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:840-3 pubmed publisher
    Crocetin is a pharmacologically active carotenoid compound of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis used as a traditional herbal medicine and natural colorant. The present pilot study investigated the effect of crocetin on sleep...
  8. Liu H, Chen Y, Li F, Zhang H. Fructus Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis) phytochemistry, pharmacology of cardiovascular, and safety with the perspective of new drugs development. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2013;15:94-110 pubmed publisher
    The phytochemistry, cardiovascular pharmacology, toxicology, side effect, and further development prospects of Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis (GJE) and its main constituents crocins and iridoid glycosides were studied...
  9. Lelono R, Tachibana S, Itoh K. Isolation of antifungal compounds from Gardenia jasminoides. Pak J Biol Sci. 2009;12:949-56 pubmed
    b>Gardenia jasminoides E. (Rubiaceae) methanol extracts showed the highest level of antifungal activity against Pleurotus ostreatus, a wood-rotting fungus, compared to five other methanol plants extracts; [Thuja orientalis L...

More Information

Publications134 found, 100 shown here

  1. Pudhom K, Nuanyai T, Matsubara K, Vilaivan T. Antiangiogenic activity of 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes from Thai Gardenia spp. and their semi-synthetic analogs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:512-7 pubmed publisher
    Twelve naturally occurring 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes (1-12) isolated from Gardenia sootepensis and Gardenia obtusifolia, and eight semi-synthetic derivatives (13-20) were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activity on a rat aortic ..
  2. Xiaofeng Y, Qinren C, Jingping H, Xiao C, Miaomiao W, Xiangru F, et al. Geniposide, an iridoid glucoside derived from Gardenia jasminoides, protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. Planta Med. 2012;78:557-64 pubmed publisher
    Geniposide, a main iridoid glucoside component of gardenia fruit, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, its potential use for acute lung injury (ALI) has not yet been studied...
  3. Park J, Lee J, Kim H, Hahn T, Paik Y. Isolation and characterization of water-soluble intermediates of blue pigments transformed from geniposide of Gardenia jasminoides. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:6511-4 pubmed
    b>Gardenia blue dye was obtained through the reaction of methylamine with genipin, the aglycone of geniposide isolated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides...
  4. Suksamrarn A, Tanachatchairatana T, Kanokmedhakul S. Antiplasmodial triterpenes from twigs of Gardenia saxatilis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88:275-7 pubmed
    Ten triterpenes (1-10) were isolated and identified from the twigs of Gardenia saxatilis (Rubiaceae) and were subjected to antiplasmodial evaluation against the parasite Plasmodium falciparum...
  5. Lee I, Lee J, Baek N, Kim D. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crocin isolated from the fructus of Gardenia jasminoides and its metabolite Crocetin. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28:2106-10 pubmed
    The pancreatic lipase inhibitors were isolated from the fructus of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS, and their antihyperlipidemic activities were measured. Gardeniae fructus (GF) water extract inhibited pancreatic lipase activity...
  6. Lee P, Lee J, Choi S, Lee S, Lee S, Son D. Geniposide from Gardenia jasminoides attenuates neuronal cell death in oxygen and glucose deprivation-exposed rat hippocampal slice culture. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:174-6 pubmed
    Geniposide from Gardenia jasminoides protected neuronal cells from damage in oxygen and glucose deprivation-exposed hippocampal slice culture...
  7. Chen Y, Zhang H, Li Y, Cai L, Huang J, Zhao C, et al. Crocin and geniposide profiles and radical scavenging activity of gardenia fruits (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) from different cultivars and at the various stages of maturation. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:269-73 pubmed publisher
    The major components of gardenia fruits are geniposide and water soluble pigment crocins. In this study, we investigate crocins and geniposide profiles of gardenia fruits from different cultivars and at the various stages of maturation...
  8. Carmona M, Zalacain A, Sanchez A, Novella J, Alonso G. Crocetin esters, picrocrocin and its related compounds present in Crocus sativus stigmas and Gardenia jasminoides fruits. Tentative identification of seven new compounds by LC-ESI-MS. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:973-9 pubmed
    Crocetin esters present in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigmas and in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit are the compounds responsible for their color...
  9. Grougnet R, Magiatis P, Mitaku S, Loizou S, Moutsatsou P, Terzis A, et al. seco-Cycloartane triterpenes from Gardenia aubryi. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:1711-4 pubmed
    ..1), secaubrytriol (2), and secaubryolide (3), were isolated from an exudate collected on the aerial parts of Gardenia aubryi, in addition to the known (24S)-cycloartane-24,25-diol-3-one, coccinetane A, herbacetin 3,8-dimethyl ether,..
  10. Zheng X, Yang D, Liu X, Wang N, Li B, Cao H, et al. Identification of a new anti-LPS agent, geniposide, from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, and its ability of direct binding and neutralization of lipopolysaccharide in vitro and in vivo. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:1209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The aqueous extract of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, traditionally used to treat inflammation in Asian countries for centuries, was further ..
  11. Kojima K, Shimada T, Nagareda Y, Watanabe M, Ishizaki J, Sai Y, et al. Preventive effect of geniposide on metabolic disease status in spontaneously obese type 2 diabetic mice and free fatty acid-treated HepG2 cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34:1613-8 pubmed
    ..Geniposide, which is iridoid glycoside from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS, is recognized as being useful against hyperlipidemia and fatty liver...
  12. Kim E, Jeong C, Moon A. Genipin, a constituent of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, induces apoptosis and inhibits invasion in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:567-72 pubmed publisher
    Genipin, a constituent of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, is used in the treatment of hepatic disorders and inflammatory diseases in traditional medicine...
  13. Wang X, Wu Y, Dai S, Chen R, Shao Y. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of geniposide from Gardenia jasminoides. Ultrason Sonochem. 2012;19:1155-9 pubmed publisher
    ..one of commonly-used traditional Chinese medicines, is derived from the ripe fruit of the evergreen shrub, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, and is an ingredient of many traditional Chinese preparations, and has numerous ..
  14. Lee J, Lee D, Jeong C. Gardenia jasminoides Ellis ethanol extract and its constituents reduce the risks of gastritis and reverse gastric lesions in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:1127-31 pubmed
    In this study we investigated the effects of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE) extract and its constituents, such as ursolic acid and genipin, on gastritis in rats and the growth of human gastric cancer cells...
  15. Nuanyai T, Sappapan R, Teerawatananond T, Muangsin N, Pudhom K. Cytotoxic 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes from Gardenia sootepensis. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:1161-4 pubmed publisher
    ..sootepins A-E (1-5), along with four known triterpenes (6-9), were isolated from the apical buds of Gardenia sootepensis...
  16. Phromnoi K, Reuter S, Sung B, Limtrakul P, Aggarwal B. A Dihydroxy-pentamethoxyflavone from Gardenia obtusifolia suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis of tumor cells through modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:3599-610 pubmed
    ..basis for the anticancer activities of 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone (DH-PMF), isolated from Gardenia obtusifolia traditionally used in Thailand for a variety of ailments...
  17. Nagatoshi M, Terasaka K, Nagatsu A, Mizukami H. Iridoid-specific glucosyltransferase from Gardenia jasminoides. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:32866-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We isolated a cDNA coding for UDP-glucose:iridoid glucosyltransferase (UGT85A24) from Gardenia jasminoides...
  18. Fu Y, Liu B, Liu J, Liu Z, Liang D, Li F, et al. Geniposide, from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, inhibits the inflammatory response in the primary mouse macrophages and mouse models. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;14:792-8 pubmed publisher
    Geniposide, a main iridoid glucoside component of gardenia fruit, has been known to exhibit antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic activities...
  19. Pudhom K, Nuanyai T, Matsubara K. Cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic properties of minor 3,4-seco-cycloartanes from Gardenia sootepensis exudate. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2012;60:1538-43 pubmed
    b>Gardenia plants have long been used as traditional medicines in various countries including Thailand. In this study, two new 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes, sootependial (1) and sootepenoic acid (2), were isolated from bud exudate of G...
  20. Koo H, Lim K, Jung H, Park E. Anti-inflammatory evaluation of gardenia extract, geniposide and genipin. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;103:496-500 pubmed
    b>Gardenia fruit has been traditionally used as a folk medicine for centuries in Asian countries...
  21. Chang W, Wang H, Shi L, Lai J, Lin H. Immunosuppressive iridoids from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:1683-5 pubmed
    ..known compounds including nine iridoids and a second safranal-type monoterpene, were isolated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides. The structures of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence...
  22. Jung W, Chae Y, Kim D, Seo S, Park H, Bae G, et al. Gardenia jasminoides protects against cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:6188-94 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of Gardenia jasminoides (GJ) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in mice.
  23. Giménez P, Fernández López J, Angosto J, Obón J. Comparative Thermal Degradation Patterns of Natural Yellow Colorants Used in Foods. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2015;70:380-7 pubmed publisher
    ..thermal stabilities of six natural yellow colorants used in foods--lutein, riboflavin, curcumin, ß-carotene, gardenia yellow and Opuntia betaxanthins--were studied in simple solutions over a temperature range 30-90 °C...
  24. Verschaeve L, Kestens V, Taylor J, Elgorashi E, Maes A, Van Puyvelde L, et al. Investigation of the antimutagenic effects of selected South African medicinal plant extracts. Toxicol In Vitro. 2004;18:29-35 pubmed
    Dichloromethane extracts from different parts of Rhamnus prinoides, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Gardenia volkensii, Spirostachys africana, Diospyros whyteana, Syzigium cordatum and Prunus africana were investigated for mutagenic and ..
  25. Wang K, Jin R, Chen C. [Comparative study on hepatic toxicity of gardeniae fructus and Huanglian Jiedu decoction]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2013;38:2365-9 pubmed
  26. Shimizu S, Kobayashi T, Tomioka H, Ohtsu K, Matsui T, Hibi T. Involvement of herbal medicine as a cause of mesenteric phlebosclerosis: results from a large-scale nationwide survey. J Gastroenterol. 2017;52:308-314 pubmed publisher
    ..0 %) used herbal medicines. The use of herbal medicines containing sanshishi (gardenia fruit, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) was reported in 119 out of 147 patients (81.0 %)...
  27. Zhu J, Gao X, Xie W, Jin Y, Sun W. [Effect of geniposide on serum IL-1beta and TNF-alpha of rheumatoid arthritis rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:708-11 pubmed
    ..01). Geniposide can lower serum IL-1beta and TNF-alpha levels in rheumatoid arthritis rats. The effect may be close related to inhibitory development of rheumatoid arthritis by the agent. ..
  28. Hwang K, Choi H, Kim D, Hwang S. The effect of hydrolyzed gardeniae fructus extract hydrogel on the treatment of ecchymoses in a rat model. Dermatol Surg. 2009;35:1525-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study showed that hydrolyzed gel of GF extract, containing genipin, was effective for the treatment of ecchymoses in a rat model. ..
  29. Chang Y, Tseng T, Lee M, Hsu J, Wang C. Induction of apoptosis by penta-acetyl geniposide in rat C6 glioma cells. Chem Biol Interact. 2002;141:243-57 pubmed
    Penta-acetyl geniposide, (Ac)(5)-GP, was produced by acetylation of a glycoside, isolated from an extract of Gardenia fructus...
  30. Oh P, Lim K. Plant originated glycoprotein has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mouse. J Biomed Sci. 2006;13:549-60 pubmed
    We investigated the preventive effect of glycoprotein (27 kDa) isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE) fruits on colitis in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 3%)-induced A/J mice which were administrated orally for 7 days...
  31. Winotapun W, Opanasopit P, Ngawhirunpat T, Rojanarata T. One-enzyme catalyzed simultaneous plant cell disruption and conversion of released glycoside to aglycone combined with in situ product separation as green one-pot production of genipin from gardenia fruit. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2013;53:92-6 pubmed publisher
    A direct one-pot production of genipin, an iridoid aglycone, from crude gardenia fruit was developed...
  32. Shareef M, Yellu N, Achanta V. Neuropharmacological screening of essential oil from oleo gum resin of Gardenia lucida Roxb. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;149:621-5 pubmed publisher
    The oleo gum resin of Gardenia lucida is commonly employed in traditional medicine to treat multiple ailments, including epilepsy and mania...
  33. Bao L, Zhu X, Dai H, Tao Y, Zhou X, Liu W, et al. Synthesis of porous starch xerogels modified with mercaptosuccinic acid to remove hazardous gardenia yellow. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;89:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The PSX/MSA were then used as the adsorbents to remove gardenia yellow (GY), a natural colorant with genotoxicity...
  34. Juma B, Majinda R. Constituents of Gardenia volkensii: their brine shrimp lethality and DPPH radical scavenging properties. Nat Prod Res. 2007;21:121-5 pubmed
    The seeds and the pulp of Gardenia volkensii yielded one new iridiod, namely 4-(2N-gardenamide)n-butanoic acid, together with the known iridoids genipin and genipin gentiobioside, the pterocarpin medicarpin, coumarins, phenylpropanoids, ..
  35. Hou Y, Tsai S, Lai P, Chen Y, Chao P. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of genipin and geniposide in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:2764-9 pubmed publisher
    Geniposide, an iridoid glucoside, is a major constituent in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides (Gardenia fruits), a popular Chinese herb...
  36. Nagata Y, Watanabe T, Nagasaka K, Yamada M, Murai M, Takeuchi S, et al. Total dosage of gardenia fruit used by patients with mesenteric phlebosclerosis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:207 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, there has been an increase in case reports of MP related to herbal medicine usage. Long-term intake of gardenia fruit (GF) is suspected as a possible cause...
  37. Mase A, Makino B, Tsuchiya N, Yamamoto M, Kase Y, Takeda S, et al. Active ingredients of traditional Japanese (kampo) medicine, inchinkoto, in murine concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127:742-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the active ingredients of ICKT...
  38. Mai H, Grellier P, Prost E, Lemoine P, Poullain C, Dumontet V, et al. Triterpenes from the exudate of Gardenia urvillei. Phytochemistry. 2016;122:193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..known cycloartanes and 3,4-seco-cycloartanes and four known dammaranes have been isolated from the bud exudate of Gardenia urvillei, an endemic tree to the New Caledonian dry forest...
  39. Wu Y, Chuang S, Hong W, Lai Y, Chang Y, Pang J. In vivo and in vitro inhibitory effects of a traditional Chinese formulation on LPS-stimulated leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and VCAM-1 gene expression. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;140:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibition of NF-kappa B activation by HLJDT might suggest a profound anti-inflammatory consequences. ..
  40. Chae S, Park S, Park J, Lee K, Park G. Gardenia jasminoides extract-capped gold nanoparticles reverse hydrogen peroxide-induced premature senescence. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2016;164:204-211 pubmed publisher
    This study reports a green approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Gardenia jasminoides extract, and specifically, can potentially enhance anti senescence activity...
  41. Xu G, Zhang Y, Ding Q. Efficacy of Prostant on chronic prostatitis in 119 patients. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2003;24:615-8 pubmed
    ..05). Only 2 cases (1.7 %) reported serious diarrhea. The Prostant is effective and safe in the treatment of chronic prostatitis, especially on those cases whose symptom and inflammation in prostatic fluid are not too serious. ..
  42. Park E, Joo M, Kim S, Lim C. Antiangiogenic activity of Gardenia jasminoides fruit. Phytother Res. 2003;17:961-2 pubmed
    The ethanol extract of gardenia fruit (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis), a Chinese herbal medicine, and its successive hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activities using a chick ..
  43. Zhou T, Zhao W, Fan G, Chai Y, Wu Y. Isolation and purification of iridoid glycosides from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis by isocratic reversed-phase two-dimensional preparative high-performance liquid chromatography with column switch technology. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007;858:296-301 pubmed
    ..scandoside methyl ester, deacetyl-asperulosidic acid methyl ester and genipin-1-beta-D-gentiobioside from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, a plant used in the traditional Chinese medicine...
  44. Zhou M, Zhuo J, Wei W, Zhu J, Ling X. Simple and effective large-scale preparation of geniposide from fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis using a liquid-liquid two-phase extraction. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:1558-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The aqueous residue from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis was treated with sodium carbonate and extracted with n-butanol several times...
  45. Yang H, Kim M, Kwon D, Moon B, Kim A, Kang S, et al. The combination of Artemisia princeps Pamp, Leonurus japonicas Houtt, and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit attenuates the exacerbation of energy, lipid, and glucose by increasing hepatic PGC-1? expression in estrogen-deficient rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:137 pubmed publisher
    Artemisia princeps Pamp (APP), Leonurus japonicas Houtt (LJH), and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit (GJE) have been traditionally used in East Asia to treat women's diseases related to reproductive system...
  46. Lee S, Oh P, Lim K. Hepatoprotective and hypolipidaemic effects of glycoprotein isolated from Gardenia jasminoides ellis in mice. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;33:925-33 pubmed
    ..performed to investigate the hepatoprotective and hypolipidaemic effects of a 27 kDa glycoprotein isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE glycoprotein) in glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO)-treated BNL CL...
  47. Nagar H, Srivastava A, Srivastava R, Ranawat M. Evaluation of potent phytomedicine for treatment of psoriasis using UV radiation induced psoriasis in rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;84:1156-1162 pubmed publisher
    ..of newly formulated gels and suspensions of extractive Phytoconstituents of Woodfordia fructicosa flowers and Gardenia gummifera leaves by using UV Radiation induced psoriasis in rats...
  48. Zhao C, Zhang H, Li H, Lv C, Liu X, Li Z, et al. Geniposide ameliorates cognitive deficits by attenuating the cholinergic defect and amyloidosis in middle-aged Alzheimer model mice. Neuropharmacology. 2017;116:18-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Geniposide, which is the main active component of the traditional Chinese herbal Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, elicits neuroprotective effects by alleviating inflammation responses and oxidative damages...
  49. Seo M, Hong J, Kim S, Lee S. Genipin protects d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury through suppression of the necroptosis-mediated inflammasome signaling. Eur J Pharmacol. 2017;812:128-137 pubmed publisher
    ..Genipin, a major active compound of the gardenia fruit, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties...
  50. Ishikawa M, Honda T, Fujita A, Kurobayashi Y, Kitahara T. "Aqua-space", a new headspace method for isolation of natural floral aromas using humidified air as a carrier gas. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004;68:454-7 pubmed
    ..e., Aqua-space, headspace, and solvent extraction, the Aqua-space method proved to be the most effective in retaining natural fragrances with abundant oxygenated components key to floral fragrances. ..
  51. Yu Y, Feng X, Gao H, Xie Z, Dai Y, Huang X, et al. Chemical constituents from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:563-7 pubmed publisher
    ..10-O-trans-sinapoylgeniposide (2), together with eight known compounds, were isolated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis...
  52. Toppo E, Darvin S, Esakkimuthu S, Stalin A, Balakrishna K, Sivasankaran K, et al. Antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of Gardenin A in cellular and high fat diet fed rodent models. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;269:9-17 pubmed publisher
    The gum of Gardenia resinifera Roth., is one of the important drugs used in the Indian system of medicine and a source of unique polymethoxylated flavones...
  53. Wu D, Chen X, Hu S, Bai X. Study on major antitumor components in Yinchenhao decoction in vitro and in vivo based on hollow fiber cell fishing coupled with high performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1060:118-125 pubmed publisher
    ..decoction (YCHD) in vitro and in vivo, and in its constituent herbs, namely, Artemisia capillaris Thunb, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei in vitro...
  54. Tian J, Zhu J, Yi Y, Li C, Zhang Y, Zhao Y, et al. Dose-related liver injury of Geniposide associated with the alteration in bile acid synthesis and transportation. Sci Rep. 2017;7:8938 pubmed publisher
    Fructus Gardenia (FG), containing the major active constituent Geniposide, is widely used in China for medicinal purposes...
  55. Pan T, Shi X, Chen H, Chen R, Wu D, Lin Z, et al. Geniposide Suppresses Interleukin-1β-Induced Inflammation and Apoptosis in Rat Chondrocytes via the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Inflammation. 2018;41:390-399 pubmed publisher
    ..Geniposide (GPO), one of the principal components of the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and other pharmacological effects...
  56. Chen G, Hou S, Ye L, Hu P. [Studies on purification of the extract of fructus Gardeniae for injection by macroreticular resins]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:188-90 pubmed
    ..Using macroreticular resins is a promising purification way of TCM injections, whereas a more consummate method of quality evaluation must be established to ensure safety, efficiency and stability of the preparation in the process. ..
  57. Zhou T, Liu H, Wen J, Fan G, Chai Y, Wu Y. Fragmentation study of iridoid glycosides including epimers by liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and its application in metabolic fingerprint analysis of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2010;24:2520-8 pubmed publisher
    ..mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was applied to the characterization of ten iridoid glycosides in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, a traditional Chinese medicine...
  58. Sujatha P, Sreekanth G, Khasim S, Adavi Rao B, Ravi Kumar B, Appa Rao A. Flavonoids of Dikamali: A phytochemical reinvestigation. Nat Prod Res. 2013;27:1930-2 pubmed publisher
    Eleven known flavonoids (1-11) were isolated from Dikamali, the gum resin of Gardenia lucida. Three of them, desmethylnobiletin, pectolinarigenin and xanthomicrol, are a new report from this source...
  59. Zhang M, Hu P, Liang Q, Yang H, Liu Q, Wang Y, et al. Direct process integration of extraction and expanded bed adsorption in the recovery of crocetin derivatives from Fructus Gardenia. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007;858:220-6 pubmed
    ..an expanded bed adsorption (EBA) into a new system EXT-EBA for direct purifying crocetin derivatives from Fructus Gardenia was described. Conditions were set to allow the extraction and purification in a single step...
  60. Kunert O, Sreekanth G, Babu G, Rao B, Radhakishan M, Kumar B, et al. Cycloartane triterpenes from dikamali, the gum resin of Gardenia gummifera and Gardenia lucida. Chem Biodivers. 2009;6:1185-92 pubmed publisher
    We report on the chemical investigation of dikamali gum, which is the resin of Gardenia gummifera and G. lucida (Rubiaceae). Six new cycloartane triterpenes, dikamaliartanes A-F (1-6, resp...
  61. Yang Q, Wu B, Shi Y, Du X, Fan M, Sun Z, et al. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and analysis of compounds with anti-influenza virus activity from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirteen compounds were confirmed or tentatively identified. This provides an accurate profile of the composition of bioactive compounds responsible for the anti-influenza properties. ..
  62. Zhu X, Zhang N, Li P, Jiang Y, Xu Y. [Protective effect of jasminoidin on cascade of damage of cerebral ischemia in rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29:1065-8 pubmed
  63. Sun G, Hou Z, Zhang C, Bi K, Sun Y. [Comparison between the qualitative similarity and the quantitative similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicines]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007;42:75-80 pubmed
    ..When they combined with the qualitative similarity, it will be the good method to evaluate the chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicines. ..
  64. Wang G, Wu S, Xu W, Jin H, Zhu Z, Li Z, et al. Geniposide inhibits high glucose-induced cell adhesion through the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:953-62 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether geniposide, an iridoid glucoside extracted from gardenia jasminoides ellis fruits, inhibits cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by high glucose and its underlying mechanisms...
  65. Fu W, Lei T, Yin Z, Pan J, Chai Y, Xu X, et al. Anti-atherosclerosis and cardio-protective effects of the Angong Niuhuang Pill on a high fat and vitamin D3 induced rodent model of atherosclerosis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;195:118-126 pubmed publisher
  66. Oliveira H, Cai X, Zhang Q, de Freitas V, Mateus N, He J, et al. Gastrointestinal absorption, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effect of the major carotenoids of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis on cancer cells. Food Funct. 2017;8:1672-1679 pubmed publisher
    The gastrointestinal absorption of the main carotenoids present in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, crocetin, crocin-1 and crocin-2, was assayed through transport studies on MKN-28 and Caco-2 cell lines...
  67. Liu W, Fan J, Gao Y, Qiu X, Zhuang H, Zhao Z. [Simultaneous determination of eight iridoid glycosides in Gardeniae fructus by HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2012;37:2417-21 pubmed
    ..6% , 101.2%, 99.5%, 100.3% , 98.7%, 99.8% and 100.1%, respectively. The method shows good separation and it is so simple, accurate and highly repeatable that it can be used for providing basis for quality control of Gardeniae Fructus. ..
  68. Du S, Zhang Q, Lu Y, Zhai Y, Wu Q. [Study of components in xingnaojing affecting intestine absorption of gardenia extract]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010;35:297-300 pubmed
    ..of ingredients in Xingnaojing,such as moschus, borneol and radix curcumae on intestine absorption kinetics of gardenia extract...
  69. Norowski P, Mishra S, Adatrow P, Haggard W, Bumgardner J. Suture pullout strength and in vitro fibroblast and RAW 264.7 monocyte biocompatibility of genipin crosslinked nanofibrous chitosan mats for guided tissue regeneration. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2012;100:2890-6 pubmed publisher
    ..electrospun chitosan membranes, crosslinked with 5 mM or 10 mM geinipin, a natural crosslinker extracted from the gardenia plant, were evaluated for suture pullout strength, crystallinity, and cytocompatibility with normal human dermal ..
  70. Zhang H, Liu H, Yang M, Wei S. Antithrombotic activities of aqueous extract from Gardenia jasminoides and its main constituent. Pharm Biol. 2013;51:221-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis (Rubiaceae) is a shrub tree species distributed all over the world. Now its pharmacological activities such as anti-atherosclerosis have been extensively studied...
  71. Du C, Dai S, Qiao Y, Wu Z. Error propagation of partial least squares for parameters optimization in NIR modeling. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2018;192:244-250 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, an open source dataset (corn) and a complicated dataset (Gardenia) were used to establish PLS models under different modeling parameters...
  72. Han J, Chen S, Zhang W, Wang Y. [Molecular ecology of Gardenia jasminoides authenticity]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2006;17:2385-8 pubmed
    ..length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, this paper studied the genetic relationships among five wild or cultivated Gardenia jasminoides Ellis populations in Jiangxi Province. Chemical fingerprint was also built with HPLC method...
  73. Chen Q, Zhang W, Youn U, Kim H, Lee I, Jung H, et al. Iridoid glycosides from Gardeniae Fructus for treatment of ankle sprain. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:779-84 pubmed publisher
    ..01) with approximately 21-34% reduction in swelling ratio compared with those of the vehicle treated control group. This indicated the potential effect of geniposide (4) for the treatment of disorders such as ankle sprain. ..
  74. Cai D, Shu Q, Xu B, Peng L, He Y. Orthogonal test design for optimization of the extraction of flavonid from the Fructus Gardeniae. Biomed Environ Sci. 2011;24:688-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This work is expected to provide a basis for further research, development, and utilization of Fructus gardenia in flavonid extraction.
  75. Lakavath S, Avula B, Wang Y, Rumalla C, Gandhe S, Venkatrao A, et al. Differentiating the gum resins of two closely related Indian Gardenia species, G. gummifera and G. lucida, and establishing the source of dikamali gum resin using high-performance thin-layer chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-. J AOAC Int. 2012;95:67-73 pubmed
    Dikamali is a gum resin obtained from the leaf buds of Gardenia lucida or G. gummifera. There is controversy regarding the botanical source of this gum resin with some stating it to be from G. lucida while others claim it to be from G...
  76. Wang J, Lu J, Lv C, Xu T, Jia L. Three new triterpenoid saponins from root of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:1396-401 pubmed publisher
    ..IVa butyl ester (9), siaresinolic acid 28-o-?-d-glucopyranosyl ester (10) were isolated from the root of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis...
  77. Long Z, Zhang R, Zhao X, Meng X, Bi K, Chen X. Determination and pharmacokinetics of geniposidic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Gardenia jasminoides fruit crude extract and Zhi-zi-chi decoction. Biomed Chromatogr. 2013;27:812-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of geniposidic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of G. jasminoides fruit crude extract and Zhi-zi-chi decoction, respectively. ..
  78. Tian J, Yi Y, Zhao Y, Li C, Zhang Y, Wang L, et al. Oral chronic toxicity study of geniposide in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;213:166-175 pubmed publisher
    ..The treatment also caused noticeable pathological abnormalities in liver and kidney tissues. Therefore, administration of a high dose of geniposide (100mg/kg) for 26 weeks could induced obvious liver and kidney damage. ..
  79. Li Y, Jiang Y, Hao F, Ding X. [Fast and simultaneous determination of four index components in Qingwei Huanglian tablets by RP-HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:2597-600 pubmed
    ..The average recoveries of four index components were not less than 98.0%. The method is convenient, rapid and accurate. It is suitable for the quality control of Qingwei Huanglian tablets. ..
  80. Yu Y, Xie Z, Gao H, Ma W, Dai Y, Wang Y, et al. Bioactive iridoid glucosides from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:1459-64 pubmed publisher
    ..10), geniposide (11), and 10-O-acetylgeniposide (12), were isolated from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra analyses...
  81. Nuanyai T, Chokpaiboon S, Vilaivan T, Pudhom K. Cytotoxic 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes from the exudate of Gardenia tubifera. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:51-4 pubmed publisher
    ..gardenoins A-D (1-4), together with the known compound secaubryenol (5), were isolated from the exudate of Gardenia tubifera. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis...
  82. Yang L, Liu T, Huang Z, Li J, Wu L. Research progress on the mechanism of single-Chinese medicinal herbs in treating diabetes mellitus. Chin J Integr Med. 2011;17:235-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In the following article, the prevention of DM using CM in the past 5 years is retrospectively studied, and mainly focuses on the usage of simple Chinese herbal extracts or monomers in terms of cellular as well as molecular biology. ..
  83. Ding Y, Yang J, Zhang T, Tao J, Pu Y, Wang B. [Purification of geniposide in the extract fluid of Gardenia jasminoides with macroporous absorption resin]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:623-7 pubmed
    To optimize the process for purification of geniposide in the extract fluid of Gardenia jasminoides with macroporous absorption resin...
  84. Zhang A, Sun H, Yuan Y, Sun W, Jiao G, Wang X. An in vivo analysis of the therapeutic and synergistic properties of Chinese medicinal formula Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang based on its active constituents. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:1160-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that dissecting the mode of action of clinically effective formula to be capable of producing a sufficient effect at low doses. ..
  85. Ji J, Lu X, Cai M, Xu Z. Improvement of leaching process of Geniposide with ultrasound. Ultrason Sonochem. 2006;13:455-62 pubmed
    The effect of ultrasound on the leaching process, in which Geniposide is leached from the Gardenia fruit by deionized water at 20 degrees C, was investigated...
  86. Chen L, Wang Y, He S, Liao G, Zhang Z. [Study on the toxic reaction induced by single dose of qingkailing injection]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:254-8 pubmed
    ..Hemolysis test in vitro--Honeysuckle extraction (significantly) and gardenia extraction which were components of Qing-kailing injection caused hemolysis in certain dose; While gardenia, ..
  87. Li Y, Xiao Y, Zhang C, Yu D, Ma Y, Gu X. [Analysis of volatile oil in Gardenia jasminoids roasted with ginger juice by GC-MS]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36:3434-8 pubmed
    To compare the components and contents of volatile oil in Gardenia jasminoids, Zingiber officinale, G. jasminoids roasted with ginger juice and to provide scientific basis for intrinsic material of G. jasminoids roasted with ginger juice...
  88. Kim S, Kim K, Park J, Kwak J, Kim Y, Lee S. Geniposidic acid protects against D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic failure in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;146:271-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that geniposidic acid alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by enhancing antioxidative defense system and reducing apoptotic signaling pathways. ..
  89. Nam Y, Lee D. Ameliorating effect of zhizi (Fructus gardeniae) extract and its glycosides on scopolamine-induced memory impairment. J Tradit Chin Med. 2013;33:223-7 pubmed
    ..4% as compared to the control group. Geniposide, a main constituent of gardenia should be considered a candidate for further clinical study for the purpose of developing a cognition activator ..
  90. Choi S, Kim M, Heo H, Hong B, Cho H, Kim Y, et al. Ameliorating effect of Gardenia jasminoides extract on amyloid beta peptide-induced neuronal cell deficit. Mol Cells. 2007;24:113-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we selected an extract of Gardenia jasminoides by screening, and investigated its ameliorating effects on Abeta-induced oxidative stress using PC12 ..
  91. Xu H, Wang Y, Liu N. Safety of an injection with a mixture of extracts from Herba Artemisiae annuae, Fructus Gardeniae and Flos Lonicerae. Pharm World Sci. 2009;31:458-463 pubmed publisher
    ..054-1.479) and 89% (1.890, 1.001-3.566), respectively. The total adverse drug reaction incidence of the injection was 0.38% and lower than we expected. Moreover, we observed three new adverse drug reactions, none of which was severe. ..
  92. Feng J, He X, Zhou S, Peng F, Liu J, Hao L, et al. Preparative separation of crocins and geniposide simultaneously from gardenia fruits using macroporous resin and reversed-phase chromatography. J Sep Sci. 2014;37:314-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Gardenia fruits contain valuable natural food colorants including crocins (gardenia yellow) and geniposide...