paullinia

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE. The seed of P. cupana is the source of guarana powder which contains 4% CAFFEINE.

Top Publications

  1. Hasegawa T, Takahashi K, Saijo M, Ishii T, Nagata T. [Rapid determination of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine in dietary supplements containing guarana by ultra-performance liquid chromatography]. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2009;50:304-10 pubmed
    ..45 mg/tablet, 5.48 mg/tablet, 139 mg/tablet, respectively. Taking 4 tablets of this product according to the directions on the package could be dangerous to consumers because of possible overdosing of these ingredients...
  2. Avato P, Pesante M, Fanizzi F, Santos C. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke. Lipids. 2003;38:773-80 pubmed
    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated...
  3. Angelo P, Nunes Silva C, Brigido M, Azevedo J, Assunção E, Sousa A, et al. Guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis), an anciently consumed stimulant from the Amazon rain forest: the seeded-fruit transcriptome. Plant Cell Rep. 2008;27:117-24 pubmed
    Guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) is a plant native to the central Amazon basin...
  4. Fukumasu H, Avanzo J, Nagamine M, Barbuto J, Rao K, Dagli M. Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis, guaraná, reduces cell proliferation and increases apoptosis of B16/F10 melanoma lung metastases in mice. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2008;41:305-10 pubmed
    We showed that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis) had a chemopreventive effect on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis and reduced diethylnitrosamine-induced DNA damage...
  5. Fukumasu H, Avanzo J, Heidor R, Silva T, Atroch A, Moreno F, et al. Protective effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) against DEN-induced DNA damage on mouse liver. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006;44:862-7 pubmed
    Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) is a plant originally from Brazil, which is rich in tannins. Some tannins are known to present protective effects against DNA damage...
  6. de Oliveira Campos M, Riechelmann R, Martins L, Hassan B, Casa F, del Giglio A. Guarana (Paullinia cupana) improves fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy. J Altern Complement Med. 2011;17:505-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a plant native to the Amazon basin that has been used as a stimulant since pre-Columbian times.
  7. Lima W, Carnevali L, Eder R, Costa Rosa L, Bacchi E, Seelaender M. Lipid metabolism in trained rats: effect of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation. Clin Nutr. 2005;24:1019-28 pubmed
    ..We examined the effect of guarana supplementation (14 days) upon aspects of lipid metabolism in sedentary (C) and trained rats (T)...
  8. Oliveira C, Moraes M, Moraes M, Bezerra F, Abib E, De Nucci G. Clinical toxicology study of an herbal medicinal extract of Paullinia cupana, Trichilia catigua, Ptychopetalum olacoides and Zingiber officinale (Catuama) in healthy volunteers. Phytother Res. 2005;19:54-7 pubmed
    In Brazil, a herbal medicinal extract named Catuama containing a mixture of Paullinia cupana (guarana; Sapindaceae), Trichilia catigua (catuaba; Meliaceae), Ptychopetalum olacoides (muirapuama; Olacaceae) and Zingiber officinale (ginger; ..
  9. Kennedy D, Haskell C, Wesnes K, Scholey A. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004;79:401-11 pubmed
    Extracts from the plant guarana (Paullinia cupana) feature as putatively stimulating ingredients in a number of foods, drinks and dietary/herbal supplements...

More Information

Publications91

  1. Yamaguti Sasaki E, Ito L, Canteli V, Ushirobira T, Ueda Nakamura T, Dias Filho B, et al. Antioxidant capacity and in vitro prevention of dental plaque formation by extracts and condensed tannins of Paullinia cupana. Molecules. 2007;12:1950-63 pubmed
    Chemical evaluation of the semi-purified fraction from the seeds of guaraná, Paullinia cupana H.B.K. var. sorbilis (Mart...
  2. Kennedy D, Haskell C, Robertson B, Reay J, Brewster Maund C, Luedemann J, et al. Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guaraná (Paullinia cupana). Appetite. 2008;50:506-13 pubmed
    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) extracts are most commonly used in Western markets as putatively psychoactive food and drink additives...
  3. Jimoh F, Sofidiya M, Afolayan A. Antioxidant properties of the methanol extracts from the leaves of Paullinia pinnata. J Med Food. 2007;10:707-11 pubmed
    b>Paullinia pinnata is an African woody vine widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria...
  4. Campos A, Barros A, Santos F, Rao V. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) offers protection against gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin in rats. Phytother Res. 2003;17:1199-202 pubmed
    The effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract were analyzed in rats on acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin and were compared to those produced by caffeine, a methylxanthine. Guarana (50 and 100 mg/kg p.o...
  5. da Costa Miranda V, Trufelli D, Santos J, Campos M, Nobuo M, da Costa Miranda M, et al. Effectiveness of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) for postradiation fatigue and depression: results of a pilot double-blind randomized study. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15:431-3 pubmed publisher
    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) has been used medicinally for centuries. The aim of this study is evaluate the effectiveness of guaraná in the treatment of postradiation depression and fatigue.
  6. Klein T, Longhini R, de Mello J. Development of an analytical method using reversed-phase HPLC-PDA for a semipurified extract of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (guaraná). Talanta. 2012;88:502-6 pubmed publisher
    ..87, and 300.87?gmg(-1), respectively. The results demonstrated the efficiency, precision, accuracy, and robustness of the proposed method. The solutions remained stable for a sufficient time (one week) to complete the analytical process...
  7. Antonelli Ushirobira T, Kaneshima E, Gabriel M, Audi E, Marques L, Mello J. Acute and subchronic toxicological evaluation of the semipurified extract of seeds of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) in rodents. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1817-20 pubmed publisher
    ..containing caffeine and several flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins) of seeds of the native Amazon plant Paullinia cupana (guaraná) in rodents...
  8. Heard C, Johnson S, Moss G, Thomas C. In vitro transdermal delivery of caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and catechin from extract of Guarana, Paullinia Cupana. Int J Pharm. 2006;317:26-31 pubmed
    Extracts of guarana (Paullinia cupana) feature as putatively stimulating ingredients in a number of foods, drinks and dietary/herbal supplements...
  9. Bérubé Parent S, Pelletier C, Doré J, Tremblay A. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men. Br J Nutr. 2005;94:432-6 pubmed
    ..The main finding of the study was the increase in 24 h energy expenditure with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures. However, this increase was similar with all doses of EGCG in the mixtures...
  10. Campos A, Barros A, Albuquerque F, M Leal L, Rao V. Acute effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) on mouse behaviour in forced swimming and open field tests. Phytother Res. 2005;19:441-3 pubmed
    Guarana, a herbal extract from the seeds of Paullinia cupana Mart. has been evaluated in comparison with caffeine on mouse behaviour in forced swimming and open field tests. Guarana (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o...
  11. Basile A, Ferrara L, Pezzo M, Mele G, Sorbo S, Bassi P, et al. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;102:32-6 pubmed
    The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, was assessed towards selected bacteria as well as in different antioxidant models...
  12. Annan K, Houghton P. Two novel lupane triterpenoids from Paullinia pinnata L. with fibroblast stimulatory activity. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62:663-8 pubmed publisher
    Novel lupane triterpenoids from Paullinia pinnata L., a Ghanaian plant traditionally used for wound healing, were examined for in-vitro fibroblast stimulatory activity using the 142BR cell line.
  13. Zamble A, Carpentier M, Kandoussi A, Sahpaz S, Petrault O, Ouk T, et al. Paullinia pinnata extracts rich in polyphenols promote vascular relaxation via endothelium-dependent mechanisms. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;47:599-608 pubmed
    b>Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) is an African tropical plant whose roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine for many purposes, especially for erectile dysfunction, but its action mechanism is unknown. P...
  14. Fukumasu H, da Silva T, Avanzo J, de Lima C, Mackowiak I, Atroch A, et al. Chemopreventive effects of Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis, the guaraná, on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. 2006;233:158-64 pubmed
    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) is originally from Amazon, Brazil. Its effects on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis have been investigated in this study. Mice were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), received three different doses of P...
  15. Figueiredo L, Faria Campos A, Astolfi Filho S, Azevedo J. Identification and isolation of full-length cDNA sequences by sequencing and analysis of expressed sequence tags from guarana (Paullinia cupana). Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:1188-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We reevaluated data produced by the guarana (Paullinia cupana) transcriptome sequencing project to identify cDNA clones with complete coding sequences (full-length ..
  16. de Freitas D, Carvalho C, Filho F, Astolfi Filho S. Karyotype with 210 chromosomes in guaraná (Paullinia cupana 'Sorbilis'). J Plant Res. 2007;120:399-404 pubmed
    The genus Paullinia includes the economically important P. cupana, known as guaraná in Brazil and more recently in the world market. Native Americans of the Maué and Andirá tribes cultivated P...
  17. Ferrari C, Percario S, Silva J, da Silva Torres E. An apple plus a Brazil nut a day keeps the doctors away: antioxidant capacity of foods and their health benefits. Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22:189-95 pubmed
    ..Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana Kunth) powder, ready to drink boiled coffee (Coffea arabica L...
  18. Lima N, Teixeira L, Gambero A, Ribeiro M. Guarana (Paullinia cupana) Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Mice Fed High-Fat Diet. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data showed that guarana leads to an increase in energetic metabolism and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, contributing to control of weight gain, even when associated with high-fat diet. ..
  19. Ferrini M, Garcia E, Abraham A, Artaza J, Nguyen S, Rajfer J. Effect of ginger, Paullinia cupana, muira puama and l- citrulline, singly or in combination, on modulation of the inducible nitric oxide- NO-cGMP pathway in rat penile smooth muscle cells. Nitric Oxide. 2018;76:81-86 pubmed publisher
    COMP-4 is a natural compound-based dietary supplement consisting of the combination of ginger, Paullinia cupana, muira puama and l-citrulline, which when given long-term has been shown in the aged rat to a) upregulate iNOS in the penile ..
  20. Coutinho D, Barbosa M, Silva R, da Silva S, de Oliveira A. Fatty-Acid Composition of Seeds and Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Sixteen Sapindaceae Species. Chem Biodivers. 2015;12:1271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..oils with high eicosenoic acid levels, included all species belonging to the Paullinieae tribe (Cardiospermum, Paullinia, and Serjania species)...
  21. Yonekura L, Martins C, Sampaio G, Monteiro M, César L, Mioto B, et al. Bioavailability of catechins from guaraná (Paullinia cupana) and its effect on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative stress markers in healthy human subjects. Food Funct. 2016;7:2970-8 pubmed publisher
    We assessed the effects of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) consumption on plasma catechins, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and biomarkers of oxidative stress (ex vivo LDL ..
  22. Ventura S, RODRIGUES M, Falcão A, Alves G. Effects of Paullinia cupana extract on lamotrigine pharmacokinetics in rats: A herb-drug interaction on the gastrointestinal tract with potential clinical impact. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018;115:170-177 pubmed publisher
    b>Paullinia cupana-containing preparations are being consumed worldwide for weight reduction...
  23. Mingori M, Heimfarth L, Ferreira C, Gomes H, Moresco K, Delgado J, et al. Effect of Paullinia cupana Mart. Commercial Extract During the Aging of Middle Age Wistar Rats: Differential Effects on the Hippocampus and Striatum. Neurochem Res. 2017;42:2257-2273 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of Paullinia cupana Mart...
  24. Harrold J, Hughes G, O Shiel K, Quinn E, Boyland E, Williams N, et al. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice. Appetite. 2013;62:84-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation...
  25. Voukeng I, Beng V, Kuete V. Antibacterial activity of six medicinal Cameroonian plants against Gram-positive and Gram-negative multidrug resistant phenotypes. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:388 pubmed
    ..namely Alstonia boonei, Ageratum conyzoides, Croton macrostachys, Cassia obtusifolia, Catharanthus roseus and Paullinia pinnata against a panel of 36 multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
  26. Ruchel J, Braun J, Adefegha S, Guedes Manzoni A, Abdalla F, de Oliveira J, et al. Guarana (Paullinia cupana) ameliorates memory impairment and modulates acetylcholinesterase activity in Poloxamer-407-induced hyperlipidemia in rat brain. Physiol Behav. 2017;168:11-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the possible preventive effect of guarana powder (Paullinia cupana) on memory impairment and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain structures of rats with ..
  27. Lima N, Numata E, Mesquita L, Dias P, Vilegas W, Gambero A, et al. Modulatory Effects of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) on Adipogenesis. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a plant originated in Brazil that presents a beneficial effect on body weight control and metabolic alterations...
  28. Schimpl F, da Silva J, Gonçalves J, Mazzafera P. Guarana: revisiting a highly caffeinated plant from the Amazon. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;150:14-31 pubmed publisher
    Guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke) has been traditionally consumed by indigenous communities of the Amazon region...
  29. Werner C, Cadoná F, da Cruz I, Flôres E, Machado A, Fantinel M, et al. A chemical compound based on methylxanthine-polyphenols lowers nitric oxide levels and increases post-thaw human sperm viability. Zygote. 2017;25:719-730 pubmed publisher
    ..chemical compound based on methylxanthines and polyphenols (CCMP) present in the chemical matrix of guaraná (Paullinia cupana), a seed extract with antioxidant properties...
  30. Dalonso N, Petkowicz C. Guarana powder polysaccharides: characterisation and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a pectic fraction. Food Chem. 2012;134:1804-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the polysaccharides present in guarana can contribute to the possible biological effects of guarana powder. ..
  31. Woods D. Guarana: Paullinia cupana, P. sorbilis; also known as Brazilian cocoa and 'zoom'. J Prim Health Care. 2012;4:163-4 pubmed
    ..Although not specifically studied, guarana would be expected to exhibit the same range of adverse effects and drug interactions as those associated with caffeine. ..
  32. Andres E, Sá Rocha V, Barrichello C, Haupt T, Ellis G, Natsch A. The sensitivity of the KeratinoSens™ assay to evaluate plant extracts: a pilot study. Toxicol In Vitro. 2013;27:1220-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study gives a proof of principle for testing of mixtures in the KeratinoSens(™) assay and indicates how sensitive the assay is to detect minor components with sensitizing potential. ..
  33. Okwudili O, Chimaobi N, Ikechukwu E, Ndukaku O. Antidiabetic and in vitro antioxidant effects of hydromethanol extract of Paullinia pinnata root bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rat. J Complement Integr Med. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..antidiabetic, oral glucose tolerance test and in vitro antioxidant activities of hydromethanol extract of Paullinia pinnata root bark...
  34. Machado K, Freitas A, Cunha L, Faraco A, Pádua R, Braga F, et al. A rapid simultaneous determination of methylxanthines and proanthocyanidins in Brazilian guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth.). Food Chem. 2018;239:180-188 pubmed publisher
    b>Paullinia cupana is a plant native to Brazil that is widely used in traditional medicine as a physical and mental stimulant. It is also used worldwide to produce soft drinks...
  35. Lima S, Melo J, Militão G, Lima G, do Carmo A Lima M, Aguiar J, et al. Characterization of the biochemical, physiological, and medicinal properties of Streptomyces hygroscopicus ACTMS-9H isolated from the Amazon (Brazil). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:711-723 pubmed publisher
    ..antifungal, and anticancer activities of metabolites produced by Actinobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Paullinia cupana. The Actinobacteria was identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus ACTMS-9H...
  36. Beall J. Over-the-counter products for weight management. Ala Nurse. 2007;34:11-2 pubmed
  37. Roncon C, Biesdorf de Almeida C, Klein T, de Mello J, Audi E. Anxiolytic effects of a semipurified constituent of guaraná seeds on rats in the elevated T-maze test. Planta Med. 2011;77:236-41 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of chronic administration of a semi-purified extract (Purified Extract A--PEA; 4, 8, or 16 mg/kg) of PAULLINIA CUPANA (guaraná) seeds on rats submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM) model of generalized anxiety and panic ..
  38. da Silva G, Canuto K, Ribeiro P, de Brito E, Nascimento M, Zocolo G, et al. Chemical profiling of guarana seeds (Paullinia cupana) from different geographical origins using UPLC-QTOF-MS combined with chemometrics. Food Res Int. 2017;102:700-709 pubmed publisher
    b>Paullinia cupana, commonly known as guarana, is an Amazonian fruit whose seeds are used to produce the powdered guarana, which is rich in caffeine and consumed for its stimulating activity...
  39. Sette C, Ribas de Alcântara B, Schoueri J, Cruz F, Cubero D, Pianowski L, et al. Purified Dry Paullinia cupana (PC-18) Extract for Chemotherapy-Induced Fatigue: Results of Two Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trials. J Diet Suppl. 2017;:1-11 pubmed publisher
    Fatigue is frequent among oncologic patients. Unpurified Paullinia cupana dry extract showed encouraging results for chemotherapy-induced fatigue in our previous studies...
  40. Souza A, Lopez Losano J, Angelo P, Souza Neto J, Cordeiro I, Astolfi Filho S, et al. A proteomic approach to guarana seed and pericarp maturation. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    b>Paullinia cupana Kunth var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke, the cultivated guarana plant, is native to the Amazon and has been valued for its medicinal, stimulant and energetic properties for centuries...
  41. Peixoto H, Roxo M, Röhrig T, Richling E, Wang X, Wink M. Anti-Aging and Antioxidant Potential of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis: Findings in Caenorhabditis elegans Indicate a New Utilization for Roasted Seeds of Guarana. Medicines (Basel). 2017;4: pubmed publisher
    b>Background: Roasted seeds of Amazonian guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis; Sapindaceae) are popular in South America due to their stimulant activity on the central nervous system (CNS)...
  42. Cavalcanti A, Costa Oliveira M, Florentino V, dos Santos J, Vieira F, Cavalcanti C. Short communication: In vitro assessment of erosive potential of energy drinks. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2010;11:253-5 pubmed
    ..Non-reducing sugars values ranged from 0.00% (Red Bull Sugar Free and Flying Horse Light) to 54.33% (Flying Horse). The energy drinks evaluated have a high erosive potential, as they present low pH and a high non-reducing sugar content. ..
  43. Portella R, Barcelos R, da Rosa E, Ribeiro E, da Cruz I, Suleiman L, et al. Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth) effects on LDL oxidation in elderly people: an in vitro and in vivo study. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:12 pubmed publisher
    Previous experimental investigations have suggested that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, supplied by EMBRAPA Oriental) consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic diseases and has positive effects on ..
  44. Peirano R, Achterberg V, Düsing H, Akhiani M, Koop U, Jaspers S, et al. Dermal penetration of creatine from a face-care formulation containing creatine, guarana and glycerol is linked to effective antiwrinkle and antisagging efficacy in male subjects. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2011;10:273-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies suggest that the reduction in cellular energy contributes to the diminished synthesis of cutaneous collagen during aging...
  45. Tobler M, Culumber Z, Plath M, Winemiller K, Rosenthal G. An indigenous religious ritual selects for resistance to a toxicant in a livebearing fish. Biol Lett. 2011;7:229-32 pubmed publisher
  46. Haller C, Duan M, Benowitz N, Jacob P. Concentrations of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine in commercial dietary supplements. J Anal Toxicol. 2004;28:145-51 pubmed
    ..We conclude that product inconsistency is common among some commercially available dietary supplements that contain ephedra alkaloids and caffeine...
  47. Zeidán Chuliá F, Gelain D, Kolling E, Rybarczyk Filho J, Ambrosi P, Terra S, et al. Major components of energy drinks (caffeine, taurine, and guarana) exert cytotoxic effects on human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells by decreasing reactive oxygen species production. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:791795 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the morphological and biochemical in vitro effects exerted by caffeine, taurine, and guarana, alone or in combination, since they are major components in energy drinks (EDs)...
  48. Marques L, Panizzon G, Aguiar B, Simionato A, Cardozo Filho L, Andrade G, et al. Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) seeds: Selective supercritical extraction of phenolic compounds. Food Chem. 2016;212:703-11 pubmed publisher
    Approximately 70% of the Brazilian production of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) seeds is absorbed by the beverage industries...
  49. Leite R, Predes F, Monteiro J, Freitas K, Wada R, Dolder H. Advantage of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation on cadmium-induced damages in testis of adult Wistar rats. Toxicol Pathol. 2013;41:73-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported...
  50. Subbiah M, Yunker R. Studies on the nature of anti-platelet aggregatory factors in the seeds of the Amazonian Herb Guarana (Paullinia cupana). Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2008;78:96-101 pubmed publisher
    Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a popular herb native to the Amazon Basin and used extensively in soft drinks in Brazil, other Latin American countries, and more recently in the United States...
  51. Freitas R, Moreno S, Lima Filho G, Fonseca A, Bernardo Filho M. Effect of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of 99mTc-DMSA on blood constituents: An in vivo study. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:528-33 pubmed
    We studied the influence of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) on blood constituents...
  52. Silvestrini G, Marino F, Cosentino M. Effects of a commercial product containing guaraná on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood: a single-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects. J Negat Results Biomed. 2013;12:9 pubmed publisher
  53. Del Giglio A, Cubero D, Lerner T, Guariento R, de Azevedo R, Paiva H, et al. Purified dry extract of Paullinia cupana (guaraná) (PC-18) for chemotherapy-related fatigue in patients with solid tumors: an early discontinuation study. J Diet Suppl. 2013;10:325-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Paullinia cupana (guaraná) is an Amazonian plant that has been previously shown to be effective in treating chemotherapy-related fatigue (CRF) in patients with breast cancer...
  54. Adeyemo Salami O, Makinde J. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of the methanol extract of the leaves of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) in Wistar albino mice and rats. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2013;42:81-90 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of the leaves of Paullinia pinnata Linn.(PP) in rodents using Wistar albino mice and rats as experimental models.
  55. Weckerle C, Stutz M, Baumann T. Purine alkaloids in Paullinia. Phytochemistry. 2003;64:735-42 pubmed
    Among the few purine alkaloid-containing genera consumed as stimulants, Paullinia is the least investigated with respect to both chemotaxonomy and within-the-plant allocation of caffeine and its allies...
  56. Otobone F, Sanches A, Nagae R, Martins J, Sela V, de Mello J, et al. Effect of lyophilized extracts from guaraná seeds [Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke] on behavioral profiles in rats. Phytother Res. 2007;21:531-5 pubmed
    ..the present study was to investigate the pharmacological properties of the crude lyophilized extract (EBPC) of Paullinia cupana seeds (guaraná) and the semi-purified extracts (EPA and EPB) after acute or chronic administration by ..
  57. Haskell C, Dodd F, Wightman E, Kennedy D. Behavioural effects of compounds co-consumed in dietary forms of caffeinated plants. Nutr Res Rev. 2013;26:49-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review highlights that more research aimed at understanding the effects of these compounds is needed and, more importantly, the synergistic relationship that they may have with caffeine...
  58. Clauson K, Shields K, McQueen C, Persad N. Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008;48:e55-63; quiz e64-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe benefits and adverse effects associated with the consumption of energy drinks...
  59. Grósz A, Szatmári A. [The history, ingredients and effects of energy drinks]. Orv Hetil. 2008;149:2237-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In the end of the article the authors word the limitations of energy drink consumption...
  60. de Oliveira D, Barreto G, Galeano P, Romero J, Holubiec M, Badorrey M, et al. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis protects human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011;30:1382-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis, commonly known as Guaraná, is a Brazilian plant frequently cited for its antioxidant properties and different pharmacological activities on the central nervous system...
  61. Seifert J, Nelson A, Devonish J, Burke E, Stohs S. Effect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Int J Med Sci. 2011;8:192-7 pubmed
    ..The results of this study indicate that ingestion of a product containing bitter orange extract, caffeine and green tea extract does not lead to increased cardiovascular stress and that fat oxidation may increase in certain populations...
  62. Basile A, Rigano D, Conte B, Bruno M, Rosselli S, Sorbo S. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds. Nat Prod Res. 2013;27:2084-90 pubmed publisher
    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains...
  63. Sombra L, Gomez M, Olsina R, Martinez L, Silva M. Comparative study between capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography in 'guarana' based phytopharmaceuticals. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005;36:989-94 pubmed
    ..The results are in agreement with those obtained by the HPLC method. Furthermore, the analysis time of the CE method is up to two times shorter than the respective parameter in HPLC and solvent consumption is more than 100-fold less...
  64. Pennay A, Lubman D, Miller P. Combining energy drinks and alcohol - a recipe for trouble?. Aust Fam Physician. 2011;40:104-7 pubmed
    ..Combining energy drinks (such as 'Red Bull(®)') with alcohol is becoming increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining the harms associated with this form of drinking...
  65. Oliveira S, Del Giglio A, Lerner T, Zanellato R, Tiemi L, Reifur L, et al. Paullinia cupana for control of hot flashes in breast cancer patients: a pilot study. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2013;11:435-8 pubmed
    To evaluated whether Paullinia cupana decrease number and severity of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors.
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    ..Our study demonstrates that plastid genomes in sister taxa are strongly constrained by selection but follow distinct trajectories during the earlier phases of organelle evolution...
  67. Schimpl F, Kiyota E, Mazzafera P. Production of Recombinant Caffeine Synthase from Guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) in Escherichia coli. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1405:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The recombinant protein retains activity and can be used in enzymatic assays and other biochemical characterization studies. ..
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    ..The accuracy of the method was checked by the analysis of a certified reference material (NIST 1571, Orchard leaves). Results found were in agreement with certified values...
  71. Haller C, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Short-term metabolic and hemodynamic effects of ephedra and guarana combinations. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005;77:560-71 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine whether repeated dosing and multi-ingredient formulations contribute to the adverse effects of these supplements...
  72. Lopes F, Tannous K, Rueda Ordóñez Y. Combustion reaction kinetics of guarana seed residue applying isoconversional methods and consecutive reaction scheme. Bioresour Technol. 2016;219:392-402 pubmed publisher
    ..The comparison between theoretical and experimental conversion and conversion rate showed good agreement with average deviation lower than 2%, indicating that these results could be used for modeling of guarana seed residue. ..
  73. McLellan T, Lieberman H. Do energy drinks contain active components other than caffeine?. Nutr Rev. 2012;70:730-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled studies replicated across laboratories are needed in order to assess claims made for these products...
  74. Sale C, Harris R, Delves S, Corbett J. Metabolic and physiological effects of ingesting extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana at rest and during treadmill walking in overweight males. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:764-73 pubmed
  75. Nakayama T, Ishida K, Archibald J. Broad distribution of TPI-GAPDH fusion proteins among eukaryotes: evidence for glycolytic reactions in the mitochondrion?. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52340 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that part of the glycolytic pathway occurs inside mitochondria in these organisms, broadening our knowledge of the diversity of mitochondrial metabolism of protists...
  76. Bittencourt L, Machado D, Machado M, Dos Santos G, Algarve T, Marinowic D, et al. The protective effects of guaraná extract (Paullinia cupana) on fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells exposed to sodium nitroprusside. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;53:119-25 pubmed publisher
    The antioxidant effects of the hydro-alcoholic guaraná extract (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart...
  77. Jippo T, Kobayashi Y, Sato H, Hattori A, Takeuchi H, Sugimoto K, et al. Inhibitory effects of guarana seed extract on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and mast cell degranulation. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:2110-2 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it inhibited the degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. It had no cytotoxicity on RBL-2H3 cells. These results show that GSE is a candidate for effective therapeutic material for allergic diseases...
  78. Ernst E. Herbal remedies for anxiety - a systematic review of controlled clinical trials. Phytomedicine. 2006;13:205-8 pubmed
    ..Only for kava were independent replications available. It was concluded that there is a lack of rigorous studies in this area and that only kava has been shown beyond reasonable doubt to have anxiolytic effects in humans...
  79. Leite R, Wada R, Monteiro J, Predes F, Dolder H. Protective effect of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) pre-treatment on cadmium-induced damages in adult Wistar testis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;141:262-74 pubmed publisher
    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) is an Amazonian plant. Its antioxidant potential was demonstrated to be due to the high polyphenol concentration...
  80. Bulku E, Zinkovsky D, Patel P, Javia V, Lahoti T, Khodos I, et al. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2010;3:129-44 pubmed publisher
    ..phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional ..
  81. Scholey A, Bauer I, Neale C, Savage K, Camfield D, White D, et al. Acute effects of different multivitamin mineral preparations with and without Guaraná on mood, cognitive performance and functional brain activation. Nutrients. 2013;5:3589-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they demonstrate for the first time increased brain activation from multivitamin preparations both with and without guaraná, as measured using fMRI. ..
  82. Hess A, Sullivan D. Potential for toxicity with use of bitter orange extract and guarana for weight loss. Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39:574-5 pubmed