ginkgo biloba

Summary

Summary: The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.

Top Publications

  1. Yoshitake T, Yoshitake S, Kehr J. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R) and its main constituent flavonoids and ginkgolides increase extracellular dopamine levels in the rat prefrontal cortex. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159:659-68 pubmed publisher
    Experimental and clinical data suggest that extracts of Ginkgo biloba improve cognitive function. However, the neurochemical correlates of these effects are not yet fully clarified...
  2. Yang L, Wang C, Ye J, Li H. Hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:834-40 pubmed publisher
    The hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats...
  3. Ihl R, Tribanek M, Bachinskaya N. Baseline neuropsychiatric symptoms are effect modifiers in Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761®) treatment of dementia with neuropsychiatric features. Retrospective data analyses of a randomized controlled trial. J Neurol Sci. 2010;299:184-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Pszczolkowski M, Durden K, Sellars S, Cowell B, Brown J. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:10879-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella...
  5. Koh P. Gingko biloba extract (EGb 761) prevents increase of Bad-Bcl-XL interaction following cerebral ischemia. Am J Chin Med. 2009;37:867-76 pubmed
    ..The finding suggests that EGb 761 prevents cell death against ischemic brain injury and EGb 761 neuroprotection is affected by preventing the injury-induced increase of Bad and Bcl-X(L) interaction. ..
  6. Shah Z, Nada S, Dore S. Heme oxygenase 1, beneficial role in permanent ischemic stroke and in Gingko biloba (EGb 761) neuroprotection. Neuroscience. 2011;180:248-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, a popular and standardized natural extract, contains 24% ginkgo-flavonol glycosides and 6% terpene lactones...
  7. Tao R, Wang C, Kong Z. Antibacterial/antifungal activity and synergistic interactions between polyprenols and other lipids isolated from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves. Molecules. 2013;18:2166-82 pubmed publisher
    Polyprenols separated from lipids are promising new components from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves (GBL). In this paper, ginkgo lipids were isolated by extraction with petroleum ether, saponification, and molecular distillation...
  8. Jang S, Lee E, Lim M, Hong N, Oh I, Jin Y, et al. Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of inflammatory indicators in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by extract prepared from Ginkgo biloba cambial meristematic cells. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:420-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) leaves have been used as an herbal medicine that has a complex range of biological activities...
  9. Liao H, Zheng Y, Li H, Peng G. Two new ginkgolides from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Planta Med. 2011;77:1818-21 pubmed publisher
    Two new diterpenoid compounds, ginkgolide P(1) and ginkgolide Q(2), were isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L...

More Information

Publications82

  1. Yang T, Young Y, Liu S. EGb 761 (Ginkgo biloba) protects cochlear hair cells against ototoxicity induced by gentamicin via reducing reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide-related apoptosis. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22:886-94 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ginkgo biloba leaves and their extracts are among the most widely used herbal products and/or dietary supplements in the ..
  2. Zhang Q, Wang G, A J, Wu D, Zhu L, Ma B, et al. Application of GC/MS-based metabonomic profiling in studying the lipid-regulating effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:1674-87 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the lipid-regulating effects of extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGB) using pharmacological methods and metabonomic profiling in a rat model of diet-induced hyperlipidemia...
  3. Chan A, Leung H, Wu J, Chien T. Risk of hemorrhage associated with co-prescriptions for Ginkgo biloba and antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs. J Altern Complement Med. 2011;17:513-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to explore the risk of hemorrhage associated with co-prescriptions for Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and antiplatelet or anticoagulant agents, and evaluate the trends of co-prescriptions...
  4. Jiang X, Qian L, Zheng X, Xia Y, Jiang Y, Sun D. Interventional effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the progression of gastric precancerous lesions in rats. J Dig Dis. 2009;10:293-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on gastric precancerous lesions in rats...
  5. Niklas K, Christianson M. Differences in the scaling of area and mass of Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) leaves and their relevance to the study of specific leaf area. Am J Bot. 2011;98:1381-6 pubmed publisher
    ..distinct categories of leaves sampled from mega- and microsporangiate trees of the dioecious gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. Analyses of the data for these 13 categories of leaves identify seven statistically significantly different ..
  6. Pilija V, Mirjana R, Brenesel M, Popovic M, Ivetic V, Trivic S. Inhibitory effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the tonus of the small intestine and the colon of rabbits. Molecules. 2010;15:2079-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba is widely used in folk medicine. Patients very often use the plant preparation with no concern for purity...
  7. Li S, Tang D, Xue Z, Zhang Z, Sun X, Liu Y, et al. Biphasic effect of EGb761 on simulated ischemia-induced rat BMSC survival in vitro and in vivo. Life Sci. 2011;88:853-63 pubmed publisher
    The standardized extract from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) is applied as a phyto-pharmacon in therapy of diverse cardiovascular disorders...
  8. Weinmann S, Roll S, Schwarzbach C, Vauth C, Willich S. Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2010;10:14 pubmed publisher
    The benefit of Ginkgo biloba has been discussed controversially. The aim of this review was to assess the effects of Ginkgo biloba in Alzheimer's disease as well as vascular and mixed dementia covering a variety of outcome domains...
  9. Chen Z, Sun J, Chen H, Xiao Y, Liu D, Chen J, et al. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability studies of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba extracts, Ginkgo biloba extract phospholipid complexes and Ginkgo biloba extract solid dispersions in rats. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:1045-52 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) through preparing G. biloba extract phospholipid complexes (GBP) and G. biloba extract solid dispersions (GBS)...
  10. Thompson A, McGonigle I, Duke R, Johnston G, Lummis S. A single amino acid determines the toxicity of Ginkgo biloba extracts. FASEB J. 2012;26:1884-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba extracts are currently used for a wide range of health-related conditions. Some of the medical benefits of these extracts are controversial, but their lack of toxicity in humans is not in doubt...
  11. Baliutyte G, Baniene R, Trumbeckaite S, Borutaite V, Toleikis A. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on heart and liver mitochondrial functions: mechanism(s) of action. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2010;42:165-72 pubmed publisher
    Though extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBE) have a wide pharmacological application, little is known about GBE effects on mitochondria...
  12. Zhang Z, Tong Y, Zou J, Chen P, Yu D. Dietary supplement with a combination of Rhodiola crenulata and Ginkgo biloba enhances the endurance performance in healthy volunteers. Chin J Integr Med. 2009;15:177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether the ingestion of a herbal supplement called Rhodiola-Gingko Capsule (RGC) would enhance the endurance performance of healthy volunteers and change relevant hormones in a favorable manner...
  13. Evans J. Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD001775 pubmed publisher
    ..Vascular factors and oxidative damage are thought to be two potential mechanisms in the pathology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
  14. Koh P. Identification of proteins differentially expressed in cerebral cortexes of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761)-treated rats in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model--a proteomics approach. Am J Chin Med. 2011;39:315-24 pubmed
    EGb 761 is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba that appears to have a neuroprotective effect against neurodegenerative diseases...
  15. Shim S, Kim J, Choi C, Kim C, Park K. Ginkgo biloba extract and bilberry anthocyanins improve visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma. J Med Food. 2012;15:818-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and anthocyanins are considered beneficial for various vascular diseases...
  16. Snitz B, O Meara E, Carlson M, Arnold A, Ives D, Rapp S, et al. Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2009;302:2663-70 pubmed publisher
    The herbal product Ginkgo biloba is taken frequently with the intention of improving cognitive health in aging. However, evidence from adequately powered clinical trials is lacking regarding its effect on long-term cognitive functioning.
  17. Bustanji Y, Al Masri I, Mohammad M, Hudaib M, Tawaha K, Tarazi H, et al. Pancreatic lipase inhibition activity of trilactone terpenes of Ginkgo biloba. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2011;26:453-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, the methanolic extract of Ginkgo biloba L...
  18. Pedroso J, Henriques Aquino C, Escórcio Bezerra M, Baiense R, Suarez M, Dutra L, et al. Ginkgo biloba and cerebral bleeding: a case report and critical review. Neurologist. 2011;17:89-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba is a herbal medication that is often used worldwide. Although side effects are uncommon, G. biloba has been associated with serious bleeding complications, especially intracranial hemorrhage...
  19. Pinto M, Kwon Y, Apostolidis E, Lajolo F, Genovese M, Shetty K. Potential of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves in the management of hyperglycemia and hypertension using in vitro models. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:6599-609 pubmed publisher
    Leaves from four different Ginkgo biloba L. trees (1 and 2--females; 3 and 4--males), grown at the same conditions, were collected during a period of 5 months (from June to October, 2007)...
  20. Qiu F, Friesen J, McAlpine J, Pauli G. Design of countercurrent separation of Ginkgo biloba terpene lactones by nuclear magnetic resonance. J Chromatogr A. 2012;1242:26-34 pubmed publisher
    Terpene lactones such as bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B, C, and J are major bioactive compounds of Ginkgo biloba L. Purification of these compounds is tedious due to their similar chemical properties...
  21. Lee J, Sohn S, Kee C. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on visual field progression in normal tension glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2013;22:780-4 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the long-term effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on progression of visual field (VF) defects in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG).
  22. Muller W, Heiser J, Leuner K. Effects of the standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® on neuroplasticity. Int Psychogeriatr. 2012;24 Suppl 1:S21-4 pubmed publisher
    ..While all three fractions of constituents (ginkgolides, flavonoids, bilobalide) seem to be active, the flavonoids and specifically the aglycone isorhamnetin seem to be most relevant...
  23. Lucinda L, Vieira B, Oliveira T, Sá R, Peters V, Reis J, et al. Evidences of osteoporosis improvement in Wistar rats treated with Ginkgo biloba extract: a histomorphometric study of mandible and femur. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:982-7 pubmed publisher
    This study was aimed at investigating the anti-osteoporotic effects of the extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) in glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis...
  24. Schiborr C, Eckert G, Weissenberger J, Muller W, Schwamm D, Grune T, et al. Cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation are similar in SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice and unaltered by curcumin and Ginkgo biloba extract intake. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2010;11:861-7 pubmed
    ..Two groups of SAMP8 mice were simultaneously fed identical diets fortified with 0.5 g curcumin or 1.0 g Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(®) per kg diet...
  25. Wang H, Song Y, Qi H, Rong Z, Wang B, Zhang L, et al. Effectiveness of standardized ginkgo biloba extract on cognitive symptoms of dementia with a six-month treatment: a bivariate random effect meta-analysis. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2010;43:86-91 pubmed publisher
    ..into consideration the influence of baseline risk on the treatment effect and evaluate the effectiveness of standardized GINKGO BILOBA extract (GbE) on cognitive symptoms of dementia with the treatment period of approximately 6 months.
  26. Shi C, Liu J, Wu F, Yew D. Ginkgo biloba extract in Alzheimer's disease: from action mechanisms to medical practice. Int J Mol Sci. 2010;11:107-23 pubmed publisher
    Standardized extract from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree, labeled EGb761, is one of the most popular herbal supplements...
  27. Kaschel R. Ginkgo biloba: specificity of neuropsychological improvement--a selective review in search of differential effects. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:345-70 pubmed publisher
    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba are widely used for the treatment of cognitive impairment...
  28. Panda V, N S. Evaluation of cardioprotective activity of Ginkgo biloba and Ocimum sanctum in rodents. Altern Med Rev. 2009;14:161-71 pubmed
    This study investigates the cardioprotective activity of a combined treatment of Ginkgo biloba phytosomes (GBP) and Ocimum sanctum extract (Os) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial necrosis in rats...
  29. Hua C, Linling L, Shuiyuan C, Fuliang C, Feng X, Honghui Y, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of three genes encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase from Ginkgo biloba in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72017 pubmed publisher
    ..Three DFR cDNA clones (designated GbDFRs) were isolated from the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. The deduced GbDFR proteins showed high identities to other plant DFRs, which form three distinct DFR families...
  30. Guo C, Pei Q, Yin J, Peng X, Zhou B, Zhao Y, et al. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts on pharmacokinetics and efficacy of atorvastatin based on plasma indices. Xenobiotica. 2012;42:784-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in the world. It is often administered in combination with statins to treat diseases, especially some nervous system disorders...
  31. Zhou H, Chen X, Wang C, Ye J, Chen H. Purification and characterization of a novel ~18 kDa antioxidant protein from Ginkgo biloba seeds. Molecules. 2012;17:14778-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba seeds are widely used as a food and traditional medicine in China. In the present study, a novel antioxidant protein named GBSP was purified from Ginkgo biloba seeds...
  32. dal Belo S, Gaspar L, Maia Campos P, Marty J. Skin penetration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and quercetin from green tea and Ginkgo biloba extracts vehiculated in cosmetic formulations. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;22:299-304 pubmed publisher
    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and Ginkgo biloba extracts in cosmetic formulations have been suggested to protect the skin against UV-induced damage and skin ageing...
  33. Oliveira D, Sanada P, Filho A, Conceição G, Cerutti J, Cerutti S. Long-term treatment with standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba L. enhances the conditioned suppression of licking in rats by the modulation of neuronal and glial cell function in the dorsal hippocampus and central amygdala. Neuroscience. 2013;235:70-86 pubmed publisher
    Our group previously demonstrated that short-term treatment with a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) changed fear-conditioned memory by modulating gene expression in the hippocampus, amygdaloid complex and prefrontal cortex...
  34. Cheng H, Li L, Xu F, Cheng S, Cao F, Wang Y, et al. Expression patterns of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene involved in lignin biosynthesis and environmental stress in Ginkgo biloba. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:707-21 pubmed publisher
    ..A cDNA sequence encoding the CAD gene was isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L, designated as GbCAD1...
  35. Ozgoli G, Selselei E, Mojab F, Majd H. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba L. in treatment of premenstrual syndrome. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15:845-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Herbal medicine is a recent favorable therapeutic approach owing to fewer side-effects. We aimed to determine the effect of Ginkgo biloba L. on the symptoms of PMS.
  36. Kaur P, Chaudhary A, Singh B, Gopichand -. An efficient microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of Ginkgo biloba. Nat Prod Commun. 2012;7:203-6 pubmed
    Flavonoid glycosides are a significant group of compounds found in Ginkgo biloba leaves, but the long extraction procedures in existing methods are a challenging problem...
  37. Lin C, Wu C, Huang Y, Chaw S. The complete chloroplast genome of Ginkgo biloba reveals the mechanism of inverted repeat contraction. Genome Biol Evol. 2012;4:374-81 pubmed publisher
    We determined the complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) of Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo), the only relict of ginkgophytes from the Triassic Period...
  38. Rocher M, Carré D, Spinnewyn B, Schulz J, Delaflotte S, Pignol B, et al. Long-term treatment with standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) attenuates cognitive deficits and hippocampal neuron loss in a gerbil model of vascular dementia. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:1075-80 pubmed publisher
    The standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba EGb 761 has been used to reduce cognitive dysfunction. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of postischemic oral treatment with EGb 761 in a model of vascular dementia in gerbils...
  39. Mahdy H, Tadros M, Mohamed M, Karim A, Khalifa A. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Neurochem Int. 2011;59:770-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on 3-NP induced neurobehavioral changes and striatal lesions...
  40. Hu Y, Huang M, Dong X, Xu Q, Yu W, Zhang Z. Ginkgolide B reduces neuronal cell apoptosis in the hemorrhagic rat brain: possible involvement of Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B pathway. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:1462-8 pubmed publisher
    ..B (GB) is one of the ginkgolides that have been isolated from leaves and root bark of the Chinese tree Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae), and is a specific and potent antagonist of platelet activating factor...
  41. Ou H, Hsieh Y, Yang N, Tsai K, Chen K, Tsai C, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract attenuates oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction via an AMPK-dependent mechanism. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013;114:274-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) acts as a therapeutic agent for neurological and cardiovascular disorders...
  42. Zhang C, Ren C, Chen H, Geng R, Fan H, Zhao H, et al. The analog of Ginkgo biloba extract 761 is a protective factor of cognitive impairment induced by chronic fluorosis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;153:229-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 is widely used to treat patients with learning and memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease in China...
  43. Xu F, Li L, Zhang W, Cheng H, Sun N, Cheng S, et al. Isolation, characterization, and function analysis of a flavonol synthase gene from Ginkgo biloba. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:2285-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the FLS gene (designated as GbFLS) were isolated from Ginkgo biloba. The full-length cDNA of GbFLS contained a 1023-bp open reading frame encoding a 340-amino-acid protein...
  44. Wu C, Chaw S, Huang Y. Chloroplast phylogenomics indicates that Ginkgo biloba is sister to cycads. Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:243-54 pubmed publisher
    ..not yet reached a consensus on the placement of Ginkgoales, which is represented by the only living species, Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo). At least six discrepant placements of ginkgo have been proposed...
  45. Cavusoglu K, Yapar K, Oruc E, Yalcin E. Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract against glyphosate toxicity in Swiss albino mice. J Med Food. 2011;14:1263-72 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract against the active agent of Roundup® herbicide (Monsanto, Creve Coeur, MO, USA)...
  46. Trompezinski S, Bonneville M, Pernet I, Denis A, Schmitt D, Viac J. Gingko biloba extract reduces VEGF and CXCL-8/IL-8 levels in keratinocytes with cumulative effect with epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Arch Dermatol Res. 2010;302:183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBE), widely used in phytotherapy, have been reported to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ..
  47. Lin X, Zhang J, Li Y, Luo H, Wu Q, Sun C, et al. Functional genomics of a living fossil tree, Ginkgo, based on next-generation sequencing technology. Physiol Plant. 2011;143:207-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba is monotypic species native to China and has old, dioecious, medicinally important characteristics...
  48. Koh P. Gingko biloba extract (EGb 761) attenuates the focal cerebral ischemic injury-induced decrease in astrocytic phosphoprotein PEA-15 levels. Am J Chin Med. 2011;39:971-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The maintenance of PEA-15 phosphorylation by EGb 761 pretreatment during cerebral ischemic injury indicates that EGb 761 is a neuroprotective against cerebral ischemic injury...
  49. Chen S, Xing X, Huang J, Xu M. Enzyme-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba leaves: improvement effect of flavonol transglycosylation catalyzed by Penicillium decumbens cellulase. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2011;48:100-5 pubmed publisher
    We report a novel enzyme-involved approach to improve the extraction of flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba, in which the enzyme is employed not only for cell wall degradation, but also for increasing the solubility of target compounds in the ..
  50. Oh J, Oh J, Togloom A, Kim S, Huh K. Effects of ginkgo biloba extract on cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells under chemical hypoxia. Curr Eye Res. 2013;38:1072-82 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells under chemical hypoxia.
  51. Ude C, Schubert Zsilavecz M, Wurglics M. Ginkgo biloba extracts: a review of the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredients. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2013;52:727-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba is among the most favourite and best explored herbal drugs...
  52. Ju J, Huang Y, Qian S, Qian D, Duan J, Cao F. [Studies on dynamic change of total ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves of different aged trees and different collecting seasons]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:817-9 pubmed
    To study dynamic change of total ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves of the different aged trees and different collecting seasons.
  53. Bäurle P, Suter A, Wormstall H. Safety and effectiveness of a traditional ginkgo fresh plant extract - results from a clinical trial. Forsch Komplementmed. 2009;16:156-61 pubmed publisher
    In Chinese medicine, Ginkgo biloba is used for a variety of indications. In the current study, the safety and efficacy of a traditional fresh plant extract was investigated in patients with mild cognitive impairment.
  54. Salehi B, Imani R, Mohammadi M, Fallah J, Mohammadi M, Ghanizadeh A, et al. Ginkgo biloba for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a double blind, randomized controlled trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:76-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the desire for safe and effective nonstimulant medications has risen during the past several years. Ginkgo biloba has been suggested in the treatment of dementia and memory impairment. We hypothesized that G...
  55. Ren M, Yang S, Li J, Hu Y, Ren Z, Ren S. Ginkgo biloba L. extract enhances the effectiveness of syngeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in lowering blood glucose levels and reversing oxidative stress. Endocrine. 2013;43:360-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ginkgo biloba L. extract (EGB) is a potent antioxidant which can remove free radicals...
  56. Brinkley T, Lovato J, Arnold A, Furberg C, Kuller L, Burke G, et al. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on blood pressure and incidence of hypertension in elderly men and women. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23:528-33 pubmed publisher
    Accumulating evidence suggests that Ginkgo biloba is cardioprotective, in part, through its vasodilatory and antihypertensive properties. However, definitive data on its blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in humans is lacking.
  57. Kim B, Kim K, Lim K, Kim J, Yoon S, Cho J, et al. Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic properties of ticlopidine: an open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, single-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers. Clin Ther. 2010;32:380-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba extract is an herbal medicine used in the treatment of vascular disorders that may be coadministered with antiplatelet agents such as ticlopidine...
  58. Shi C, Wu F, Xu J. H2O2 and PAF mediate Abeta1-42-induced Ca2+ dyshomeostasis that is blocked by EGb761. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:893-905 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, each of these events could be blocked by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761, a free radical scavenger with PAF antagonism, and by quercetin, a constituent with well-..
  59. Gurunathan S, Han J, Park J, Eppakayala V, Kim J. Ginkgo biloba: a natural reducing agent for the synthesis of cytocompatible graphene. Int J Nanomedicine. 2014;9:363-77 pubmed publisher
    ..biological approach for an efficient method to synthesize water-soluble and cytocompatible graphene using Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) as a reducing and stabilizing agent...
  60. Mohamed M, Frye R. Inhibition of intestinal and hepatic glucuronidation of mycophenolic acid by Ginkgo biloba extract and flavonoids. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:270-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this work was to examine the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract and its main flavonoid and terpene lactone constituents on mycophenolic acid (MPA) 7-O-glucuronidation...
  61. Kaur P, Chaudhary A, Singh B, Gopichand -. Optimization of extraction technique and validation of developed RP-HPLC-ELSD method for determination of terpene trilactones in Ginkgo biloba leaves. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009;50:1060-4 pubmed publisher
    ..ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide C (GC), ginkgolide J (GJ) and bilobalide (BB) within 8 min in Ginkgo biloba leaf extract...
  62. Rhein V, Giese M, Baysang G, Meier F, Rao S, Schulz K, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract ameliorates oxidative phosphorylation performance and rescues abeta-induced failure. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12359 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether standardized Ginkgo biloba extract LI 1370 (GBE) is able to rescue Abeta-induced defects in energy metabolism.
  63. Lautenschlager N, Ihl R, Muller W. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in the context of current developments in the diagnosis and treatment of age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease: a research perspective. Int Psychogeriatr. 2012;24 Suppl 1:S46-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The main aim was to discuss the available preclinical and clinical data on Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761® in the context of current developments in the diagnosis and treatment of age-related ..
  64. Zhang W, Tan Y, Zhang X, Chan R, Wu H, Zhou D. Extract of Ginkgo biloba treatment for tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:615-21 pubmed publisher
    Free radicals may be involved in the pathogenesis of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) is a potent antioxidant possessing free radical-scavenging activities...
  65. Chen J, Huang P, Wang C, Lin F, Tsai H, Wu T, et al. Nrf-2 mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression, an antioxidant-independent mechanism, contributes to anti-atherogenesis and vascular protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract. Atherosclerosis. 2011;214:301-9 pubmed publisher
    Vascular protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) may involve both antioxidant-related and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. GBE was recently suggested as a heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducer...
  66. Motawi T, Rizk S, Shehata A. Effects of curcumin and Ginkgo biloba on matrix metalloproteinases gene expression and other biomarkers of inflammatory bowel disease. J Physiol Biochem. 2012;68:529-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to manage IBD using natural products as curcumin and Ginkgo biloba. Rats were divided into four groups (control, IBD, curcumin treated, and ginkgo treated)...
  67. Lim S, Yoon J, Kang S, Choi S, Cho B, Kim M, et al. EGb761, a Ginkgo biloba extract, is effective against atherosclerosis in vitro, and in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20301 pubmed publisher
    EGb761, a standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, has antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation and thus might protect against atherosclerosis...
  68. Mohanta T, Occhipinti A, Atsbaha Zebelo S, Foti M, Fliegmann J, Bossi S, et al. Ginkgo biloba responds to herbivory by activating early signaling and direct defenses. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32822 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) is one of the most ancient living seed plants and is regarded as a living fossil. G...
  69. Hasanzadeh E, Mohammadi M, Ghanizadeh A, Rezazadeh S, Tabrizi M, Rezaei F, et al. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba added to risperidone in patients with autistic disorders. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2012;43:674-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder...
  70. Mashayekh A, Pham D, Yousem D, Dizon M, Barker P, Lin D. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on cerebral blood flow assessed by quantitative MR perfusion imaging: a pilot study. Neuroradiology. 2011;53:185-91 pubmed publisher
    Extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb), a dietary supplement used for a number of conditions including dementia, has been suggested to increase cerebral bloodflow (CBF)...
  71. Taki Y, Yokotani K, Yamada S, Shinozuka K, Kubota Y, Watanabe Y, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract attenuates warfarin-mediated anticoagulation through induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes by bilobalide in mice. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:177-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a popular herbal ingredient used worldwide, but it is reported to induce bleeding as a serious adverse event...
  72. Cybulska Heinrich A, Mozaffarieh M, Flammer J. Ginkgo biloba: an adjuvant therapy for progressive normal and high tension glaucoma. Mol Vis. 2012;18:390-402 pubmed
    ..One such risk factor is a primary vascular dysregulation (PVD) occurring in patients with a disturbed autoregulation, another risk factor is oxidative stress...
  73. Galián J, Rosato M, Rosselló J. Early evolutionary colocalization of the nuclear ribosomal 5S and 45S gene families in seed plants: evidence from the living fossil gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. Heredity (Edinb). 2012;108:640-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work has identified colocalization of 45S and 5S loci in Ginkgo biloba using FISH, but these observations have not been confirmed recently by sequencing a 1.8 kb IGS...