viscum album

Summary

Summary: A plant species of the family VISCACEAE, order Santalales, subclass Rosidae. This is the traditional mistletoe of literature and Christmas. Members contain viscotoxin (5 kDa basic polypeptides related to thionins), beta-galactoside- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin II (60 kDa), and polysaccharides. Mistletoe lectin I is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein. Commercial extracts include Plenosol, Eurixor, Helixor Isorel, Iscador, and NSC 635089 (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, PHYTOGENIC).

Top Publications

  1. Duong Van Huyen J, Bayry J, Delignat S, Gaston A, Michel O, Bruneval P, et al. Induction of apoptosis of endothelial cells by Viscum album: a role for anti-tumoral properties of mistletoe lectins. Mol Med. 2002;8:600-6 pubmed
    b>Viscum album (VA) preparations consist of aqueous extracts of different types of lectins of VA. Mistletoe lectins have both cytotoxic and immunomodulatory properties that support their study for the development for cancer therapy...
  2. Eisenbraun J, Scheer R, Kröz M, Schad F, Huber R. Quality of life in breast cancer patients during chemotherapy and concurrent therapy with a mistletoe extract. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:151-7 pubmed publisher
  3. Kovacs E. The in vitro effect of Viscum album (VA) extract on DNA repair of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in cancer patients. Phytother Res. 2002;16:143-7 pubmed
    b>Viscum album (VA) extract as an immunomodulator was tested in an in vitro model to investigate DNA repair in damaged peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of ten breast cancer patients...
  4. Choudhary M, Maher S, Begum A, Abbaskhan A, Ali S, Khan A. Characterization and antiglycation activity of phenolic constituents from Viscum album (European Mistletoe). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:980-2 pubmed
    ..flavanone (5), and 5,7-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy flavanone (6), were isolated from the organic extracts of Viscum album L. (European Mistletoe). These compounds were studied for their anti-glycation and antioxidant properties...
  5. Elluru S, Duong Van Huyen J, Delignat S, Kazatchkine M, Friboulet A, Kaveri S, et al. Induction of maturation and activation of human dendritic cells: a mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of Viscum album as complimentary therapy in cancer. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:161 pubmed publisher
    b>Viscum album (VA) preparations have been used as a complimentary therapy in cancer. In addition to their cytotoxic properties, they have also been shown to have immunostimulatory properties...
  6. Radenkovic M, Ivetic V, Popovic M, Mimica Dukic N, Veljkovic S. Neurophysiological effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) on isolated rat intestines. Phytother Res. 2006;20:374-7 pubmed
    Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) is well known as a medicine from ancient times and the earliest notes. Today it is used as a remedy...
  7. Gardin N. Immunological response to mistletoe (Viscum album L.) in cancer patients: a four-case series. Phytother Res. 2009;23:407-11 pubmed publisher
    European mistletoe (Viscum album) has been used in complementary cancer treatment, but little is known concerning its effects on immunological parameters, although there is evidence that Viscum may stimulate the immune system...
  8. Nhiem N, Kiem P, Minh C, Kim N, Park S, Lee H, et al. Diarylheptanoids and flavonoids from viscum album inhibit LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. J Nat Prod. 2013;76:495-502 pubmed publisher
    ..9), and 17 known compounds were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Viscum album. Compounds 1, 4, and 19 significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-12p40 with ..
  9. Jung H, Lee A, Song T, An H, Kim Y, Kim K, et al. Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) extract improves endurance capacity in mice by stimulating mitochondrial activity. J Med Food. 2012;15:621-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) extract (KME) has characteristics similar to those of RSV...

More Information

Publications86

  1. Lee C, Kim J, Kim H, Park S, Lee S. Immunomodulating effects of Korean mistletoe lectin in vitro and in vivo. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:1555-61 pubmed publisher
    The immunomodulatory effects of Korean mistletoe lectin (KML), one of the major active components in Viscum album L. var...
  2. Cebović T, Spasic S, Popovic M. Cytotoxic effects of the Viscum album L. extract on Ehrlich tumour cells in vivo. Phytother Res. 2008;22:1097-103 pubmed publisher
    To date most pharmacological studies on mistletoe (Viscum album L.) have focused on the therapeutic properties of its polar extracts. This study examined the non-polar constituents of Viscum album and their biological activities...
  3. Tröger W, Galun D, Reif M, Schumann A, Stankovic N, Milicevic M. Viscum album [L.] extract therapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer: a randomised clinical trial on overall survival. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:3788-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the overall survival (OS) of patients receiving an extract of Viscum album [L.] (VaL) or no antineoplastic therapy.
  4. Escher P, Rennenberg H. Influx of double labelled glutamine into mistletoes (Viscum album) from the xylem sap of its host (Abies alba). Plant Physiol Biochem. 2006;44:880-4 pubmed
    The flux of glutamine into the mistletoe Viscum album from the xylem sap of a coniferous host was analyzed. For this purpose, a perfusion system was used in which the xylem sap of the host was replaced by an artificial perfusion solution...
  5. Hong C, Lyu S. The antimutagenic effect of mistletoe lectin (Viscum album L. var. coloratum agglutinin). Phytother Res. 2012;26:787-90 pubmed publisher
    A galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin (Viscum album L. var. coloratum agglutinin, VCA), which is known for its anticancer activity, was isolated from mistletoe...
  6. Lyu S, Park W. Effects of Korean mistletoe lectin (Viscum album coloratum) on proliferation and cytokine expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T-lymphocytes. Arch Pharm Res. 2007;30:1252-64 pubmed
    ..We previously showed that Korean mistletoe lectin (Viscum album L. var...
  7. Orhan D, Aslan M, Sendogdu N, Ergun F, Yesilada E. Evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant activity of three Viscum album subspecies (European mistletoe) in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;98:95-102 pubmed
    The acute hypoglycaemic effect of water and ethanolic extracts of three Viscum album subspecies, ssp. album, ssp. austriacum, ssp. abietis, were investigated in normoglycaemic and streptozotozocin-induced diabetic rats...
  8. Melzer J, Iten F, Hostanska K, Saller R. Efficacy and safety of mistletoe preparations (Viscum album) for patients with cancer diseases. A systematic review. Forsch Komplementmed. 2009;16:217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Mistletoe is often used as a complementary approach in oncology. Despite experimental anti-tumour effects and several reviews there remains controversy about its clinical role...
  9. Duong Van Huyen J, Delignat S, Bayry J, Kazatchkine M, Bruneval P, Nicoletti A, et al. Interleukin-12 is associated with the in vivo anti-tumor effect of mistletoe extracts in B16 mouse melanoma. Cancer Lett. 2006;243:32-7 pubmed
    b>Viscum album (VA) preparations consist of aqueous extracts of different types of lectins of mistletoe. VA exert cytotoxic and immunomodulatory properties that may be relevant for the inhibition of tumor growth...
  10. Gorter R, Joller P, Stoss M. Cytokine release of a keratinocyte model after incubation with two different Viscum album L extracts. Am J Ther. 2003;10:40-7 pubmed
    When injected subcutaneously, extracts from the white berry mistletoe (Viscum album L) lead to a dose-dependent local inflammatory reaction at the injection site...
  11. Bar Sela G, Goldberg H, Beck D, Amit A, Kuten A. Reducing malignant ascites accumulation by repeated intraperitoneal administrations of a Viscum album extract. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:709-13 pubmed
    Malignant ascites is a major problem in the management of advanced stages of certain malignancies. The possibility of reducing the accumulation of ascites by intraperitoneal injections of a Viscum album extract (Iscador M) was evaluated.
  12. Winkler K, Leneweit G, Schubert R. Characterization of membrane vesicles in plant extracts. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2005;45:57-65 pubmed
    ..Vesicles in aqueous mistletoe extracts (extracts of Viscum album L.) were analyzed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) without fixation...
  13. Jäger S, Winkler K, Pfüller U, Scheffler A. Solubility studies of oleanolic acid and betulinic acid in aqueous solutions and plant extracts of Viscum album L. Planta Med. 2007;73:157-62 pubmed
    Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) contains the triterpene acids oleanolic acid (OA) and betulinic acid (BA), which were found to have anti-tumour properties. In this study, the solubilities of OA and BA were studied in water (up to 0...
  14. Meyer A, Rypniewski W, Szymanski M, Voelter W, Barciszewski J, Betzel C. Structure of mistletoe lectin I from Viscum album in complex with the phytohormone zeatin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1784:1590-5 pubmed publisher
    The crystal structure of mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) isolated from the European mistletoe Viscum album in complex with the most active phytohormone zeatin has been analyzed and refined to 2.54 A resolution...
  15. Braedel Ruoff S. Immunomodulatory effects of Viscum album extracts on natural killer cells: review of clinical trials. Forsch Komplementmed. 2010;17:63-73 pubmed publisher
    Extracts produced from Viscum album L. (mistletoe) are widely used in complementary medicine for the treatment of cancer. In many preclinical and clinical studies, Viscum album extracts were shown to exert immunomodulatory functions...
  16. Legnani W. Mistletoe in conventional oncological practice: exemplary cases. Integr Cancer Ther. 2008;7:162-71 pubmed
    ..The conclusion is that the patients may be indicative for future prospective clinical studies designed to confirm a real efficacy of mistletoe in cancer therapy...
  17. Christen Clottu O, Klocke P, Burger D, Straub R, Gerber V. Treatment of clinically diagnosed equine sarcoid with a mistletoe extract (Viscum album austriacus). J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24:1483-9 pubmed publisher
    Equine sarcoids (ES) are common, difficult to treat, and have high recurrence rates. Viscum album extracts (VAE) are used in human cancer treatment.
  18. Lyu S, Park W. Mistletoe lectin (Viscum album coloratum) modulates proliferation and cytokine expressions in murine splenocytes. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;39:662-70 pubmed
    ..This study will investigated the effects of Korean mistletoe lectin (Viscum album L. var...
  19. Zuber D, Widmer A. Phylogeography and host race differentiation in the European mistletoe (Viscum album L.). Mol Ecol. 2009;18:1946-62 pubmed
    ..host races, population genetic structure, and to elucidate the postglacial migration history of mistletoe (Viscum album) across the entire natural distribution range in Europe...
  20. Hegde P, Maddur M, Friboulet A, Bayry J, Kaveri S. Viscum album exerts anti-inflammatory effect by selectively inhibiting cytokine-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26312 pubmed publisher
    b>Viscum album (VA) preparations are extensively used as complementary therapy in cancer and are shown to exert anti-tumor activities which involve the cytotoxic properties, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis and several ..
  21. Orhan D, Kupeli E, Yesilada E, Ergun F. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of flavonoids isolated from Viscum album ssp. album. Z Naturforsch C. 2006;61:26-30 pubmed
    b>Viscum album L. has been used in the indigenous systems of medicine for treatment of headache and some inflammatory diseases...
  22. Onay Uçar E, Karagöz A, Arda N. Antioxidant activity of Viscum album ssp. album. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:556-60 pubmed
    Methanolic extracts of Viscum album ssp. album (mistletoe) grown on different host trees were investigated for their potential antioxidant activity...
  23. Hallek M. Interleukin-6-mediated cell growth in multiple myeloma--a role for Viscum album extracts?. Onkologie. 2005;28:387 pubmed
  24. Huber R, Rostock M, Goedl R, Ludtke R, Urech K, Buck S, et al. Mistletoe treatment induces GM-CSF- and IL-5 production by PBMC and increases blood granulocyte- and eosinophil counts: a placebo controlled randomized study in healthy subjects. Eur J Med Res. 2005;10:411-8 pubmed
  25. Elluru S, Duong Van Huyen J, Delignat S, Prost F, Heudes D, Kazatchkine M, et al. Antiangiogenic properties of viscum album extracts are associated with endothelial cytotoxicity. Anticancer Res. 2009;29:2945-50 pubmed
    b>Viscum album (VA) extracts are widely used in cancer therapy and are known to be cytotoxic to tumors and endothelial cells. Angiogenesis plays an important role in the growth, sustenance and metastasis of tumors...
  26. Enesel M, Acalovschi I, Grosu V, Sbarcea A, Rusu C, Dobre A, et al. Perioperative application of the Viscum album extract Isorel in digestive tract cancer patients. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:4583-90 pubmed
    ..Mistletoe (Viscum album L...
  27. Tenorio F, del Valle L, Gonzalez A, Pastelin G. Vasodilator activity of the aqueous extract of Viscum album. Fitoterapia. 2005;76:204-9 pubmed
    The aqueous extract of Viscum album leaves showed a significant coronary vasodilator activity on the Langendorff's isolated and perfused heart model. The data obtained suggest that the aqueous extract of V...
  28. Mabed M, El Helw L, Shamaa S. Phase II study of viscum fraxini-2 in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:65-9 pubmed
    ..Viscum fraxini-2 seems to be particularly promising in patients with advanced HCC, it shows antitumor activity and low toxicity profile. Further studies in combination with other active agents are clearly warranted...
  29. Klopp R, Schmidt W, Werner E, Werner M, Niemer W, Beuth J. Influence of complementary Viscum album (Iscador) administration on microcirculation and immune system of ear, nose and throat carcinoma patients treated with radiation and chemotherapy. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:601-10 pubmed
    ..Adverse effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the microcirculation and the immune system were decreased and reconstitution processes were accelerated by complementary administration of a standardized mistletoe extract (Iscador)...
  30. Duong Van Huyen J, Delignat S, Kazatchkine M, Kaveri S. Comparative study of the sensitivity of lymphoblastoid and transformed monocytic cell lines to the cytotoxic effects of Viscum album extracts of different origin. Chemotherapy. 2003;49:298-302 pubmed
    b>Viscum album (VA) preparations consist of aqueous extracts of V. album, the European mistletoe. VA extracts contain mistletoe lectins, which are members of the ribosome-inactivating protein type II family...
  31. Eggenschwiler J, von Balthazar L, Stritt B, Pruntsch D, Ramos M, Urech K, et al. Mistletoe lectin is not the only cytotoxic component in fermented preparations of Viscum album from white fir (Abies pectinata). BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007;7:14 pubmed
    Preparations of mistletoe (Viscum album) are the form of cancer treatment that is most frequently used in the complementary medicine...
  32. Persoh D, Melcher M, Flessa F, Rambold G. First fungal community analyses of endophytic ascomycetes associated with Viscum album ssp. austriacum and its host Pinus sylvestris. Fungal Biol. 2010;114:585-96 pubmed publisher
    The endophytic fungal communities in the hemi-parasitic epiphyte Viscum album and in its phorophyte Pinus sylvestris were compared to reveal the fungal distribution patterns in their hosts...
  33. Kienle G, Kiene H. Review article: Influence of Viscum album L (European mistletoe) extracts on quality of life in cancer patients: a systematic review of controlled clinical studies. Integr Cancer Ther. 2010;9:142-57 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate controlled clinical studies on the efficacy and effectiveness of Viscum album for quality of life (QoL) in cancer.
  34. Małecki P, Rypniewski W, Szymanski M, Barciszewski J, Meyer A. Binding of the plant hormone kinetin in the active site of Mistletoe Lectin I from Viscum album. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1824:334-8 pubmed publisher
    ..structure of the ribosome inhibiting protein Mistletoe Lectin I (ML-I) derived from the European mistletoe, Viscum album, in complex with kinetin has been refined at 2.7Å resolution...
  35. Dobbertin M, Hilker N, Rebetez M, Zimmermann N, Wohlgemuth T, Rigling A. The upward shift in altitude of pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) in Switzerland--the result of climate warming?. Int J Biometeorol. 2005;50:40-7 pubmed
    Pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) is common in natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in the alpine Rhone Valley, Switzerland...
  36. Bussing A, Tröger W, Stumpf C, Schietzel M. Local reactions to treatments with Viscum album L. extracts and their association with T-lymphocyte subsets and quality of life. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:1893-7 pubmed
    In a previous study a decline of T-lymphocyte function was observed within a 6-month period of Viscum album extract (VA-E) application which did not occur in those patients with dose adaptation in response to strong local reactions (LR) ..
  37. Urech K, Buessing A, Thalmann G, Schaefermeyer H, Heusser P. Antiproliferative effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract in urinary bladder carcinoma cell lines. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:3049-55 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antiproliferative potency of Viscum album extract (VA-E) in human bladder carcinoma cell lines with regard to its possible use for intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer.
  38. Ben E, Eno A, Ofem O, Aidem U, Itam E. Increased plasma total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels produced by the crude extract from the leaves of Viscum album (mistletoe). Niger J Physiol Sci. 2006;21:55-60 pubmed
    The effect of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of Viscum album (Mistletoe) on plasma cholesterol and albumin levels in male Wistar rats was studied. Lethality studies revealed that the extract had an LD50 value of 417...
  39. Kovacs E, Link S, Toffol Schmidt U. Comparison of Viscum album QuFrF extract with vincristine in an in vitro model of human B cell lymphoma WSU-1. Arzneimittelforschung. 2008;58:592-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Viscum album L. extract (Iscador) with different preparations is used either alone or in combination with chemo/radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with various tumours...
  40. Gupta G, Kazmi I, Afzal M, Rahman M, Saleem S, Ashraf M, et al. Sedative, antiepileptic and antipsychotic effects of Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae) in mice and rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:810-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Viscum album L. is claimed in traditional medical practice, to be useful in the treatment of epilepsy and insomnia in Himachal Pradesh, India.
  41. Kovacs E. Effects of Viscum album extract therapy in patients with cancer: relation with interleukin-6, soluble interleukin-6 receptor, and soluble gp130. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10:241-6 pubmed
    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of Viscum album (VA) extract therapy on interleukin (IL)-12, IL-16, IL-6, soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R), and soluble gp130 (sgp130) in patients with cancer...
  42. Kovacs E. Investigation of the proliferation, apoptosis/necrosis, and cell cycle phases in several human multiple myeloma cell lines. Comparison of Viscum album QuFrF extract with vincristine in an in vitro model. ScientificWorldJournal. 2010;10:311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Viscum album QuFrF (VAQuFrF) extract is an experimental drug that is not used in the treatment in tumour patients...
  43. Zuzak T, Rist L, Eggenschwiler J, Grotzer M, Viviani A. Paediatric medulloblastoma cells are susceptible to Viscum album (Mistletoe) preparations. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:3485-92 pubmed
    ..Evidence for cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Viscum album (Mistletoe) in vitro is available, however, no data concerning paediatric tumours, especially paediatric brain ..
  44. Bussing A, Stumpf C, Tröger W, Schietzel M. Course of mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes in cancer patients treated with Viscum album extracts. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:2903-10 pubmed
    In a prospective observational study, the impact of two different dose regimes of a commercially available fermented Viscum album L. extract (VA-E, Iscador) on the function of T lymphocytes from cancer patients was investigated.
  45. Steinborn C, Klemd A, Sanchez Campillo A, Rieger S, Scheffen M, Sauer B, et al. Viscum album neutralizes tumor-induced immunosuppression in a human in vitro cell model. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181553 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts (VAE), which are frequently used as an additive anti-cancer therapy to stimulate the immune response, ..
  46. Segneanu A, Damian D, Hulka I, Grozescu I, Salifoglou A. A simple and rapid method for calixarene-based selective extraction of bioactive molecules from natural products. Amino Acids. 2016;48:849-858 pubmed publisher
    ..and natural biomolecular targets (amino acids and peptides) from Helleborus purpurascens and Viscum album. Advanced physicochemical methods (including GC-MS and chip-based nanoESI-MS analysis) suggest that the ..
  47. Jeong J, Park C, Kim I, Kim Y, Yoon J, Kim K, et al. Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) extract regulates gene expression related to muscle atrophy and muscle hypertrophy. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:68 pubmed publisher
    Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) is a semi-parasitic plant that grows on various trees and has a diverse range of effects on biological functions, being implicated in having anti-tumor, immunostimulatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-..
  48. Werthmann P, Hintze A, Kienle G. Complete remission and long-term survival of a patient with melanoma metastases treated with high-dose fever-inducing Viscum album extract: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8731 pubmed publisher
    Metastatic malignant cutaneous melanoma (MCM)-a highly immunogenic cancer-typically has a poor prognosis. Viscum album extracts (VAEs) have strong immune-stimulating, apoptogenic, and cytotoxic effects...
  49. Suveren E, Baxter G, Iskit A, Turker A. Cardioprotective effects of Viscum album L. subsp. album (European misletoe) leaf extracts in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;209:203-209 pubmed publisher
    b>Viscum album L...
  50. Duracova M, Klimentova J, Fucikova A, Dresler J. Proteomic Methods of Detection and Quantification of Protein Toxins. Toxins (Basel). 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..trade in dual-use items in the European Union, including lesser known protein toxins such as Viscumin from Viscum album. The analysis of protein toxins and monitoring for biological threats, i.e...
  51. Petersen G, Cuenca A, Møller I, Seberg O. Massive gene loss in mistletoe (Viscum, Viscaceae) mitochondria. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17588 pubmed publisher
    ..The hemiparasitic European mistletoe (Viscum album), known from folklore and postulated therapeutic properties, is a pest in plantations and forestry...
  52. Stan R, Hangan A, Dican L, Sevastre B, Hanganu D, Catoi C, et al. Comparative study concerning mistletoe viscotoxins antitumor activity. Acta Biol Hung. 2013;64:279-88 pubmed publisher
    b>Viscum album L. (Santalaceae) (VA) - a parasitic plant that grows on various trees - has proved a significant anticancer effect in both experimental studies and clinical trials...
  53. Sood A, Barton D, Bauer B, Loprinzi C. A critical review of complementary therapies for cancer-related fatigue. Integr Cancer Ther. 2007;6:8-13 pubmed
    ..Other interventions should be tested in well-designed feasibility and phase II trials. ..
  54. Yan C, Gessler A, Rigling A, Dobbertin M, Han X, Li M. Effects of mistletoe removal on growth, N and C reserves, and carbon and oxygen isotope composition in Scots pine hosts. Tree Physiol. 2016;36:562-75 pubmed publisher
    ..understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the mistletoe-host relationship, we experimentally removed Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollmann from adult Pinus sylvestris L. host trees growing in a Swiss dry valley...
  55. Escher P, Peuke A, Bannister P, Fink S, Hartung W, Jiang F, et al. Transpiration, CO2 assimilation, WUE, and stomatal aperture in leaves of Viscum album (L.): Effect of abscisic acid (ABA) in the xylem sap of its host (Populus x euamericana). Plant Physiol Biochem. 2008;46:64-70 pubmed
    Leaves of the mistletoe Viscum album (L.) show a high rate of transpiration, even when the host is under severe drought stress...
  56. Jimenez M, Andre S, Barillari C, Romero A, Rognan D, Gabius H, et al. Domain versatility in plant AB-toxins: evidence for a local, pH-dependent rearrangement in the 2gamma lectin site of the mistletoe lectin by applying ligand derivatives and modelling. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2309-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Using these results and molecular dynamics simulations, a local conformational change was rendered likely. The obtained structural information is valuable for the design of potent inhibitors. ..
  57. Twardziok M, Kleinsimon S, Rolff J, Jäger S, Eggert A, Seifert G, et al. Multiple Active Compounds from Viscum album L. Synergistically Converge to Promote Apoptosis in Ewing Sarcoma. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0159749 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydrophobic triterpene acids and hydrophilic lectins and viscotoxins from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) demonstrate anticancer properties, but have not yet been investigated for Ewing sarcoma...
  58. Mulsow K, Enzlein T, Delebinski C, Jaeger S, Seifert G, Melzig M. Impact of Mistletoe Triterpene Acids on the Uptake of Mistletoe Lectin by Cultured Tumor Cells. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0153825 pubmed publisher
    ..A common approach as a complementary treatment is the use of aqueous extracts of Viscum album L. (Santalaceace)...
  59. Maggiori E, Bartoletti E, Mammucari M. Intradermal therapy (mesotherapy) with lymdiaral in chronic venous insufficiency and associated fibrosclerotic edema damage: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2013;19:777-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the effects of a complex naturopathic compound with vasoactive and antiedema activities (Lymdiaral®) administered intradermally...
  60. Pevzner I, Agapov I, Pfueller U, Pfueller K, Maluchenko N, Moisenovich M, et al. Cloning and expression of mistletoe lectin III B-subunit. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2005;70:306-15 pubmed
    Aqueous extracts of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) contain toxic proteins (lectins) MLI (viscumin), MLII, and MLIII. We previously cloned the gene encoding MLIII precursor...
  61. Park C, Lee D, Kang T, Lee K, Yoon T, Kim J, et al. cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of the lectin genes of the Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum). Mol Cells. 2001;12:215-20 pubmed
    We previously isolated a lectin of the Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum). The cDNA clones that encode the A- or the B-chain of the Korean mistletoe lectin were cloned by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
  62. Lyu S, Park W. Mistletoe lectin modulates intestinal epithelial cell-derived cytokines and B cell IgA secretion. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:443-51 pubmed publisher
    A galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin (Viscum album L. var. coloratum agglutinin, VCA), which is known for its anti-cancer activity, was isolated from Korean mistletoe...
  63. Schink M, Dehus O. Effects of mistletoe products on pharmacokinetic drug turnover by inhibition and induction of cytochrome P450 activities. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:521 pubmed publisher
    European mistletoe (Viscum album) products used in cancer therapy are frequently combined with other anti-cancer-drugs. Hence, potential herb-drug interactions have become a major safety concern in mistletoe therapy...
  64. Amer B, Juvik O, Francis G, Fossen T. Novel GHB-derived natural products from European mistletoe (Viscum album). Pharm Biol. 2013;51:981-6 pubmed publisher
    The European white-berry mistletoe [Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae)] is among the oldest known medicinal plants. At present the most important application of mistletoe extracts is in the treatment of cancer...
  65. Sekeroğlu V, Aydin B, Şekeroğlu Z. Viscum album L. extract and quercetin reduce cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity, urotoxicity and genotoxicity in mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12:2925-31 pubmed
    Possible protective effects of a methanolic extract of Viscum album (VA) and quercetin (QE) against cyclophosphamide (CP) induced cardiotoxicity, urotoxicity and genotoxicity in mice were evaluated...
  66. Adaramoye O, Amanlou M, Habibi Rezaei M, Pasalar P, Ali M. Methanolic extract of African mistletoe (Viscum album) improves carbohydrate metabolism and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5:427-33 pubmed publisher
    To justify the use of African mistletoe (AM) Viscum album (V. album) in folkoric medicine to treat diabetes. In one experiment, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels of diabetic rats were monitored for 4 h...
  67. Brandenberger M, Simoes Wüst A, Rostock M, Rist L, Saller R. An exploratory study on the quality of life and individual coping of cancer patients during mistletoe therapy. Integr Cancer Ther. 2012;11:90-100 pubmed publisher
    Although several clinical studies have shown that mistletoe therapy (MT, Viscum album) may improve cancer patients' quality-of-life (QoL), qualitative information on the improvement's nature is still lacking...
  68. Schad F, Atxner J, Buchwald D, Happe A, Popp S, Kröz M, et al. Intratumoral Mistletoe (Viscum album L) Therapy in Patients With Unresectable Pancreas Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis. Integr Cancer Ther. 2014;13:332-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Endoscopic ultrasound provides a good tool to examine and treat the pancreas. European mistletoe (Viscum album L) is a phytotherapeutic commonly used in integrative oncology in Central Europe...
  69. Werthmann P, Sträter G, Friesland H, Kienle G. Durable response of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma following high-dose peri-lesional injections of Viscum album extracts--a case report. Phytomedicine. 2013;20:324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..First-line treatment is surgical excision, which is curative in most cases. Viscum album extract (VAE) is a widely used herbal cancer treatment with cytotoxic, apoptogenic and immunological effects, ..
  70. Srdic Rajic T, Tisma Miletic N, Cavić M, Kanjer K, Savikin K, Galun D, et al. Sensitization of K562 Leukemia Cells to Doxorubicin by the Viscum album Extract. Phytother Res. 2016;30:485-95 pubmed publisher
    ..European mistletoe (Viscum album) has long been used as a complementary and alternative medicine supporting cancer therapy...
  71. Nhiem N, Lee H, Kim N, Park S, Kim E, Han J, et al. Stereochemical assignment of five new lignan glycosides from Viscum album by NMR study combined with CD spectroscopy. Magn Reson Chem. 2012;50:772-7 pubmed publisher
    The chemical study of the leaves and twigs of Viscum album led to the isolation of five new lignan glycosides, namely, ligalbumosides A-E (2-6) and one known lignan glycoside, alangilignoside C (1)...
  72. Tenorio Lopez F, del Valle Mondragon L, Zarco Olvera G, Torres Narvaez J, Pastelín Hernández G. [Viscum album aqueous extract induces inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthases expression in isolated and perfused guinea pig heart. Evidence of the coronary vasodilation mechanism]. Arch Cardiol Mex. 2006;76:130-9 pubmed
    The pharmacological effect of a Viscum album aqueous extract was evaluated on the Langendorff isolated and perfused heart model in normotense male guinea pig hearts...
  73. He L, Andre S, Garamus V, Siebert H, Chi C, Niemeyer B, et al. Small angle neutron scattering as sensitive tool to detect ligand-dependent shape changes in a plant lectin with beta-trefoil folding and their dependence on the nature of the solvent. Glycoconj J. 2009;26:111-6 pubmed publisher
    The galactoside-specific Viscum album L. agglutinin (VAA) is a potent biohazard akin to ricin and a mitogen for immune and tumor cells. These activities depend on cell surface binding to glycans...
  74. Ribeiro J, Andre S, Canada F, Gabius H, Butera A, Alves R, et al. Lectin-based drug design: combined strategy to identify lead compounds using STD NMR spectroscopy, solid-phase assays and cell binding for a plant toxin model. ChemMedChem. 2010;5:415-9, 314 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are relevant to research into human lectins, glycosciences, and beyond...
  75. Karakas A, Turker A, Gunduz B. Effects of European mistletoe (Viscum album L. subsp. album) extracts on activity rhythms of the Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Nat Prod Res. 2008;22:996-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that, side-effects of mistletoe on circadian timing system of the Syrian hamster depend on the dose and the preparation method of the extract...
  76. Bar Sela G, Gershony A, Haim N. [Mistletoe (Viscum album) preparations: an optional drug for cancer patients?]. Harefuah. 2006;145:42-6, 77 pubmed
    Extracts and preparations from the parasitic plant mistletoe (Viscum album L.) have been used in the treatment of cancer for decades...
  77. Avci G, Kupeli E, Eryavuz A, Yesilada E, Kucukkurt I. Antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activity assessment of some plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;107:418-23 pubmed
    ..Potentilla reptans L., Thymbra spicata var. spicata L., Urtica dioica L. and Viscum album var. album L...