amaranthus

Summary

Summary: A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.

Top Publications

  1. Sani H, Rahmat A, Ismail M, Rosli R, Endrini S. Potential anticancer effect of red spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus) extract. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13:396-400 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to determine the anti cancer effects of red spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus Linn) in vitro and in vivo...
  2. Chaudhary M, Imran I, Bashir S, Mehmood M, Rehman N, Gilani A. Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:166 pubmed publisher
    The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses.
  3. Showler A. Spodoptera exigua oviposition and larval feeding preferences for pigweed, Amaranthus hybridus, over squaring cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, and a comparison of free amino acids in each host plant. J Chem Ecol. 2001;27:2013-28 pubmed
    ..study, using cage choice tests and olfactometer assays, demonstrates the beet armyworm's preference for pigweed, Amaranthus hybridus L., over cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L...
  4. Avasthi U, Raghavendra A. Mutual stimulation of temperature and light effects on C(4) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in leaf discs and leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus. J Plant Physiol. 2008;165:1023-32 pubmed
    ..properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) by temperature and light in leaf discs as well as leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The activity of PEPC increased by 1.7-fold at 45 degrees C over 25 degrees C...
  5. Délano Frier J, Avilés Arnaut H, Casarrubias Castillo K, Casique Arroyo G, Castrillón Arbeláez P, Herrera Estrella L, et al. Transcriptomic analysis of grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) using 454 pyrosequencing: comparison with A. tuberculatus, expression profiling in stems and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:363 pubmed publisher
    b>Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a grain amaranth, is a C4 plant noted by its ability to tolerate stressful conditions and produce highly nutritious seeds...
  6. He H, Cai Y, Sun M, Corke H. Extraction and purification of squalene from amaranthus grain. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:368-72 pubmed
    ..Although the oil contents of grain amaranth were low (from 5.1% in Amaranthus tricolor to 7...
  7. Das S, Gauri S, Misra B, Biswas M, Dey S. Purification and characterization of a betanidin glucosyltransferase from Amaranthus tricolor L catalyzing non-specific biotransformation of flavonoids. Plant Sci. 2013;211:61-9 pubmed publisher
    Betacyanins are the major pigments present in Amaranthus tricolor, a leafy vegetable consumed globally. The terminal glycosylation of the aglycone betanidin is an important step in the biosynthesis of this natural red antioxidant pigment...
  8. Berger A, Gremaud G, Baumgartner M, Rein D, Monnard I, Kratky E, et al. Cholesterol-lowering properties of amaranth grain and oil in hamsters. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2003;73:39-47 pubmed
    ..In the present study, hamsters received hypercholesterolemic diets consisting of a control, 10 or 20% Amaranthus cruentus grain, or 2.5 or 5% crude amaranth oil for four weeks...
  9. Stintzing F, Kammerer D, Schieber A, Adama H, Nacoulma O, Carle R. Betacyanins and phenolic compounds from Amaranthus spinosus L. and Boerhavia erecta L. Z Naturforsch C. 2004;59:1-8 pubmed
    Stem bark extracts of Boerhavia erecta L. (erect spiderling) and Amaranthus spinosus L...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Antognoni F, Faudale M, Poli F, Biondi S. Methyl jasmonate differentially affects tocopherol content and tyrosine amino transferase activity in cultured cells of Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2009;11:161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, in vitro callus cultures were established from two plants that are naturally rich in tocopherols, Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa, in order to examine whether callus cultures were able to produce these ..
  2. Sangameswaran B, Jayakar B. Anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic and spermatogenic effects of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Nat Med. 2008;62:79-82 pubmed publisher
    Anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic and spermatogenic effects were studies with methanolic extract of stem of Amaranthus spinosus Linn (Family: Amaranthaceae) in diabetic rats...
  3. Akiyoshi H, Sugii S, Nahid M, Sone K, Tanaka T, Zheng C, et al. Detection of chromogranin A in the adrenal gland extracts of different animal species by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen-specific Amaranthus caudatus lectin. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;144:255-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the different lectins studied, the Amaranthus caudatus lectin (ACA), which is specific for the Thomsen-Friedenreich (T)-antigen (Gal?1-3GalNAc), was found to ..
  4. Riggins C, Peng Y, Stewart C, Tranel P. Characterization of de novo transcriptome for waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) using GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencing and its application for studies of herbicide target-site genes. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:1042-52 pubmed publisher
    ..resistance has not yet been reported in any plant, were also investigated in waterhemp and six related weedy Amaranthus species...
  5. Zeashan H, Amresh G, Rao C, Singh S. Antinociceptive activity of Amaranthus spinosus in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;122:492-6 pubmed publisher
    50% ethanol extract (ASE) of Amaranthus spinosus (whole plant) has been evaluated for antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities...
  6. Zeashan H, Amresh G, Singh S, Rao C. Hepatoprotective activity of Amaranthus spinosus in experimental animals. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3417-21 pubmed publisher
    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of 50% ethanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus (ASE) was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats...
  7. Castrillón Arbeláez P, Martínez Gallardo N, Arnaut H, Tiessen A, Délano Frier J. Metabolic and enzymatic changes associated with carbon mobilization, utilization and replenishment triggered in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) in response to partial defoliation by mechanical injury or insect herbivory. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:163 pubmed publisher
    b>Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus are crop plants grown for grain production in subtropical countries...
  8. Tranel P, Riggins C, Bell M, Hager A. Herbicide resistances in Amaranthus tuberculatus: a call for new options. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:5808-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Amaranthus tuberculatus is a major weed of crop fields in the midwestern United States. Making this weed particularly problematic to manage is its demonstrated ability to evolve resistance to herbicides. Herbicides to which A...
  9. Gaines T, Zhang W, Wang D, Bukun B, Chisholm S, Shaner D, et al. Gene amplification confers glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus palmeri. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1029-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated recently discovered glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri populations from Georgia, in comparison with normally sensitive populations...
  10. Silva Sánchez C, de la Rosa A, León Galván M, de Lumen B, De León Rodríguez A, de Mejía E. Bioactive peptides in amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seed. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:1233-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study that reports the presence of a lunasin-like peptide and other potentially bioactive peptides in amaranth protein fractions. ..
  11. Tazoe Y, Hanba Y, Furumoto T, Noguchi K, Terashima I. Relationships between quantum yield for CO2 assimilation, activity of key enzymes and CO2 leakiness in Amaranthus cruentus, a C4 dicot, grown in high or low light. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:19-29 pubmed
    ..dikinase (PPDK), the phosphorylation state of PEPC and the CO(2) assimilation rate using leaves of Amaranthus cruentus (NAD-malic enzyme subtype, dicot) plants grown in high light (HL) and low light (LL)...
  12. Tikekar R, Ludescher R, Karwe M. Processing stability of squalene in amaranth and antioxidant potential of amaranth extract. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:10675-8 pubmed publisher
  13. Shukla S, Bhargava A, Chatterjee A, Srivastava J, Singh N, Singh S. Mineral profile and variability in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor). Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2006;61:23-8 pubmed
    Populations in North India depend on a number of vegetable crops of which Amaranthus spp. is the most important since it is the only crop available in the hot summer months when no other foliage crop grows in the field...
  14. Hilou A, Nacoulma O, Guiguemde T. In vivo antimalarial activities of extracts from Amaranthus spinosus L. and Boerhaavia erecta L. in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;103:236-40 pubmed
    Extracts obtained from two Burkinabe folk medicine plants, spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus L., Amaranthaceae) and erect spiderling (Boerhaavia erecta L...
  15. Cai Y, Xing J, Sun M, Corke H. Rapid identification of betacyanins from Amaranthus tricolor, Gomphrena globosa, and Hylocereus polyrhizus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS). J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:6520-6 pubmed
    ..MALDI-QIT-TOF MS to rapidly identify, within a few minutes, a great number of betacyanins in crude extracts from Amaranthus tricolor seedlings, Gomphrena globosa flowers, and Hylocereus polyrhizus fruits...
  16. Zoblkova Z, Shcherbakova S, Pogozheva A, Dmitrievskaia M, Gonor K, Mal tsev G. [The effect of diet with the sour-milk product enriched with amaranth on parameters of antioxigen protection at patients with a cardiovascular pathology]. Vopr Pitan. 2004;73:21-3 pubmed
    ..As a result of a diet were positive dynamic of clinic manifestation, lipid spectrum of blood, coagulogramms and antioxigen status. ..
  17. Czerwinski J, Bartnikowska E, Leontowicz H, Lange E, Leontowicz M, Katrich E, et al. Oat (Avena sativa L.) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) meals positively affect plasma lipid profile in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets. J Nutr Biochem. 2004;15:622-9 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that amaranth could be a valuable substitute for hypercholesterolemic patients allergic to cereals. ..
  18. Gaines T, Shaner D, Ward S, Leach J, Preston C, Westra P. Mechanism of resistance of evolved glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:5886-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Questions remain related to how the EPSPS amplification initially occurred and the occurrence of this mechanism in other Palmer amaranth populations and other glyphosate-resistant species. ..
  19. Mario Sanz Penella J, Laparra J, Sanz Y, Haros M. Bread supplemented with amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus): effect of phytates on in vitro iron absorption. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2012;67:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher proportion of amaranth flour increased Fe concentration although there was not detected any increase in Fe uptake. ..
  20. Ballabio C, Uberti F, Di Lorenzo C, Brandolini A, Peñas E, Restani P. Biochemical and immunochemical characterization of different varieties of amaranth (Amaranthus L. ssp.) as a safe ingredient for gluten-free products. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:12969-74 pubmed publisher
    ..It is recommended that the most suitable amaranth varieties are those having the lowest content of proteins cross-reacting with anti-gliadin antibodies. ..
  21. Steffensen S, Pedersen H, Labouriau R, Mortensen A, Laursen B, de Troiani R, et al. Variation of polyphenols and betaines in aerial parts of young, field-grown Amaranthus genotypes. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:12073-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus mantegazzianus are commonly cultivated and the entire young fresh plants consumed as vegetables in regions of Africa and Asia. A. hybridus and A...
  22. Chinthapalli B, Murmu J, Raghavendra A. Dramatic difference in the responses of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase to temperature in leaves of C3 and C4 plants. J Exp Bot. 2003;54:707-14 pubmed
    Temperature caused phenomenal modulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) in leaf discs of Amaranthus hypochondriacus (NAD-ME type C(4) species), compared to the pattern in Pisum sativum (a C(3) plant)...
  23. Zeashan H, Amresh G, Singh S, Rao C. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Amaranthus spinosus against CCl4 induced toxicity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125:364-6 pubmed publisher
    50% ethanolic extract (ASE) of Amaranthus spinosus (whole plant) was evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity...
  24. Santaella Verdejo A, Gallegos B, Perez Campos E, Hernandez P, Zenteno E. Use of amaranthus leucocarpus lectin to differentiate cervical dysplasia (CIN). Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2007;37:219-28 pubmed
    ..Dolichos Biflorus lectin recognized CIN I dysplasia. Lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus showed increased reactivity in the presence of CIN II dysplasia, compared with CIN I and CIN III...
  25. Délano Frier J, Martínez Gallardo N, Martinez de la Vega O, Salas Araiza M, Barbosa Jaramillo E, Torres A, et al. The effect of exogenous jasmonic acid on induced resistance and productivity in amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) is influenced by environmental conditions. J Chem Ecol. 2004;30:1001-34 pubmed
    b>Amaranthus hypochondriacus is a C4 pseudocereal crop capable of producing reasonable grain yields in adverse environmental conditions that limit cereal performance...
  26. Cao S, Liu T, Jiang Y, He S, Harrison D, Joyce D. The effects of host defence elicitors on betacyanin accumulation in Amaranthus mangostanus seedlings. Food Chem. 2012;134:1715-8 pubmed publisher
    The effect of elicitors associated with host defence on betacyanin accumulation in Amaranthus mangostanus seedlings was investigated. Under the conditions of the experiments, betacyanin accumulation was generally enhanced by light...
  27. Alvarez R, Gandullo J, Feria A, Dever L, Vidal J, Echevarria C. Characterisation of seeds of a C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase-deficient mutant of Amaranthus edulis. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2011;13:16-21 pubmed publisher
    Seeds from the C(4) plant Amaranthus edulis were studied as part of the characterisation of a mutant (designated LaC(4) 2...
  28. Pastor M, Lorda G, Balatti A. [Production of pectinases by Penicillium simplicissimum A3263 in an amaranth-seed flour medium]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2002;34:15-21 pubmed
    ..of pectinases using a strain of Penicillium simplicissimum A3263 and considering the influence of adding Amaranthus cruentus seed meal in a selected medium. We also considered the influence of aeration on enzyme production...
  29. Búcaro Segura M, Bressani R. [Protein fraction distribution in milling and screened physical fractions of grain amaranth]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2002;52:167-71 pubmed
    ..The levels of prolamines were quite low. The protein extraction of the perisperm proteins retained on the 30 mesh screen was low (71.1%) measured by Kjeldahl and 47.4% with the Bradford method to measure protein. ..
  30. Iqbal A, Miller J, Murray L, Sadler I, Fry S. The pectic disaccharides lepidimoic acid and β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-d-galacturonic acid occur in cress-seed exudate but lack allelochemical activity. Ann Bot. 2016;117:607-23 pubmed publisher
    ..an allelochemical effect, promoting excessive hypocotyl elongation and inhibiting root growth in neighbouring Amaranthus caudatus seedlings...
  31. Yadav S, Sehgal S. Effect of domestic processing and cooking methods on total, hcl extractable iron and in vitro availability of iron in spinach and amaranth leaves. Nutr Health. 2002;16:113-20 pubmed
    Spinach (Spinacia oleracia) and amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) leaves were stored in polyethylene bags and without packing for 24 and 48 hours in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C and 30 degrees C in polyethylene bags...
  32. Medina Godoy S, Valdez Ortiz A, Valverde M, Paredes López O. Endoplasmic reticulum-retention C-terminal sequence enhances production of an 11S seed globulin from Amaranthus hypochondriacus in Pichia pastoris. Biotechnol J. 2006;1:1085-92 pubmed
    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was used to express an 11S seed globulin from Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Three different plasmids were tested for expression of amarantin...
  33. del Carmen Ramírez Medeles M, Aguilar M, Miguel R, Bolanos Garcia V, García Hernández E, Soriano García M. Amino acid sequence, biochemical characterization, and comparative modeling of a nonspecific lipid transfer protein from Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;415:24-33 pubmed
    ..An nsLTP was isolated from Amaranthus hypochondriacus seeds and purified by gel filtration and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography ..
  34. Singh G, Kawatra A, Sehgal S. Nutritional composition of selected green leafy vegetables, herbs and carrots. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2001;56:359-64 pubmed
    ..Copper, manganese and zinc contents were maximum in spinach. ..
  35. Grossmann K, Caspar G, Kwiatkowski J, Bowe S. On the mechanism of selectivity of the corn herbicide BAS 662H: a combination of the novel auxin transport inhibitor diflufenzopyr and the auxin herbicide dicamba. Pest Manag Sci. 2002;58:1002-14 pubmed
    ..translocation, metabolism and action of both compounds, applied alone and in combination, were investigated in Amaranthus retroflexus L, Galium aparine L and corn (Zea mays L)...
  36. Pedersini C, Bergamin M, Aroulmoji V, Baldini S, Picchio R, Pesce P, et al. Herbicide activity of extracts from Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae). Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6:593-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the bark of A. altissima may represent an interesting source for the production of natural herbicides for use in agriculture...
  37. Gélinas B, Seguin P. Oxalate in grain amaranth. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:4789-94 pubmed
    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) is a widely adaptable C4 pseudo-cereal crop that has interesting nutritional characteristics including high protein and calcium concentrations and a lack of gluten...
  38. Mota C, Santos M, Mauro R, Samman N, Matos A, Torres D, et al. Protein content and amino acids profile of pseudocereals. Food Chem. 2016;193:55-61 pubmed publisher
    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) represent the main protein source in several diets, although these pseudocereals are not currently present in the FCDB nutrient profile ..
  39. Kong X, Bertoft E, Bao J, Corke H. Molecular structure of amylopectin from Amaranth starch and its effect on physicochemical properties. Int J Biol Macromol. 2008;43:377-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Pasting properties of cold paste viscosity (CPV) and setback were also correlated with amylopectin structural parameters. ..
  40. Neamsuvan O, Ruangrit T. A survey of herbal weeds that are used to treat gastrointestinal disorders from southern Thailand: Krabi and Songkhla provinces. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;196:84-93 pubmed publisher
    ..83). The highest FLs (100%) were found for 12 species, including Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus viridis, Alternanthera sessilis, Sauropus androgynus, Plantago major, and others...
  41. Pina Rodriguez A, Akoh C. Synthesis and characterization of a structured lipid from amaranth oil as a partial fat substitute in milk-based infant formula. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:6748-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Research on the application and stability of this SL used in an infant formula is being conducted. ..
  42. Fan S, Zhao P, Zhang F, Yu C, Pan C. Spinach or amaranth may represent highest residue of thiophanate-methyl with open field application on six leaf vegetables. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;90:477-81 pubmed publisher
    ..It's recommended that spinach or amaranth can be selected as representative crop in leaf vegetables in study of systemic fungicides with similarity as thiophanate methyl...
  43. Galan M, Drago S, Armada M, José R. Iron, zinc and calcium dialyzability from extruded product based on whole grain amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus) and amaranth/Zea mays blends. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013;64:502-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Extruded amaranth products and amaranth addition to maize could be an interesting way to increase nutritional value of extruded products. ..
  44. Silva Sánchez C, González Castañeda J, De León Rodríguez A, Barba de la Rosa A. Functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins extracted from two Mexican varieties. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2004;59:169-74 pubmed
    ..In addition of the known high nutritional values of amaranth albumins, our results indicate the high potential for use of these proteins as an ingredient in food preparations. ..
  45. Gonor K, Pogozheva A, Kulakova S, Medvedev F, Miroshnichenko L. [The influence of diet with including amaranth oil on lipid metabolism in patients with ischemic heart disease and hyperlipoproteidemia]. Vopr Pitan. 2006;75:17-21 pubmed
    ..It was shown that antiatherosclerotic diet with including 600 mg squalene has promoted the most positive changes of the serum cholesterol and triglycerides level and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes membranes as well. ..
  46. Patzoldt W, Dixon B, Tranel P. Triazine resistance in Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq) Sauer that is not site-of-action mediated. Pest Manag Sci. 2003;59:1134-42 pubmed
    While surveying Illinois Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq) Sauer (tall waterhemp) half-sib populations for herbicide response variability, several were observed to segregate for resistance to atrazine...
  47. de la Rosa A, Montoya A, Martínez Cuevas P, Hernández Ledesma B, León Galván M, De León Rodríguez A, et al. Tryptic amaranth glutelin digests induce endothelial nitric oxide production through inhibition of ACE: antihypertensive role of amaranth peptides. Nitric Oxide. 2010;23:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Further molecular, cellular and physiological studies are currently under way and the results may contribute to a better understanding and control of cardiovascular disorders. ..
  48. Gassmann A, Futuyma D. Consequence of herbivory for the fitness cost of herbicide resistance: photosynthetic variation in the context of plant-herbivore interactions. J Evol Biol. 2005;18:447-54 pubmed
    ..We consider how the fitness cost of resistance to the herbicide triazine in Amaranthus hybridus interacts with folivory from the beetle Disonycha glabrata...
  49. Palmeros Suárez P, Massange Sánchez J, Martínez Gallardo N, Montero Vargas J, Gómez Leyva J, Délano Frier J. The overexpression of an Amaranthus hypochondriacus NF-YC gene modifies growth and confers water deficit stress resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Sci. 2015;240:25-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, a water stress-induced NF-YC gene from Amaranthus hypochondriacus (AhNF-YC) was further characterized by its overexpression in transgenic Arabidospis thaliana ..
  50. Zambrana S, Lundqvist L, Veliz V, Catrina S, Gonzales E, Ostenson C. Amaranthus caudatus Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Goto-Kakizaki Rats, a Model of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..i>Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food ..
  51. Kabiri N, Asgary S, Setorki M. Lipid lowering by hydroalcoholic extracts of Amaranthus caudatus L. induces regression of rabbits atherosclerotic lesions. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:89 pubmed publisher
    The antihypercholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of Amaranthus caudatus L (A. caudatus). on regression of atherosclerosis in experimental rabbits maintained on a high cholesterol diet...
  52. Niveyro S, Salvo A. Taxonomic and Functional Structure of Phytophagous Insect Communities Associated with Grain Amaranth. Neotrop Entomol. 2014;43:532-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Amaranthus are worldwide attacked mainly by leaf chewers and sucker insects. Stem borers and leaf miners follow in importance, while minor herbivores are leaf rollers, folders, and rasping-sucking insects...
  53. Lu P, Li J, Jin C, Jiang B, Bai Y. Different Growth Responses of an Invasive Weed and a Native Crop to Nitrogen Pulse and Competition. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0156285 pubmed publisher
    ..was conducted to assess the effects of nitrogen (N) pulses and competition on the growth of an invasive weed, Amaranthus retroflexus, and a native crop, Glycine max. A. retroflexus and G...