Summary: The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters.

Top Publications

  1. Pawar R, Shukla Y, Khan I. New calogenin glycosides from Hoodia gordonii. Steroids. 2007;72:881-91 pubmed
    ..The structures of the glycosides were established by chemical degradation studies and extensive spectroscopic techniques that included one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR. ..
  2. Mathew O, Ogochukwu A, Michael U. Antiulcer activity of methanolic extract and fractions of Picralima nitida seeds(Apocynacaea) in rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4:13-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings showed that methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction of the seeds of Picralima possessed potent antiulcer properties and some antisecretory properties. ..
  3. Madgula V, Ashfaq M, Wang Y, Avula B, Khan I, Walker L, et al. Bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and tissue distribution of the oxypregnane steroidal glycoside P57AS3 (P57) from Hoodia gordonii in mouse model. Planta Med. 2010;76:1582-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The oral bioavailability was 47.5?% and the half-life of the absorption phase was 0.13?h. In conclusion, P57 showed moderate bioavailability and was eliminated rapidly. ..
  4. Sahreen S, Khan M, Khan R. Hepatoprotective effects of methanol extract of Carissa opaca leaves on CCl4-induced damage in rat. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:48 pubmed publisher
    Carissa opaca (Apocynaceae) leaves possess antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic alternative in hepatic disorders...
  5. Mousinho K, Oliveira C, Ferreira J, Carvalho A, Magalhães H, Bezerra D, et al. Antitumor effect of laticifer proteins of Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel - Apocynaceae. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:421-6 pubmed publisher
    Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel - Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant popularly known as Janaguba. Its bark and latex have been used by the public for cancer treatment, among other medicinal uses...
  6. Mohlapo T, Ng ambi J, Norris D, Malatje M. Effect of Hoodia gordonii meal supplementation at finisher stage on productivity and carcass characteristics of Ross 308 broiler chickens. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2009;41:1591-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Daily supplementation with 300 mg of Hoodia gordonii meal/bird reduced fat pad weights of the chickens by 18%. This could not be explained in terms of differences in feed intake, digestibility, or growth rate. ..
  7. Shukla Y, Pawar R, Ding Y, Li X, Ferreira D, Khan I. Pregnane glycosides from Hoodia gordonii. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:675-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Their structures were elucidated by chemical degradation studies and spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR and CD spectroscopic methods. ..
  8. Duwiejua M, Woode E, Obiri D. Pseudo-akuammigine, an alkaloid from Picralima nitida seeds, has anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81:73-9 pubmed
    ..05) antagonised the analgesic action of the alkaloid by 35.8+/-6.8%. Pseudo-akuammigine therefore exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions. The analgesic actions are mediated via interaction with opioid receptors. ..
  9. Blom W, Abrahamse S, Bradford R, Duchateau G, Theis W, Orsi A, et al. Effects of 15-d repeated consumption of Hoodia gordonii purified extract on safety, ad libitum energy intake, and body weight in healthy, overweight women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:1171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..HgPE was less well tolerated than was the placebo and did not show any significant effects on energy intakes or body weights relative to the placebo. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01306422. ..

More Information


  1. Russell P, Swindells C. Chemical characterisation of Hoodia gordonii extract. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50 Suppl 1:S6-13 pubmed publisher
    ..001%w/w of protein per band. The chemical composition of the extract remained stable for 19 months when stored in re-sealable plastic bags at ambient (21-24°C) temperature and <60% relative humidity. ..
  2. Cheenpracha S, Karalai C, Rat a pa Y, Ponglimanont C, Chantrapromma K. New cytotoxic cardenolide glycoside from the seeds of Cerbera manghas. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004;52:1023-5 pubmed
    ..7,8-Dehydrocerberin, deacetyltanghinin and tanghinin exhibited cytotoxic activities against oral human epidermoid carcinoma (KB), human breast cancer cell (BC) and human small cells lung cancer (NCI-H187). ..
  3. Castillo D, Arevalo J, Herrera F, Ruiz C, Rojas R, Rengifo E, et al. Spirolactone iridoids might be responsible for the antileishmanial activity of a Peruvian traditional remedy made with Himatanthus sucuuba (Apocynaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;112:410-4 pubmed
    ..Arg.) Woodson (Apocynaceae) afforded the spirolactone iridoids isoplumericin and plumericin...
  4. van Heerden F, Marthinus Horak R, Maharaj V, Vleggaar R, Senabe J, Gunning P. An appetite suppressant from Hoodia species. Phytochemistry. 2007;68:2545-53 pubmed
  5. de F Navarro Schmidt D, Yunes R, Schaab E, Malheiros A, Cechinel Filho V, Franchi G, et al. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative effect the extracts of Allamanda blanchetti and A. schottii on the growth of leukemic and endothelial cells. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2006;9:200-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that both plants studied exhibit cytostatic and cytotoxic activity, but the most active compounds are located in the roots. ..
  6. Wood C, Lee K, Vaisberg A, Kingston D, Neto C, Hammond G. A bioactive spirolactone iridoid and triterpenoids from Himatanthus sucuuba. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001;49:1477-8 pubmed
  7. Igboasoiyi A, Essien E, Eseyin O, Ubam G. Screening of the seed of Picralima nitida for hypoglycaemic activity. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:828-30 pubmed
    ..Rather, the extract increased blood glucose concentration in the sub acute group on days 5, 10 and 15. These results indicate that, unlike the fruit pulp, the seed extract of Picralima nitida did not possess hypoglycaemic activity. ..
  8. Okokon J, Antia B, Igboasoiyi A, Essien E, Mbagwu H. Evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111:464-7 pubmed
    ..The seed extract possesses significant (P<0.05) antiplasmodial activity which correlate with it reported in vitro activity. ..
  9. Dobhal M, Li G, Gryshuk A, Graham A, Bhatanager A, Khaja S, et al. Structural modifications of plumieride isolated from Plumeria bicolor and the effect of these modifications on in vitro anticancer activity. J Org Chem. 2004;69:6165-72 pubmed
    ..of the major components from the biologically active methanolic extract of the bark of Plumeria bicolor (family Apocynaceae). For investigating the effect of substituents on cytotoxic activity it was modified into a series of compounds...
  10. Wong S, Lim Y, Abdullah N, Nordin F. Assessment of antiproliferative and antiplasmodial activities of five selected Apocynaceae species. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:3 pubmed publisher
    Studies have shown that the barks and roots of some Apocynaceae species have anticancer and antimalarial properties...
  11. van Heerden F. Hoodia gordonii: a natural appetite suppressant. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;119:434-7 pubmed publisher
    Several species of the stapeliads, a group of stem succulents belonging to the family Apocynaceae are reported on in the ethnopharmacology literature and many of the references relate to their use as food plants...
  12. Rumalla C, Avula B, Shukla Y, Wang Y, Pawar R, Smillie T, et al. Chemical fingerprint of Hoodia species, dietary supplements, and related genera by using HPTLC. J Sep Sci. 2008;31:3959-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed method was validated for specificity, stability, repeatability, and robustness. The results of HPTLC method were verified by LC-UV-MS method. ..
  13. Janssen H, Swindells C, Gunning P, Wang W, Grün C, Mahabir K, et al. Quantification of appetite suppressing steroid glycosides from Hoodia gordonii in dried plant material, purified extracts and food products using HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS methods. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;617:200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..HPLC-MS is used to confirm that the steroid glycosides contain the characteristic steroid core, the carbohydrate chain and the tigloyl group. ..
  14. Kumarappan C, Vijayakumar M, Thilagam E, Balamurugan M, Thiagarajan M, Senthil S, et al. Protective and curative effects of polyphenolic extracts from Ichnocarpus frutescense leaves on experimental hepatotoxicity by carbon tretrachloride and tamoxifen. Ann Hepatol. 2011;10:63-72 pubmed
    ..These results supported the use of this plant for the treatment of hepatitis in oriental traditional medicine. ..
  15. Le Nevé B, Foltz M, Daniel H, Gouka R. The steroid glycoside H.g.-12 from Hoodia gordonii activates the human bitter receptor TAS2R14 and induces CCK release from HuTu-80 cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G1368-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we identified a natural agonist of TAS2R7 and TAS2R14 for further studies on the role of bitter receptors in satiety control and food intake. ..
  16. Ahmad M, Muhammed S, Mehjabeen -, Jahan N, Jan S, Qureshi Z. Anti-dermatitis, anxiolytic and analgesic effects of Rhazya stricta from Balochistan. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014;27:481-6 pubmed
    ..3004?g/ml. Insecticidal activity was positive against Callosbruchus analis, the percent mortality was 40%. ..
  17. Pott M, Effmert U, Piechulla B. Transcriptional and post-translational regulation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine: salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT) during Stephanotis floribunda flower development. J Plant Physiol. 2003;160:635-43 pubmed
    ..floribunda. ..
  18. Kahaliw W, Aseffa A, Abebe M, Teferi M, Engidawork E. Evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity of crude extracts and solvent fractions of selected Ethiopian medicinal plants. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:143 pubmed publisher
    ..However, P. stellatum appears to be the most promising plant based on criteria set by different studies. Ethyl acetate fraction of P. stellatum was found to be the most active and future studies should involve this fraction. ..
  19. Soares D, Andrade A, Delorenzi J, Silva J, Freire de Lima L, Falcão C, et al. Leishmanicidal activity of Himatanthus sucuuba latex against Leishmania amazonensis. Parasitol Int. 2010;59:173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these findings support HsL as an interesting candidate for further evaluations regarding its potential application as a therapeutical agent against Leishmania. ..
  20. Chen G, Chen H, Li W, Pei Y. Steroidal glycosides from Cynanchum amplexicaule. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2011;13:756-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Their structures were elucidated as amplexicogenin B-3-O-?-D-cymaropyranoside (1), amplexicogenin B-3-O-?-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-L-cymaropyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-D-cymaropyranoside (2) by means of spectral and chemical analysis. ..
  21. Kaunda J, Zhang Y. The Genus Carissa: An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review. Nat Prod Bioprospect. 2017;7:181-199 pubmed publisher
    Carissa L. is a genus of the family Apocynaceae, with about 36 species as evergreen shrubs or small trees native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia and Oceania...
  22. Murakami T, Kishi A, Matsuda H, Hattori M, Yoshikawa M. Medicinal foodstuffs. XXIV. Chemical constituents of the processed leaves of Apocynum venetum L.: absolute stereostructures of apocynosides I and II. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001;49:845-8 pubmed
    ..The absolute stereostructures of apocynosides I and II were determined by chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included the application of a modified Mosher's method and the circular dichroism helicity rule. ..
  23. Hullatti K, Pathade N, Mandavkar Y, Godavarthi A, Biradi M. Bioactivity-guided isolation of cytotoxic constituents from three medicinal plants. Pharm Biol. 2013;51:601-6 pubmed publisher
    The ethanol extracts and their fractions of three Indian medicinal plants, Ervatamia coronaria (Jacq.) Stapf, (Apocynaceae), Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) and Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb...
  24. Costa Campos L, Iwu M, Elisabetsky E. Lack of pro-convulsant activity of the antipsychotic alkaloid alstonine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;93:307-10 pubmed
    ..The data adds to previous suggestions that alstonine deserves to be scrutinized as a model for the development of newer antipsychotics. ..
  25. Zhu X, Wu G, Xiang J, Luo H, Luo S, Zhu H, et al. New pregnane saponins from Ecdysanthera rosea and their cytotoxicity. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:632-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Compound 2 showed cytotoxicity against cells A549, MDA435, HepG2, and HUVEC, while compound 4 showed cytotoxicity against cells A549, CEM, and HUVEC. Compound 6 had cytotoxicity against the others except cell HepG2. ..
  26. Adeneye A, Adeyemi O, Agbaje E. Anti-obesity and antihyperlipidaemic effect of Hunteria umbellata seed extract in experimental hyperlipidaemia. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;130:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the results justify the ethnopharmacological use of the extract in the management of obesity and hyperlipidaemia. ..
  27. Shathish K, Reena D, Guruvayoorappan C. Chemoprotective effect of Decalepis hamiltonii against cyclophosphamide induced toxicity. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2012;9:291-301 pubmed
    ..In conclusion the finding of this study suggested that the extract from D. hamiltonii has strong chemo protective effect against CTX induced toxicity. ..
  28. Hong H, Nose A. Characteristics of external and internal NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in Hoya carnosa mitochondria. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2012;44:655-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding indicated that the H. carnosa mitochondrial electron transport chain is operating in a classical way, partitioning to both Complex I and alternative Alt. NAD(P)H dehydrogenases. ..
  29. Pocius V, Debinski D, Pleasants J, Bidne K, Hellmich R, Brower L. Milkweed Matters: Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Survival and Development on Nine Midwestern Milkweed Species. Environ Entomol. 2017;46:1098-1105 pubmed publisher
    ..The milkweeds included Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias hirtella (tall green milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) (..
  30. Kumar P, Singh A, Sharma U, Singh D, Dobhal M, Singh S. Anti-mycobacterial activity of plumericin and isoplumericin against MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2013;26:332-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Plumericin showed more potent activity than isoplumericin. The excellent activity of these compounds against MDR strains opens a possibility of obtaining new anti-mycobacterial drug candidate in near future. ..
  31. Yang M, Wu J, Xu X, Jin Y, Guo Y, Chen J. A new lignan from the Jian-er syrup and its content determination by RP-HPLC. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;41:662-6 pubmed
    ..0 ml/min. This method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and solution stability. It can be used to control the quality of this preparation effectively. ..
  32. Malabade R, Taranalli A. Calotropis procera: A potential cognition enhancer in scopolamine and electroconvulsive shock-induced amnesia in rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2015;47:419-24 pubmed publisher
    Present study evaluates the effect of Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) dry latex on cognitive function in rats using scopolamine and electroconvulsive shock (ECS) induced amnesia model...
  33. Rao R, Kumar U, Reddy S, Tiwari A, Rao J. Antioxidants and a new germacrane sesquiteroene from Carissa spinarum. Nat Prod Res. 2005;19:763-9 pubmed
    ..The chloroform extract of the plant displayed strong antioxidant (DPPH) activity. Several other known compounds were also isolated for the first time from this active extract. The antioxidant activity of major lignans was studied. ..
  34. Kumar P, Patil D, Chaudhary A, Tomar S, Yernool D, Singh N, et al. Purification and biophysical characterization of an 11S globulin from Wrightia tinctoria exhibiting hemagglutinating activity. Protein Pept Lett. 2013;20:499-509 pubmed
    ..2Å with six molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.2Å under cryocondition. Preliminary structure solution of WTG indicated the possibility of a hexameric assembly in its asymmetric unit. ..
  35. Reddy Y, Venkatesh S, Ravichandran T, Murugan V, Suresh B. Antinociceptive activity of Wrightia tinctoria bark. Fitoterapia. 2002;73:421-3 pubmed
    ..The ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Wrightia tinctoria bark showed antinociceptive activity on acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice, their effects being comparable to that of acetylsalicylic acid. ..
  36. Zhang X, Liu M, Pei Y, Zhang J, Kang S. Phenylpropionic acid derivates from the bark of Cerbera manghas. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:852-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary bioassays showed that compound 1 possessed weak cytotoxic activity against HepG2, MCF-7, and HeLa cell lines with IC(50) values of 44.7, 52.3, 48.7 ?g/ml, respectively. ..
  37. Heng P, Chan L, Liew C, Chee S, Soh J, Ooi S. Roller compaction of crude plant material: influence of process variables, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and co-milling. Pharm Dev Technol. 2004;9:135-44 pubmed
    ..Roller compaction is a convenient and cost-effective granulating technique suitable for milled botanicals. Co-milling can be used to improve the properties of roller-compacted products. ..
  38. Sahana A, Banerjee A, Lohar S, Banik A, Mukhopadhyay S, Safin D, et al. FRET based tri-color emissive rhodamine-pyrene conjugate as an Al3+ selective colorimetric and fluorescence sensor for living cell imaging. Dalton Trans. 2013;42:13311-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Intracellular Al(3+) has been visualized through time dependent blue-green-red emission. The lowest limit of detection for Al(3+) is 0.02 ?M. ..
  39. Sugijanto N, Diesel A, Ebel R, Indrayanto G, Zaini N. Chemical constituents of the endophytic fungus Lecythophora sp. isolated from Alyxia reinwardtii. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4:1485-8 pubmed
    ..specimen codes 30.1 and 30.5), which were isolated from Alyxia reinwardtii (Apocynaceae).
  40. Wang C, Yeh K, Tsai S, Jhan Y, Chou C. Anti-Proliferative Activity of Triterpenoids and Sterols Isolated from Alstonia scholaris against Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    1) Background: In China and South Asia, Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae) is an important medicinal plant that has been historically used in traditional ethnopharmacy to treat infectious diseases...
  41. Zhao J, Avula B, Joshi V, Techen N, Wang Y, Smillie T, et al. NMR fingerprinting for analysis of hoodia species and hoodia dietary products. Planta Med. 2011;77:851-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrated that the NMR fingerprinting approach could be a promising and efficient tool for the authentication of botanicals. ..
  42. Feng T, Li Y, Wang Y, Cai X, Liu Y, Luo X. Cytotoxic indole alkaloids from Melodinus tenuicaudatus. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:1075-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Alkaloids 1, 3, and 4 and the known compound 11-methoxytabersonine (8) exhibited inhibitory effects, with IC(50) values comparable to those of cisplatin and vinorelbine. ..
  43. Herrbach A, Marinetti A, Baudoin O, Guenard D, Guéritte F. Asymmetric synthesis of an axially chiral antimitotic biaryl via an atropo-enantioselective Suzuki cross-coupling. J Org Chem. 2003;68:4897-905 pubmed
    ..This work gives the first application of the asymmetric Suzuki coupling to a biologically relevant target. ..
  44. Báez D, Pino J, Morales D. Floral scent composition of Plumeria tuberculata analyzed by HS-SPME. Nat Prod Commun. 2012;7:101-2 pubmed
    ..6%), and benzenoid esters (2.6%). The major components were geraniol (34.9%), citronelol (21.5%) and geranial (16.2%), and they were found to make the major contribution to the typical scent of this flower. ..
  45. Massey B, Cui X, Hiebert E, Elliott M, Waipara N, Hayes L, et al. Partial sequencing of the genomic RNA of Araujia mosaic virus and comparison of the coat protein sequence with those of other potyviruses. Arch Virol. 2007;152:2125-9 pubmed
  46. Chen J, Chen J, Yao X, Gao K. Kopsihainanines A and B, two unusual alkaloids from Kopsia hainanensis. Org Biomol Chem. 2011;9:5334-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by ECD calculation. ..
  47. Srikanta B, Siddaraju M, Dharmesh S. A novel phenol-bound pectic polysaccharide from Decalepis hamiltonii with multi-step ulcer preventive activity. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:5196-207 pubmed
    ..In addition, SRPP is non-toxic as opposed to other known anti-ulcer drugs, and therefore may be employed as a potential alternative for ulcer management. ..
  48. Itoh A, Kumashiro T, Tanahashi T, Nagakura N, Nishi T. Flavonoid glycosides from Rhazya orientalis. J Nat Prod. 2002;65:352-7 pubmed
    ..The structures of 1-6 were determined by spectroscopic and chemical means. ..
  49. Gan C, Low Y, Thomas N, Kam T. Rhazinilam-Leuconolam-Leuconoxine Alkaloids from Leuconotis griffithii. J Nat Prod. 2013;76:957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Alkaloids 1, 5, and 7 showed only moderate to weak cytotoxicity toward KB cells (IC50 12-18 ?g/mL), while 8 showed moderate activity in reversing MDR in vincristine-resistant KB cells. ..
  50. Yepes M, de Carvalho Júnior A, Hennen J. Blastospora in the Americas: a new combination and anamorphic genus and species. Mycologia. 2012;104:115-20 pubmed publisher
    This paper presents the new teleomorphic combination Blastospora colombiana as well as a description of a new anamorph genus Pelastoma with two species, all on Apocynaceae from Central and South America.
  51. Liu L, Cao J, Yao Y, Xu S. Progress of pharmacological studies on alkaloids from Apocynaceae. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2013;15:166-84 pubmed publisher
    Alkaloid was a kind of biological active ingredient. There were various types of alkaloids in Apocynaceae. This paper reviewed the progress on alkaloids from Apocynaceae, which contained origin, structure, and pharmacological activity.
  52. Clarkson C, Mellor I, Lambert M, Jaroszewski J. 5alpha-cardenolides from Kanahia laniflora inhibit ionotropic acetylcholine receptors. Planta Med. 2006;72:1418-20 pubmed
  53. Pandeya S, Chandra A, Pathak P. Genetic diversity in some perennial plant species with-in short distances. J Environ Biol. 2007;28:83-6 pubmed
    ..The results confirm genetic diversity in the species as a means of adaptation to differing climo-edaphic variables. ..