cacao

Summary

Summary: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and CHOCOLATE.

Top Publications

  1. Kemps E, Tiggemann M, Bettany S. Non-food odorants reduce chocolate cravings. Appetite. 2012;58:1087-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The non-food odorant (jasmine) significantly reduced chocolate cravings relative to both the food and control odorants. Thus simple non-food odorants offer potential scope as a technique for curbing unwanted food cravings...
  2. Hanada R, Pomella A, Costa H, Bezerra J, Loguercio L, Pereira J. Endophytic fungal diversity in Theobroma cacao (cacao) and T. grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees and their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of black-pod disease. Fungal Biol. 2010;114:901-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from stems and branches of Theobroma cacao (cacao) and Theobroma grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees growing in the Amazon region of Brazil was assessed...
  3. Shi Z, Zhang Y, Maximova S, Guiltinan M. TcNPR3 from Theobroma cacao functions as a repressor of the pathogen defense response. BMC Plant Biol. 2013;13:204 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the characterization of a putative NPR3 gene from the tropical tree species Theobroma cacao (TcNPR3)...
  4. Papalexandratou Z, Vrancken G, De Bruyne K, Vandamme P, De Vuyst L. Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. Food Microbiol. 2011;28:1326-38 pubmed publisher
  5. Stote K, Clevidence B, Novotny J, Henderson T, Radecki S, Baer D. Effect of cocoa and green tea on biomarkers of glucose regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and hemostasis in obese adults at risk for insulin resistance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66:1153-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Argout X, Salse J, Aury J, Guiltinan M, Droc G, Gouzy J, et al. The genome of Theobroma cacao. Nat Genet. 2011;43:101-8 pubmed publisher
    We sequenced and assembled the draft genome of Theobroma cacao, an economically important tropical-fruit tree crop that is the source of chocolate...
  7. Hooper L, Kay C, Abdelhamid A, Kroon P, Cohn J, Rimm E, et al. Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:740-51 pubmed publisher
    ..There is substantial interest in chocolate and flavan-3-ols for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
  8. Neufingerl N, Zebregs Y, Schuring E, Trautwein E. Effect of cocoa and theobromine consumption on serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:1201-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unclear whether this effect is attributable to flavonoids or theobromine, both of which are major cocoa components...
  9. Lefeber T, Gobert W, Vrancken G, Camu N, De Vuyst L. Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels. Food Microbiol. 2011;28:457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth...
  10. Camfield D, Scholey A, Pipingas A, Silberstein R, Kras M, Nolidin K, et al. Steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) topography changes associated with cocoa flavanol consumption. Physiol Behav. 2012;105:948-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of significant behavioral effects, these differences in brain activation can be interpreted as evidence of increased neural efficiency in spatial working memory function associated with chronic cocoa flavanol consumption...

Detail Information

Publications69

  1. Kemps E, Tiggemann M, Bettany S. Non-food odorants reduce chocolate cravings. Appetite. 2012;58:1087-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The non-food odorant (jasmine) significantly reduced chocolate cravings relative to both the food and control odorants. Thus simple non-food odorants offer potential scope as a technique for curbing unwanted food cravings...
  2. Hanada R, Pomella A, Costa H, Bezerra J, Loguercio L, Pereira J. Endophytic fungal diversity in Theobroma cacao (cacao) and T. grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees and their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of black-pod disease. Fungal Biol. 2010;114:901-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from stems and branches of Theobroma cacao (cacao) and Theobroma grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees growing in the Amazon region of Brazil was assessed...
  3. Shi Z, Zhang Y, Maximova S, Guiltinan M. TcNPR3 from Theobroma cacao functions as a repressor of the pathogen defense response. BMC Plant Biol. 2013;13:204 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the characterization of a putative NPR3 gene from the tropical tree species Theobroma cacao (TcNPR3)...
  4. Papalexandratou Z, Vrancken G, De Bruyne K, Vandamme P, De Vuyst L. Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. Food Microbiol. 2011;28:1326-38 pubmed publisher
  5. Stote K, Clevidence B, Novotny J, Henderson T, Radecki S, Baer D. Effect of cocoa and green tea on biomarkers of glucose regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and hemostasis in obese adults at risk for insulin resistance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66:1153-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Argout X, Salse J, Aury J, Guiltinan M, Droc G, Gouzy J, et al. The genome of Theobroma cacao. Nat Genet. 2011;43:101-8 pubmed publisher
    We sequenced and assembled the draft genome of Theobroma cacao, an economically important tropical-fruit tree crop that is the source of chocolate...
  7. Hooper L, Kay C, Abdelhamid A, Kroon P, Cohn J, Rimm E, et al. Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:740-51 pubmed publisher
    ..There is substantial interest in chocolate and flavan-3-ols for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
  8. Neufingerl N, Zebregs Y, Schuring E, Trautwein E. Effect of cocoa and theobromine consumption on serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:1201-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unclear whether this effect is attributable to flavonoids or theobromine, both of which are major cocoa components...
  9. Lefeber T, Gobert W, Vrancken G, Camu N, De Vuyst L. Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels. Food Microbiol. 2011;28:457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth...
  10. Camfield D, Scholey A, Pipingas A, Silberstein R, Kras M, Nolidin K, et al. Steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) topography changes associated with cocoa flavanol consumption. Physiol Behav. 2012;105:948-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of significant behavioral effects, these differences in brain activation can be interpreted as evidence of increased neural efficiency in spatial working memory function associated with chronic cocoa flavanol consumption...
  11. Venkatesh Babu N, Vivek D, Ambika G. Comparative evaluation of chlorhexidine mouthrinse versus cacao bean husk extract mouthrinse as antimicrobial agents in children. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2011;12:245-9 pubmed
    To compare the antimicrobial efficiency of chlorhexidine and cacao bean husk extract mouthrinses in children.
  12. da Hora Junior B, Poloni J, Lopes M, Dias C, Gramacho K, Schuster I, et al. Transcriptomics and systems biology analysis in identification of specific pathways involved in cacao resistance and susceptibility to witches' broom disease. Mol Biosyst. 2012;8:1507-19 pubmed publisher
    This study reports on expression analysis associated with molecular systems biology of cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction...
  13. Khawaja O, Gaziano J, Djousse L. Chocolate and coronary heart disease: a systematic review. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2011;13:447-52 pubmed publisher
    ..It also discusses major limitations of currently available data and future directions in the field...
  14. Lima L, Almeida M, Nout M, Zwietering M. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the Gods": quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011;51:731-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The standardization of the microbiological methods and the application of metagenomic approaches would magnify the knowledge in this domain...
  15. Yasuda A, Natsume M, Osakabe N, Kawahata K, Koga J. Cacao polyphenols influence the regulation of apolipoprotein in HepG2 and Caco2 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:1470-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study investigated the effects of cacao polyphenols on the production of apolipoproteins A1 and B in human hepatoma HepG2 and intestinal Caco2 cell lines...
  16. Illeghems K, De Vuyst L, Papalexandratou Z, Weckx S. Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38040 pubmed publisher
    ..To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques...
  17. Gómez Juaristi M, Gonzalez Torres L, Bravo L, Vaquero M, Bastida S, Sanchez Muniz F. [Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health]. Nutr Hosp. 2011;26:289-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The study of the interaction of chocolate and its components with candidate genes will also supply necessary information regarding the individuals best suited to benefit from a potential cardiovascular disease treatment with chocolate...
  18. Massot Cladera M, Pérez Berezo T, Franch A, Castell M, Perez Cano F. Cocoa modulatory effect on rat faecal microbiota and colonic crosstalk. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;527:105-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, cocoa intake affects the growth of certain species of gut microbiota in rats and is associated with changes in the TLR pattern which could be responsible for the changes observed in the intestinal immune system...
  19. Costa G, Cabrera O, Tiburcio R, Medrano F, Carazzolle M, Thomazella D, et al. The mitochondrial genome of Moniliophthora roreri, the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao. Fungal Biol. 2012;116:551-62 pubmed publisher
    ..mt) genome of the Basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora roreri, which is the etiologic agent of frosty pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)...
  20. Allegre M, Argout X, Boccara M, Fouet O, Roguet Y, Bérard A, et al. Discovery and mapping of a new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat panel for large-scale genetic studies and breeding of Theobroma cacao L. DNA Res. 2012;19:23-35 pubmed publisher
    Theobroma cacao is an economically important tree of several tropical countries. Its genetic improvement is essential to provide protection against major diseases and improve chocolate quality...
  21. Ellam S, Williamson G. Cocoa and human health. Annu Rev Nutr. 2013;33:105-28 pubmed publisher
    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate...
  22. Papalexandratou Z, Falony G, Romanens E, Jimenez J, Amores F, Daniel H, et al. Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:7698-714 pubmed publisher
    ..All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans...
  23. Kuo Y, Chung C. Solid lipid nanoparticles comprising internal Compritol 888 ATO, tripalmitin and cacao butter for encapsulating and releasing stavudine, delavirdine and saquinavir. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2011;88:682-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The lipids including Compritol 888 ATO, tripalmitin, and cacao butter were stabilized by L-?-phospatidylcholine, cholesteryl hemisuccinate, and taurocholate to form SLNs...
  24. Pérez Berezo T, Franch A, Ramos Romero S, Castellote C, Perez Cano F, Castell M. Cocoa-enriched diets modulate intestinal and systemic humoral immune response in young adult rats. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55 Suppl 1:S56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to elucidate whether diets containing lower amounts of cocoa could also influence the systemic and intestinal humoral immune response...
  25. Andújar I, Recio M, Giner R, Cienfuegos Jovellanos E, Laghi S, Muguerza B, et al. Inhibition of ulcerative colitis in mice after oral administration of a polyphenol-enriched cocoa extract is mediated by the inhibition of STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation in colon cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:6474-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect is principally due to the inhibition of transcription factors STAT1 and STAT3 in intestinal cells, with NF-?B inhibition also being implicated...
  26. Spaccarotella K, Andzel W. The effects of low fat chocolate milk on postexercise recovery in collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:3456-60 pubmed publisher
    ..03). Low fat chocolate milk may therefore be as good as a CE at promoting recovery between training sessions during preseason...
  27. Shi Z, Maximova S, Liu Y, Verica J, Guiltinan M. Functional analysis of the Theobroma cacao NPR1 gene in Arabidopsis. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:248 pubmed publisher
  28. Trognitz B, Cros E, Assemat S, Davrieux F, Forestier Chiron N, Ayestas E, et al. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54079 pubmed publisher
    ..quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in ..
  29. Khan N, Monagas M, Andres Lacueva C, Casas R, Urpi Sarda M, Lamuela Raventos R, et al. Regular consumption of cocoa powder with milk increases HDL cholesterol and reduces oxidized LDL levels in subjects at high-risk of cardiovascular disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012;22:1046-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was too evaluate the effects of chronic cocoa consumption on lipid profile, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) particles and plasma antioxidant vitamin concentrations in high-risk patients...
  30. Oleaga C, García M, Solé A, Ciudad C, Izquierdo Pulido M, Noe V. CYP1A1 is overexpressed upon incubation of breast cancer cells with a polyphenolic cocoa extract. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51:465-76 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effect of cocoa flavonoids in breast cancer cells at the molecular level, a functional genomic analysis was performed using a polyphenolic cocoa extract (PCE) in MCF-7 and SKBR3 cell lines...
  31. Thomazella D, Teixeira P, Oliveira H, Saviani E, Rincones J, Toni I, et al. The hemibiotrophic cacao pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa depends on a mitochondrial alternative oxidase for biotrophic development. New Phytol. 2012;194:1025-34 pubmed publisher
    The tropical pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa causes witches' broom disease in cacao. As a hemibiotrophic fungus, it initially colonizes the living host tissues (biotrophic phase), and later grows over the dead plant (necrotrophic ..
  32. Thomas E, van Zonneveld M, Loo J, Hodgkin T, Galluzzi G, van Etten J. Present spatial diversity patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the neotropics reflect genetic differentiation in pleistocene refugia followed by human-influenced dispersal. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47676 pubmed publisher
    b>Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon basin, but is generally believed to have been domesticated in Mesoamerica for the production of chocolate beverage...
  33. Hale S, Alling V, Martinsen V, Mulder J, Breedveld G, Cornelissen G. The sorption and desorption of phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in cacao shell and corn cob biochars. Chemosphere. 2013;91:1612-9 pubmed publisher
    The sorption of PO4-P, NH4-N and NO3-N to cacao shell and corn cob biochars produced at 300-350°C was quantified...
  34. Sotelo A, Soleri D, Wacher C, Sánchez Chinchillas A, Argote R. Chemical and nutritional composition of tejate, a traditional maize and cacao beverage from the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2012;67:148-55 pubmed publisher
    Foam-topped cacao and maize beverages have a long history in Mesoamerica. Tejate is such a beverage found primarily in the Zapotec region of the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico...
  35. Franco R, Oñatibia Astibia A, Martínez Pinilla E. Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate. Nutrients. 2013;5:4159-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable...
  36. Zaparoli G, Barsottini M, de Oliveira J, Dyszy F, Teixeira P, Barau J, et al. The crystal structure of necrosis- and ethylene-inducing protein 2 from the causal agent of cacao's Witches' Broom disease reveals key elements for its activity. Biochemistry. 2011;50:9901-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Genomic-scale studies of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes the Witches' Broom disease in cacao, which is a serious economic concern for South and Central American crops, have identified five members of this ..
  37. Gu Y, Hurst W, Stuart D, Lambert J. Inhibition of key digestive enzymes by cocoa extracts and procyanidins. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:5305-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that cocoa polyphenols can inhibit digestive enzymes in vitro and may, in conjunction with a low-calorie diet, play a role in body weight management...
  38. Silva C, Albuquerque P, Ervedosa F, Mota J, Figueira A, Sebbenn A. Understanding the genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure and mating system at the hierarchical levels of fruits and individuals of a continuous Theobroma cacao population from the Brazilian Amazon. Heredity (Edinb). 2011;106:973-85 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of fruits and individuals as well as pollen dispersal patterns in a continuous population of Theobroma cacao in Pará State, Brazil. A total of 156 individuals in a 0...
  39. Feltus F, Saski C, Mockaitis K, Haiminen N, Parida L, Smith Z, et al. Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:379 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, specific BAC clones representing the prioritized genomic interval are selected, pooled, and used to prepare a sequencing library...
  40. Rodríguez Ramiro I, Ramos S, López Oliva E, Agis Torres A, Gómez Juaristi M, Mateos R, et al. Cocoa-rich diet prevents azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in rats by restraining oxidative stress and cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:1895-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide the first in vivo evidence that a cocoa-rich diet may inhibit the early stage of colon carcinogenesis probably by preventing oxidative stress and cell proliferation and by inducing apoptosis...
  41. Buitrago Lopez A, Sanderson J, Johnson L, Warnakula S, Wood A, Di Angelantonio E, et al. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011;343:d4488 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders...
  42. Fogliano V, Corollaro M, Vitaglione P, Napolitano A, Ferracane R, Travaglia F, et al. In vitro bioaccessibility and gut biotransformation of polyphenols present in the water-insoluble cocoa fraction. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55 Suppl 1:S44-55 pubmed publisher
  43. Pereira Caro G, Borges G, Nagai C, Jackson M, Yokota T, Crozier A, et al. Profiles of phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids during the development of seeds of Theobroma cacao cv. Trinitario. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:427-34 pubmed publisher
    Changes occurring in phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids, during the growth of seeds of cacao (Theobroma cacao) cv. Trinitario, were investigated using HPLC-MS/MS...
  44. Pinheiro T, Litholdo C, Sereno M, Leal G, Albuquerque P, Figueira A. Establishing references for gene expression analyses by RT-qPCR in Theobroma cacao tissues. Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:3291-305 pubmed publisher
    Lack of continuous progress in Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae) breeding, especially associated with seed quality traits, requires more efficient selection methods based on genomic information...
  45. Field D, Williams C, Butler L. Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in an acute improvement in visual and cognitive functions. Physiol Behav. 2011;103:255-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These acute effects can be explained by increased cerebral blood flow caused by CF, although in the case of contrast sensitivity there may be an additional contribution from CF induced retinal blood flow changes...
  46. Pérez Berezo T, Franch A, Castellote C, Castell M, Perez Cano F. Mechanisms involved in down-regulation of intestinal IgA in rats by high cocoa intake. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:838-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These overall effects in the intestine may explain the intestinal IgA down-regulatory effect after the consumption of a long-term cocoa-enriched diet...
  47. Asmaro D, Jaspers Fayer F, Sramko V, Taake I, Carolan P, Liotti M. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the hedonic processing of chocolate images in individuals with and without trait chocolate craving. Appetite. 2012;58:790-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirm the role of OFC in unrestrained appetitive responses to chocolate in cravers, and suggest top-down influences from cognitive control mechanisms when attempting to restrain the urge to eat chocolate in non-cravers...
  48. Shrime M, Bauer S, McDonald A, Chowdhury N, Coltart C, Ding E. Flavonoid-rich cocoa consumption affects multiple cardiovascular risk factors in a meta-analysis of short-term studies. J Nutr. 2011;141:1982-8 pubmed publisher
    ..06). FRC consumption significantly improves blood pressure, insulin resistance, lipid profiles, and FMD. These short-term benefits warrant larger long-term investigations into the cardioprotective role of FRC...
  49. Tzounis X, Rodriguez Mateos A, Vulevic J, Gibson G, Kwik Uribe C, Spencer J. Prebiotic evaluation of cocoa-derived flavanols in healthy humans by using a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:62-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The absorption of cocoa flavanols in the small intestine is limited, and the majority of the flavanols reach the large intestine where they may be metabolized by resident microbiota...
  50. Lefeber T, Janssens M, Moens F, Gobert W, De Vuyst L. Interesting starter culture strains for controlled cocoa bean fermentation revealed by simulated cocoa pulp fermentations of cocoa-specific lactic acid bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:6694-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol...
  51. Lefeber T, Papalexandratou Z, Gobert W, Camu N, De Vuyst L. On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof. Food Microbiol. 2012;30:379-92 pubmed publisher
  52. Katz D, Doughty K, Ali A. Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;15:2779-811 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks...
  53. Copetti M, Iamanaka B, Nester M, Efraim P, Taniwaki M. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa by-products and determination of its reduction during chocolate manufacture. Food Chem. 2013;136:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..6% of ochratoxin A present in the beans was reduced during the chocolate producing...
  54. Powis T, Cyphers A, Gaikwad N, Grivetti L, Cheong K. Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:8595-600 pubmed publisher
    Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use--spanning more than 34 centuries--as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of ..
  55. Kane N, Sveinsson S, Dempewolf H, Yang J, Zhang D, Engels J, et al. Ultra-barcoding in cacao (Theobroma spp.; Malvaceae) using whole chloroplast genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA. Am J Bot. 2012;99:320-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because this method uses much longer versions of the traditional DNA-barcoding loci in the plastid and ribosomal DNA, we call our approach ultra-barcoding (UBC)...
  56. Ramos Romero S, Perez Cano F, Castellote C, Castell M, Franch A. Effect of cocoa-enriched diets on lymphocytes involved in adjuvant arthritis in rats. Br J Nutr. 2012;107:378-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the cocoa-enriched diets during AA were not able to significantly decrease joint inflammation but modified Th-cell proportions and prevented specific antibody synthesis...
  57. Latif R. Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review. Neth J Med. 2013;71:63-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this review is to interpret research done in the last decade on the benefits and risks of chocolate consumption...
  58. Martin M, Goya L, Ramos S. Potential for preventive effects of cocoa and cocoa polyphenols in cancer. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;56:336-51 pubmed publisher
  59. Fisher N, Hurwitz S, Hollenberg N. Habitual flavonoid intake and endothelial function in healthy humans. J Am Coll Nutr. 2012;31:275-9 pubmed
    ..Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that this variation is determined in large part by a person's habitual dietary intake of flavonoids...
  60. Papalexandratou Z, Camu N, Falony G, De Vuyst L. Comparison of the bacterial species diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out at selected farms in Ivory Coast and Brazil. Food Microbiol. 2011;28:964-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To conclude, it turned out that the species diversity and community dynamics, influenced by local operational practices, in particular pod/bean selection, impact the quality of fermented cocoa beans...
  61. Menezes S, Dos Santos J, Cardoso T, Pirovani C, Micheli F, Noronha F, et al. Evaluation of the allergenicity potential of TcPR-10 protein from Theobroma cacao. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37969 pubmed publisher
    The pathogenesis related protein PR10 (TcPR-10), obtained from the Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction library, presents antifungal activity against M. perniciosa and acts in vitro as a ribonuclease...
  62. Min S, Yang H, Seo S, Shin S, Chung M, Kim J, et al. Cocoa polyphenols suppress adipogenesis in vitro and obesity in vivo by targeting insulin receptor. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013;37:584-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the inhibitory effect of cocoa polyphenol extract (CPE) on adipogenesis and obesity along with its mechanism of action...
  63. Dias C, Mendes J, Dos Santos A, Pirovani C, da Silva Gesteira A, Micheli F, et al. Hydrogen peroxide formation in cacao tissues infected by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011;49:917-22 pubmed publisher
    ..and the content of Oxa and ascorbic acid (Asa)--the main precursor of Oxa in plants--in susceptible and resistant cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) infected by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa...
  64. Yamashita Y, Okabe M, Natsume M, Ashida H. Prevention mechanisms of glucose intolerance and obesity by cacao liquor procyanidin extract in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;527:95-104 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we investigated whether cacao liquor procyanidin (CLPr) extract, which consists of 4.3% catechin, 6.1% epicatechin, 39...
  65. Gattward J, Almeida A, Souza J, Gomes F, Kronzucker H. Sodium-potassium synergism in Theobroma cacao: stimulation of photosynthesis, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrition. Physiol Plant. 2012;146:350-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, clonal plants of the major tropical C3 crop Theobroma cacao (cacao) were grown in soil where potassium (K(+)) was partially replaced (at six levels, up to 50% replacement) by ..
  66. Carnevale R, Loffredo L, Pignatelli P, Nocella C, Bartimoccia S, di Santo S, et al. Dark chocolate inhibits platelet isoprostanes via NOX2 down-regulation in smokers. J Thromb Haemost. 2012;10:125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to assess if dark chocolate inhibits platelet reactive oxidant species (ROS) formation and platelet activation...
  67. Papalexandratou Z, De Vuyst L. Assessment of the yeast species composition of cocoa bean fermentations in different cocoa-producing regions using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. FEMS Yeast Res. 2011;11:564-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Yeasts were not detected in the samples when the temperature inside the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass reached values higher than 45 °C or under early acetic acid production conditions...