viola

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.

Top Publications

  1. Trabi M, Craik D. Tissue-specific expression of head-to-tail cyclized miniproteins in Violaceae and structure determination of the root cyclotide Viola hederacea root cyclotide1. Plant Cell. 2004;16:2204-16 pubmed
    ..We have examined the expression patterns of these fascinating peptides in various Viola species (Violaceae)...
  2. Chen B, Colgrave M, Daly N, Rosengren K, Gustafson K, Craik D. Isolation and characterization of novel cyclotides from Viola hederaceae: solution structure and anti-HIV activity of vhl-1, a leaf-specific expressed cyclotide. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22395-405 pubmed
    ..the sequences of four novel cyclotides (macrocyclic knotted proteins) isolated from an Australian plant Viola hederaceae were determined. The three-dimensional solution structure of V...
  3. Ireland D, Colgrave M, Nguyencong P, Daly N, Craik D. Discovery and characterization of a linear cyclotide from Viola odorata: implications for the processing of circular proteins. J Mol Biol. 2006;357:1522-35 pubmed
    ..This study reports the discovery of a naturally occurring linear cyclotide, violacin A, from the plant Viola odorata and discusses the implications for in vivo cyclization of peptides...
  4. Culley T, Sbita S, Wick A. Population genetic effects of urban habitat fragmentation in the perennial herb Viola pubescens (Violaceae) using ISSR markers. Ann Bot. 2007;100:91-100 pubmed
    ..whether such detrimental effects occur within an urban landscape, the genetic structure of six populations of the perennial herb Viola pubescens was characterized in the metropolitan area of Greater Cincinnati in southwestern Ohio, USA.
  5. Kim K, Kwak Y, Kim K, Yu H, Kang B, Chung E, et al. Purification and structure determination of gelatinase and collagenase inhibitors from Viola patrinii fermentation extracts. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2010;32:614-6 pubmed publisher
    ..1) and luteolin-7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of Viola patrinii fermentation extracts (VPFE)...
  6. Svangård E, Goransson U, Hocaoglu Z, Gullbo J, Larsson R, Claeson P, et al. Cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor. J Nat Prod. 2004;67:144-7 pubmed
    A crude fraction of Viola tricolor rich in small lipophilic proteins was prepared and subjected to fractionation guided by bioactivity, using RP-HPLC and a fluorometric cytotoxicity assay...
  7. Goransson U, Sjögren M, Svangård E, Claeson P, Bohlin L. Reversible antifouling effect of the cyclotide cycloviolacin O2 against barnacles. J Nat Prod. 2004;67:1287-90 pubmed
    ..Cycloviolacin O2 was isolated from the terrestrial plant Viola odorata by strong cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC and identified by mass spectrometry following ..
  8. Mereda P, Hodálová I, Mártonfi P, Kucera J, Lihová J. Intraspecific variation in Viola suavis in Europe: parallel evolution of white-flowered morphotypes. Ann Bot. 2008;102:443-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Viola species are commonly grown for their ornamental flowers, but their evolutionary history and taxonomy are often complicated and have been poorly explored so far...
  9. Moon H, Jung J, Lee J. Aldose reductase inhibitory effect by tectorigenin derivatives from Viola hondoensis. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006;14:7592-4 pubmed
    ..In contrast, tectoridin-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside showed a stronger inhibitory activity than tectorigenin and tectoridin. Our results indicate that glucose conjugation position in this type of isoflavonoids may be required for the activity...

More Information

Publications74

  1. Yeshak M, Burman R, Asres K, Goransson U. Cyclotides from an extreme habitat: characterization of cyclic peptides from Viola abyssinica of the Ethiopian highlands. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:727-31 pubmed publisher
    ..of the structural diversity of cyclotides, the cyclotide content of a native violet of the East African highlands, Viola abyssinica (which grows at altitudes up to 3400 m), was studied...
  2. van den Hof K, van den Berg R, Gravendeel B. Chalcone synthase gene lineage diversification confirms allopolyploid evolutionary relationships of European rostrate violets. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:2099-108 pubmed publisher
    Phylogenetic relationships among and within the subsections of the genus Viola are still far from resolved...
  3. Wang C, Colgrave M, Gustafson K, Ireland D, Goransson U, Craik D. Anti-HIV cyclotides from the Chinese medicinal herb Viola yedoensis. J Nat Prod. 2008;71:47-52 pubmed
    ..In this study we have characterized the cyclotides from Viola yedoensis, an important Chinese herb from the Violaceae family that has been reported to contain potential anti-..
  4. Herrmann A, Burman R, Mylne J, Karlsson G, Gullbo J, Craik D, et al. The alpine violet, Viola biflora, is a rich source of cyclotides with potent cytotoxicity. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:939-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that the alpine violet Viola biflora (Violaceae) is a rich source of cyclotides...
  5. Vukics V, Kery A, Bonn G, Guttman A. Major flavonoid components of heartsease (Viola tricolor L.) and their antioxidant activities. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008;390:1917-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The highest electron-donor capacity was found for the major flavonoid component (rutin), whereas one minor component-rich flavonoid fraction exhibited the highest hydrogen-donor activity...
  6. Vukics V, Toth B, Ringer T, Ludanyi K, Kery A, Bonn G, et al. Quantitative and qualitative investigation of the main flavonoids in heartsease (Viola tricolor L.). J Chromatogr Sci. 2008;46:97-101 pubmed
    ..to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) is used for the analysis of flavonoids in heartsease (Viola tricolor L.)...
  7. Pränting M, Lööv C, Burman R, Goransson U, Andersson D. The cyclotide cycloviolacin O2 from Viola odorata has potent bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:1964-71 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the antibacterial activity of small cyclic plant proteins, i.e. cyclotides, and the importance of the surface exposed charged residues for activity...
  8. Moon H, Jung J, Lee J. Antiplasmodial activity of triterpenoid isolated from whole plants of Viola genus from South Korea. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:641-4 pubmed
    Species of the Viola genus, used in traditional medicines for the treatment of parasites, were collected and petroleum ether extract was obtained by sonication...
  9. Yu J, Dai Z, Lin R. [Chemical constituents of Viola tianshanica]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:2916-7 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents of Viola tianshanica.
  10. Jeon G, Yoon M, Park H, Lee S, Park E. Neuroprotective activity of Viola mandshurica extracts on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and cell death in PC12 cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1171:576-82 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to examine the neuroprotective effects of acetone extracts from Viola mandshurica (VME)...
  11. Klovekorn W, Tepe A, Danesch U. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, half-side comparison with a herbal ointment containing Mahonia aquifolium, Viola tricolor and Centella asiatica for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007;45:583-91 pubmed
    ..An ointment containing extracts from Mahonia aquifolium, Viola tricolor and Centella asiatica has previously been studied in open uncontrolled trials with children...
  12. Hashempour H, Ghassempour A, Daly N, Spengler B, Römpp A. Analysis of cyclotides in Viola ignobilis by Nano liquid chromatography fourier transform mass spectrometry. Protein Pept Lett. 2011;18:747-52 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have used this technique to find cyclotides in a novel species, Viola ignobilis (Violaceae plant family), which was collected from the West Azerbaijan province of Iran...
  13. Chen B, Colgrave M, Wang C, Craik D. Cycloviolacin H4, a hydrophobic cyclotide from Viola hederaceae. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:23-8 pubmed
    ..comprising 30 amino acid residues, was isolated from the underground parts of the Australian native violet Viola hederaceae...
  14. Witkowska Banaszczak E, Bylka W, Matławska I, Goślińska O, Muszyński Z. Antimicrobial activity of Viola tricolor herb. Fitoterapia. 2005;76:458-61 pubmed
    ..antimicrobial activity of infusion, decoction, ethanol extract and fractions obtained by successive extraction of Viola tricolor herb with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol was evaluated...
  15. Moon H, Lee J, Kwak J, Zee O, Chung J. Isoflavonoid from Viola hondoensis, regulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28:925-8 pubmed
    ..Here we investigated the effect of 2',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone isolated from the whole plants of Viola hondoensis (Violaceae) on the expression of MMPs in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts in vitro...
  16. Yang J, Qu Z, Xiao Y, Qiu G, Zhang T, Wu Z, et al. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of endemic Viola tianshanica. Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:1635-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of the aerial parts of Viola tianshanica were evaluated in this research...
  17. Goransson U, Broussalis A, Claeson P. Expression of Viola cyclotides by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing of intercysteine loops after introduction of charges and cleavage sites by aminoethylation. Anal Biochem. 2003;318:107-17 pubmed
    The expression of cyclotides-macrocyclic plant peptides-was profiled in six violets, Viola cotyledon, V. biflora, V. arvensis, V. tricolor, V. riviniana, and V. odorata, by LC-MS...
  18. Słomka A, Sutkowska A, Szczepaniak M, Malec P, Mitka J, Kuta E. Increased genetic diversity of Viola tricolor L. (Violaceae) in metal-polluted environments. Chemosphere. 2011;83:435-42 pubmed publisher
    ..used ISSR PCR fingerprinting data to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of seven populations of Viola tricolor: four growing on soil contaminated with heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd; waste heaps) and three from control ..
  19. He W, Chan L, Zeng G, Daly N, Craik D, Tan N. Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola philippica. Peptides. 2011;32:1719-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, eight new cyclotides (Viphi A-H), along with eight known cyclotides, were isolated from Viola philippica, a plant from the Violaceae family...
  20. Gerlach S, Rathinakumar R, Chakravarty G, Goransson U, Wimley W, Darwin S, et al. Anticancer and chemosensitizing abilities of cycloviolacin 02 from Viola odorata and psyle cyclotides from Psychotria leptothyrsa. Biopolymers. 2010;94:617-25 pubmed publisher
    Cycloviolacin O2 (CyO2), a cyclotide from Viola odorata (Violaceae) has antitumor effects and causes cell death by membrane permeabilization...
  21. Muhammad N, Saeed M, Khan H, Haq I. Evaluation of n-hexane extract of Viola betonicifolia for its neuropharmacological properties. J Nat Med. 2013;67:1-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Viola betonicifolia (whole plant) has been used as a sedative and in various nervous disorders in Pakistani traditional medicines. The n-hexane extract of the whole plant of V...
  22. Muhammad N, Saeed M, Khan H. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:59 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME)...
  23. Ebrahimzadeh M, Nabavi S, Nabavi S, Bahramian F, Bekhradnia A. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of H. officinalis L. var. angustifolius, V. odorata, B. hyrcana and C. speciosum. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2010;23:29-34 pubmed
    ..The content of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were measured in plant extracts. The data obtained in the in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potency of all extracts...
  24. Piana M, Silva M, Trevisan G, de Brum T, Silva C, Boligon A, et al. Antiinflammatory effects of Viola tricolor gel in a model of sunburn in rats and the gel stability study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;150:458-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Viola tricolor, popularly known as heartsease has been empirically used in several skin disorders, including burns.
  25. Zhang J, Liao B, Craik D, Li J, Hu M, Shu W. Identification of two suites of cyclotide precursor genes from metallophyte Viola baoshanensis: cDNA sequence variation, alternative RNA splicing and potential cyclotide diversity. Gene. 2009;431:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..By screening a cDNA library of Viola baoshanensis roots and using RACE and RT-PCR methods, 23 cDNA clones were identified and then used to deduce full ..
  26. Vukics V, Kery A, Guttman A. Analysis of polar antioxidants in Heartsease (Viola tricolor L.) and Garden pansy (Viola x wittrockiana Gams.). J Chromatogr Sci. 2008;46:823-7 pubmed
    Heartsease (Viola tricolor L.) is a well-known medicinal plant. Its biological activities are supposed to be related to its antioxidant capacity. Garden pansies (Viola x wittrockiana Gams...
  27. Lee S, Park W, Moon H. Bioassay-guided isolation of antiplasmodial anacardic acids derivatives from the whole plants of Viola websteri Hemsl. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:463-6 pubmed publisher
    The petroleum ether extract of Viola websteri Hemsl. (Violaceae) was investigated for its activity against chloroquine-sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay method...
  28. Colgrave M, Kotze A, Ireland D, Wang C, Craik D. The anthelmintic activity of the cyclotides: natural variants with enhanced activity. Chembiochem. 2008;9:1939-45 pubmed publisher
    ..cycloviolacin O8, cycloviolacin O13, cycloviolacin O14, cycloviolacin O15, and cycloviolacin O16 extracted from Viola odorata showed up to 18-fold greater potency than the prototypic cyclotide kalata B1 in nematode larval ..
  29. Moon H, Lee J, Zee O, Chung J. A glycosidic isoflavonoid from Viola hondoensis W. BECKER et H. BOISSIEU (Violaceae), and its effect on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 caused by ultraviolet irradiation in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28:1123-5 pubmed
    Isolation of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction from aerial parts of Viola hondoensis W. BECKER et H. BOISSIEU yielded one major isoflavonoid glycoside, tectoridin-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside...
  30. Lindholm P, Goransson U, Johansson S, Claeson P, Gullbo J, Larsson R, et al. Cyclotides: a novel type of cytotoxic agents. Mol Cancer Ther. 2002;1:365-9 pubmed
    Cytotoxic activities of three naturally occurring macrocyclic peptides (cyclotides) isolated from the two violets, Viola arvensis Murr. and Viola odorata L., were investigated...
  31. Siddiqi H, Mehmood M, Rehman N, Gilani A. Studies on the antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic activities of Viola odorata leaves extract. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:6 pubmed publisher
    This study was undertaken to provide pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Viola odorata Linn. in hypertension and dyslipidemia using the in vivo and in vitro assays.
  32. Marcussen T, Blaxland K, Windham M, Haskins K, Armstrong F. Establishing the phylogenetic origin, history, and age of the narrow endemic Viola guadalupensis (Violaceae). Am J Bot. 2011;98:1978-88 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Viola guadalupensis is a narrow endemic of the Guadalupe Mountains (west Texas, USA)...
  33. Li W, Xie J, Li H, Zhang Y, Cao J, Cheng Z, et al. Viola yedoensis liposoluble fraction ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. Am J Chin Med. 2012;40:1007-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Viola yedoensis is a component of traditional Chinese herb medicine for inflammatory diseases. Chemical constituents of V...
  34. Marcussen T, Jakobsen K, Danihelka J, Ballard H, Blaxland K, Brysting A, et al. Inferring species networks from gene trees in high-polyploid North American and Hawaiian violets (Viola, Violaceae). Syst Biol. 2012;61:107-26 pubmed publisher
    ..of competing scenarios involving polyploidization and homoeolog loss in a high-polyploid lineage of violets (Viola, Violaceae) mostly or entirely restricted to North America, Central America, or Hawaii...
  35. Ireland D, Colgrave M, Craik D. A novel suite of cyclotides from Viola odorata: sequence variation and the implications for structure, function and stability. Biochem J. 2006;400:1-12 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we determined the cyclotide content of the sweet violet Viola odorata, a member of the Violaceae family...
  36. Verma G, Dua V, Agarwal D, Atul P. Anti-malarial activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica and Viola canescens, plants traditionally used against malaria in the Garhwal region of north-west Himalaya. Malar J. 2011;10:20 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study shows evaluation of anti-malarial effects of two plants commonly used against malaria in the Garhwal region of north-west Himalaya, in order to discover the herbal-based medicine...
  37. Słomka A, Libik Konieczny M, Kuta E, Miszalski Z. Metalliferous and non-metalliferous populations of Viola tricolor represent similar mode of antioxidative response. J Plant Physiol. 2008;165:1610-9 pubmed publisher
    ..APX), catalase (CAT) activity and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content were analyzed in leaves and roots of Viola tricolor (Viola) from contaminated soils ('Bukowno', 'Saturn', 'Warpie' heaps), and non-contaminated soil ('..
  38. Wu C, Liao B, Wang S, Zhang J, Li J. Pb and Zn accumulation in a Cd-hyperaccumulator (Viola baoshanensis). Int J Phytoremediation. 2010;12:574-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Viola baoshanensis has been identified as a Cd-hyperaccumulator, however, its ability to accumulate Pb or Zn is less certain. Therefore, this study focused on determining whether or not V...
  39. Tang J, Wang C, Pan X, Yan H, Zeng G, Xu W, et al. Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor. Peptides. 2010;31:1434-40 pubmed publisher
    ..He], together with seven known cyclotides [varv A, D, E, F, H, vitri A, and cycloviolacin O2], was isolated from Viola tricolor, a common flower...
  40. Herrera C, Bazaga P. Epigenetic differentiation and relationship to adaptive genetic divergence in discrete populations of the violet Viola cazorlensis. New Phytol. 2010;187:867-76 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic divergence between populations, were investigated for wild populations of the southern Spanish violet Viola cazorlensis (Violaceae) using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique, a modification of ..
  41. Lee M, Yuk J, Kwon O, Kim H, Oh S, Lee H, et al. Anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects of Viola mandshurica W. Becker (VM) ethanolic (EtOH) extract on airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127:159-64 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the efficacy of Viola mandshurica W. Becker (VM) ethanolic (EtOH) extract in the treatment of bronchial asthma in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic BALB/c mouse model.
  42. Ciuffo M, Pacifico D, Margaria P, Turina M. A new ilarvirus isolated from Viola × wittrockiana and its detection in pansy germoplasm by qRT-PCR. Arch Virol. 2014;159:561-5 pubmed publisher
    An infectious agent was transmitted mechanically from samples of Viola spp. showing white mosaic and leaf deformation to Nicotiana benthamiana. dsRNA extracted from the N...
  43. Li H, Wang L, Sheng K, Zou L, Ye B. Highly sensitive determination of esculetin on TiO2-NPs-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene modified electrode. Talanta. 2016;161:838-846 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the proposed electroanalytical methodology was applied in Chinese herb Viola yedoensis Makino and Cortex Fraxini with satisfactory results, showing that fabricated sensor has potential to be ..
  44. Abdullah -, Khan M, Ahmad W, Ahmad M, Nisar M. Hepatoprotective effect of the solvent extracts of Viola canescens Wall. ex. Roxb. against CCl4 induced toxicity through antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:10 pubmed publisher
    b>Viola canescens Wall. ex. Roxb. exhibits analgesic, antimalarial and antispasmodic activities. It is used folklorically for the treatment of liver diseases, hypertension, malaria and cancer...
  45. Chung I, Seo S, Kang E, Park W, Moon H. Anti-malarial activity of 6-(8'Z-pentadecenyl)-salicylic acid from Viola websteri in mice. Malar J. 2009;8:151 pubmed publisher
    Petroleum ether extracts of Viola websteri Hemsl (Violaceae) were reported to have anti-plasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro, with this activity being largely attributable to 6-(8'Z-pentadecenyl)-salicylic acid (6-..
  46. Herrera C, Bazaga P. Population-genomic approach reveals adaptive floral divergence in discrete populations of a hawk moth-pollinated violet. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:5378-90 pubmed publisher
    ..in metric floral traits exhibited by 14 populations of the southern Spanish hawk moth-pollinated violet Viola cazorlensis reflects adaptive divergence...
  47. Franza T, Mahé B, Expert D. Erwinia chrysanthemi requires a second iron transport route dependent of the siderophore achromobactin for extracellular growth and plant infection. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:261-75 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, iron transport mediated by achromobactin or a closely related siderophore probably exists in other phytopathogenic bacterial species such as Pseudomonas syringae...
  48. Hermann B, Katarina V, Paula P, Matevž L, Neva S, Primož P, et al. Metallophyte status of violets of the section Melanium. Chemosphere. 2013;93:1844-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study solves the issue for violets of the section Melanium (zinc violets, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria and V. lutea ssp...
  49. Dai J, Tao H, Min Q, Zhu Q. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of friedelolactones from Viola diffusa Ging. Phytomedicine. 2015;22:724-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Viola diffusa Ging is used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of hepatitis...
  50. Melchor Rodríguez A, Ramos Castro J. Video pulse rate variability analysis in stationary and motion conditions. Biomed Eng Online. 2018;17:11 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a selective tracking method using the Viola-Jones and KLT algorithms, with the aim of carrying out a robust video PRV analysis in stationary and motion ..
  51. Qin Y, Pang Y, Cheng Z. Needle Trap Device as a New Sampling and Preconcentration Approach for Volatile Organic Compounds of Herbal Medicines and its Application to the Analysis of Volatile Components in Viola tianschanica. Phytochem Anal. 2016;27:364-374 pubmed publisher
    ..NTD sample preparation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for qualitative analysis of VOCs in Viola tianschanica...
  52. Zeng H, Wang B, Zhao Z, Zhang Q, Liang M, Yao Y, et al. Effects of Viola yedoensis Makino anti-itching compound on degranulation and cytokine generation in RBL-2H3 mast cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;189:132-8 pubmed publisher
    The Chinese herb compound prescription Viola yedoensis Makino Anti-itching Compound (VYAC), which consists of Viola yedoensis Makino, herb, Sophora flavescens Aiton, root, and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz, root and rhizome, has been ..
  53. Steinmetz A, Claus A, Hodges P, Jull G. Neck muscle function in violinists/violists with and without neck pain. Clin Rheumatol. 2016;35:1045-51 pubmed publisher
    Neck pain is associated with changes in neuromuscular control of cervical muscles. Violin and viola playing requires good function of the flexor muscles to stabilize the instrument...
  54. Vukics V, Ringer T, Kery A, Bonn G, Guttman A. Analysis of heartsease (Viola tricolor L.) flavonoid glycosides by micro-liquid chromatography coupled to multistage mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1206:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these glycoconjugates were found to be the derivatives of six aglycones: apigenin, chrysoeriol, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin...
  55. Qin Y, Yin C, Cheng Z. A new tetrahydrofuran lignan diglycoside from Viola tianshanica Maxim. Molecules. 2013;18:13636-44 pubmed publisher
    ..known lignan glycosides, picraquassioside C (3), and aketrilignoside B (4), were isolated from the whole plant of Viola tianshanica Maxim...
  56. Karioti A, Furlan C, Vincieri F, Bilia A. Analysis of the constituents and quality control of Viola odorata aqueous preparations by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;399:1715-23 pubmed publisher
    ..ionisation (ESI) interface was developed for the determination of the constituents in the aqueous preparations of Viola odorata L. flowering tops...
  57. Jones N, Husband B, Macdougall A. Reproductive system of a mixed-mating plant responds to climate perturbation by increased selfing. Proc Biol Sci. 2013;280:20131336 pubmed publisher
    ..The stabilizing effects of these reproductive responses in the long term, however, may depend on the implications of significantly elevated levels of selfing. ..
  58. Olsen S, Töpper J, Skarpaas O, Vandvik V, Klanderud K. From facilitation to competition: temperature-driven shift in dominant plant interactions affects population dynamics in seminatural grasslands. Glob Chang Biol. 2016;22:1915-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study highlights the importance of population-level studies replicated under different climatic conditions for understanding the underlying mechanisms of climate change impacts on plants. ..
  59. Jeong Y, Oh Y, Cho W, Shin H, Lee K, Ma J. Anti-inflammatory effects of Viola yedoensis and the application of cell extraction methods for investigating bioactive constituents in macrophages. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:180 pubmed publisher
    b>Viola yedoensis (VY, Violaceae) is a popular medicinal herb used in traditional eastern medicine for treating lots of diseases, including inflammation and its related symptoms...
  60. Svangård E, Goransson U, Smith D, Verma C, Backlund A, Bohlin L, et al. Primary and 3-D modelled structures of two cyclotides from Viola odorata. Phytochemistry. 2003;64:135-42 pubmed
    Two polypeptides named vodo M and vodo N, both of 29 amino acids, have been isolated from Viola odorata L. (Violaceae) using ion exchange chromatography and reversed phase HPLC...
  61. Sze S, Wang W, Meng W, Yuan R, Guo T, Zhu Y, et al. Elucidating the structure of cyclotides by partial acid hydrolysis and LC-MS/MS analysis. Anal Chem. 2009;81:1079-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Briefly, a mixture of closely related cyclotides, kalata B1 and varv A purified from Viola yedoensis was partially hydrolyzed in 2 M HCl for 5 min by microwave-assisted hydrolysis or for 30 min in an ..
  62. Sun Y, Du L, Zhou L, Zhang W, Miao F, Yang X, et al. [Study on antibacterial active components from Viola yedoensis]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36:2666-71 pubmed
    Study on the antibacterial activity of Viola yedoensis and the antibacterial active compounds.
  63. Saint Lary L, Roy C, Paris J, Martin J, Thomas O, Fernandez X. Metabolomics for the Authentication of Natural Extracts Used in Flavors and Fragrances: the Case Study of Violet Leaf Absolutes from Viola odorata. Chem Biodivers. 2016;13:737-47 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time, we investigated the use of nontargeted UHPLC-ToFMS metabolomics for this purpose, considering Viola odorata l., a plant largely used in the perfume industry, as a model...
  64. Schulz B, Eckstein R, Durka W. Scoring and analysis of methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphisms for epigenetic population studies. Mol Ecol Resour. 2013;13:642-53 pubmed publisher
    ..and differentiation, we applied eight scoring schemes to a case study of three populations of the plant species Viola elatior...
  65. Muhammad N, Rehman N, Khan H, Saeed M, Gilani A. Prokinetic and laxative effects of the crude methanolic extract of Viola betonicifolia whole plant in rodents. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:70 pubmed publisher
    The present study was aimed to provide ethnopharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Viola betonicifolia whole plant in indigestion and constipation.