cimicifuga

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins. Remifemin from C. racemosa is used to suppress LUTEINIZING HORMONE. It is reclassified by some to ACTAEA. The common name of black snakeroot is also used with ASARUM and SANICULA.

Top Publications

  1. Minciullo P, Saija A, Patafi M, Marotta G, Ferlazzo B, Gangemi S. Muscle damage induced by black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). Phytomedicine. 2006;13:115-8 pubmed
    Extracts of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) are commonly used for the treatment of symptoms associated with menopause. Adverse events with black cohosh are rare, mild and reversible...
  2. Dueregger A, Guggenberger F, Barthelmes J, Stecher G, Schuh M, Intelmann D, et al. Attenuation of nucleoside and anti-cancer nucleoside analog drug uptake in prostate cancer cells by Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO-1055. Phytomedicine. 2013;20:1306-14 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of the ethanolic Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO-1055 on prostate cells and evaluate its therapeutic potential...
  3. Low Dog T, Powell K, Weisman S. Critical evaluation of the safety of Cimicifuga racemosa in menopause symptom relief. Menopause. 2003;10:299-313 pubmed
    This comprehensive review examines the safety of Cimicifuga racemosa for the treatment of menopause symptoms, particularly in populations in which conventional menopause treatment regimens, including estrogen replacement, are ..
  4. Bolle P, Mastrangelo S, Perrone F, Evandri M. Estrogen-like effect of a Cimicifuga racemosa extract sub-fraction as assessed by in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assays. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;107:262-9 pubmed
    Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) is used in the treatment of painful menstruation and menopausal symptoms...
  5. Nappi R, Malavasi B, Brundu B, Facchinetti F. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric complaints: a randomized study versus low-dose transdermal estradiol. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005;20:30-5 pubmed
    To investigate, in a randomized clinical study, the efficacy of an isopropanolic aqueous extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) on climacteric complaints in comparison with low-dose transdermal estradiol (TTSE2)...
  6. Rhyu M, Lu J, Webster D, Fabricant D, Farnsworth N, Wang Z. Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Cimicifuga racemosa) behaves as a mixed competitive ligand and partial agonist at the human mu opiate receptor. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:9852-7 pubmed
    ..8 +/- 7.7 microg/mL. These results demonstrate for the first time that black cohosh contains active principle(s) that activate hMOR, supporting its beneficial role in alleviating menopausal symptoms. ..
  7. Schmid D, Gruber M, Woehs F, Prinz S, Etzlstorfer B, Prucker C, et al. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa, black cohosh) extracts in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61:1089-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa, black cohosh) is used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic remedy in traditional medicines. The present study focuses on the effects of C...
  8. Nadaoka I, Yasue M, Sami M, Kitagawa Y. Oral administration of Cimicifuga racemosa extract affects immobilization stress-induced changes in murine cerebral monoamine metabolism. Biomed Res. 2012;33:133-7 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) plant extracts on the changes in levels of the cerebral monoamines norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT), the respective metabolites 3-methoxy-4-..
  9. Fabricant D, Nikolic D, Lankin D, Chen S, Jaki B, Krunic A, et al. Cimipronidine, a cyclic guanidine alkaloid from Cimicifuga racemosa. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:1266-70 pubmed
    ..1), together with the known compound fukinolic acid (2), was isolated from the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of Cimicifuga racemosa roots that showed 5-HT7 receptor binding activity...

More Information

Publications76

  1. Kim H, Shin H, Park H, Kim Y, Yun Y, Park S, et al. In vitro inhibition of coronavirus replications by the traditionally used medicinal herbal extracts, Cimicifuga rhizoma, Meliae cortex, Coptidis rhizoma, and Phellodendron cortex. J Clin Virol. 2008;41:122-8 pubmed
    ..A search for new anti-coronaviral drugs to treat coronaviral infections was motivated by an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)...
  2. Viereck V, Emons G, Wuttke W. Black cohosh: just another phytoestrogen?. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2005;16:214-21 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, several studies suggest that A. racemosa extracts might help control psychic problems typically found during menopausal transition. ..
  3. Tian Z, Pan R, Si J, Xiao P. Cytotoxicity of cycloartane triterpenoids from aerial part of Cimicifuga foetida. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:39-42 pubmed
    Our previous study had demonstrated cytotoxicity of EtOAc fraction from aerial part of Cimicifuga foetida on various cancer cell lines...
  4. Campos L, Gilglioni E, Garcia R, Brito M, Natali M, Ishii Iwamoto E, et al. Cimicifuga racemosa impairs fatty acid ?-oxidation and induces oxidative stress in livers of ovariectomized rats with renovascular hypertension. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:680-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of therapeutic doses of Cimicifuga racemosa on cardiovascular parameters and on liver lipid metabolism and redox status in an animal model of estrogen deficiency associated with ..
  5. Borrelli F, Izzo A, Ernst E. Pharmacological effects of Cimicifuga racemosa. Life Sci. 2003;73:1215-29 pubmed
    b>Cimicifuga racemosa is widely employed to relieve menopause symptoms for its hormonal-like action. However, recent experimental studies have not found an estrogenic action by this plant...
  6. Bodinet C, Freudenstein J. Influence of Cimicifuga racemosa on the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002;76:1-10 pubmed
    ..To determine the influence of one such alternative, black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa [CR]), on estrogen-dependent mammary cancers, we conducted an in vitro investigation of the effect of ..
  7. Borrelli F, Ernst E. Cimicifuga racemosa: a systematic review of its clinical efficacy. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;58:235-41 pubmed
    b>Cimicifuga racemosa has long been advocated as an alternative to hormone-replacement therapy. However, recent experimental studies and a clinical trial have raised some questions on its utility...
  8. Freudenstein J, Dasenbrock C, Nisslein T. Lack of promotion of estrogen-dependent mammary gland tumors in vivo by an isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa extract. Cancer Res. 2002;62:3448-52 pubmed
    b>Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) is widely used in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Mechanistic studies suggest that unlike hormone-replacement therapy, CR does not stimulate estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer cells...
  9. Einbond L, Shimizu M, Xiao D, Nuntanakorn P, Lim J, Suzui M, et al. Growth inhibitory activity of extracts and purified components of black cohosh on human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004;83:221-31 pubmed
    ..Further studies are in progress to identify the mechanisms by which actein and related compounds present in black cohosh inhibit growth of human breast cancer cells...
  10. Wuttke W, Seidlova Wuttke D, Gorkow C. The Cimicifuga preparation BNO 1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a double-blind placebo-controlled study: effects on menopause symptoms and bone markers. Maturitas. 2003;44 Suppl 1:S67-77 pubmed
    In the present study, therapeutic effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa preparation CR BNO 1055 (Klimadynon/Menofem) on climacteric complaints, bone metabolism and endometrium will be compared with those of conjugated estrogens (CE) and ..
  11. Wang K, Chang J, Lin L, Chiang L, Lin C. Antiviral effect of cimicifugin from Cimicifuga foetida against human respiratory syncytial virus. Am J Chin Med. 2012;40:1033-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that the oriental medicinal plant, Cimicifuga foetida L. (C. foetida), possessed inhibitory activity against RSV...
  12. Liu Y, Chen D, Si J, Tu G, An D. Two new cyclolanostanol xylosides from the aerial parts of Cimicifuga dahurica. J Nat Prod. 2002;65:1486-8 pubmed
    From the aerial parts of Cimicifuga dahurica, two new cyclolanostanol xylosides, cimilactone A (1) and cimilactone B (2), and three known compounds were isolated...
  13. Borrelli F, Ernst E. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for menopausal symptoms: a systematic review of its efficacy. Pharmacol Res. 2008;58:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These therapies include herbal preparations such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa)...
  14. Yang C, Chik S, Li J, Cheung B, Lau A. Identification of the bioactive constituent and its mechanisms of action in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of black cohosh and related Cimicifuga species on human primary blood macrophages. J Med Chem. 2009;52:6707-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Cimicifuga species have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to treat inflammation and symptoms associated with menopause in Asia, Europe, and North America...
  15. Seidlova Wuttke D, Jarry H, Becker T, Christoffel V, Wuttke W. Pharmacology of Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055 in rats: bone, fat and uterus. Maturitas. 2003;44 Suppl 1:S39-50 pubmed
    ..Owing to the increased risks of breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases, patients look for alternatives. Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) preparations might be an alternative, because they proved to reduce climacteric complaints as ..
  16. Lu L, Chen J, Nian Y, Sun Y, Qiu M. Trinor-cycloartane glycosides from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga foetida. Molecules. 2009;14:1578-84 pubmed publisher
    ..with the known compound foetidinol-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (4) were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction of the roots of Cimicifuga foetida. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical reaction data.
  17. Beck V, Unterrieder E, Krenn L, Kubelka W, Jungbauer A. Comparison of hormonal activity (estrogen, androgen and progestin) of standardized plant extracts for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;84:259-68 pubmed
    Extracts from red clover (Trifolium pratense), soybean (Glycine max.) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) are frequently used as alternative compounds for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to treat menopausal disorders...
  18. Xu H, Fabricant D, Piersen C, Bolton J, Pezzuto J, Fong H, et al. A preliminary RAPD-PCR analysis of Cimicifuga species and other botanicals used for women's health. Phytomedicine. 2002;9:757-62 pubmed
    ..The test materials included samples from three species each of the genera Cimicifuga (Actaea) and Trifolium, as well as samples of Vitex agnus-castus L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Gingko biloba L...
  19. Seidlova Wuttke D, Eder N, Stahnke V, Kammann M, Stecher G, Haunschild J, et al. Cimicifuga racemosa and its triterpene-saponins prevent the Metabolic Syndrome and deterioration of cartilage in the knee joint of ovariectomized rats by similar mechanisms. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:846-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The special extract of Cimicifuga racemosa CR BNO 1055 was shown to reduce the size of the abdominal fat depot...
  20. Kim C, Lee W, Lee M, Cho H, Lee Y, Roh S. Inhibition of mast cell-dependent allergy reaction by extract of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2004;26:299-308 pubmed
    Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) has been used as therapeutics for pain and inflammation in Korean folk medicine...
  21. Yim S, Kim H, Park S, Kim J, Williams D, Jung D, et al. Cytotoxic caffeic acid derivatives from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga heracleifolia. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35:1559-65 pubmed publisher
    Activity profiling of the n-BuOH extract from Cimicifuga heracleifolia rhizomes led to the identification of three cytotoxic caffeic acid derivatives, carboxymethyl isoferulate (2), cimicifugic acid A (3), and cimicifugic acid B (4) ..
  22. Gaube F, Wolfl S, Pusch L, Kroll T, Hamburger M. Gene expression profiling reveals effects of Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) NUTT. (black cohosh) on the estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. BMC Pharmacol. 2007;7:11 pubmed
    Extracts from the rhizome of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) are increasingly popular as herbal alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the alleviation of postmenopausal disorders...
  23. Ahn B, Yang M, Jang H, Lee H, Moon C, Kim J, et al. Evaluation of the antiosteoporotic potential of Cimicifuga heracleifolia in female mice. Phytother Res. 2012;26:663-8 pubmed publisher
    Cimicifugae rhizoma might be protective against osteoporosis. This study investigated the effects of Cimicifuga heracleifolia (CH), an Asian species of Cimicifugae rhizome, on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice...
  24. Jarry H, Metten M, Spengler B, Christoffel V, Wuttke W. In vitro effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055. Maturitas. 2003;44 Suppl 1:S31-8 pubmed
    Extracts of Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa or CR) have been used for the treatment of climacteric complaints since decades. Efficacy, particularly concerning neurovegetative and psychic symptoms, has been proven in clinical trials...
  25. Ye L, Hu Z, Du G, Zhang J, Dong Q, Fu F, et al. Antidepressant-like effects of the extract from Cimicifuga foetida L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;144:683-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Cimicifuga foetida L., a traditional Chinese medicine, has been developed for the treatment of perimenopausal symptoms including depression in China (Brand name: XIMINGTING(®), XMT)...
  26. Dan C, Zhou Y, Ye D, Peng S, Ding L, Gross M, et al. Cimicifugadine from Cimicifuga foetida, a new class of triterpene alklaoids with novel reactivity. Org Lett. 2007;9:1813-6 pubmed
    ..1), with a pyridine ring incorporated to a cycloartane triterpenoid nucleus, was isolated from the roots of Cimicifuga foetida...
  27. Winterhoff H, Spengler B, Christoffel V, Butterweck V, Löhning A. Cimicifuga extract BNO 1055: reduction of hot flushes and hints on antidepressant activity. Maturitas. 2003;44 Suppl 1:S51-8 pubmed
    Ethanolic- and isopropanolic-aqueous extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa are used for the treatment of climacteric complaints...
  28. Hostanska K, Nisslein T, Freudenstein J, Reichling J, Saller R. Evaluation of cell death caused by triterpene glycosides and phenolic substances from Cimicifuga racemosa extract in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27:1970-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, TTG and CAE compounds significantly contributed to its apoptotic effect, CAE being the more potent inhibitor of proliferation and apoptosis inducer...
  29. Mahady G. Black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa): review of the clinical data for safety and efficacy in menopausal symptoms. Treat Endocrinol. 2005;4:177-84 pubmed
    ..Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) is one such alternative that has been used in the US for over 100 years...
  30. Johnson B, van Breemen R. In vitro formation of quinoid metabolites of the dietary supplement Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh). Chem Res Toxicol. 2003;16:838-46 pubmed
    Botanical dietary supplements containing Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa; black cohosh) are used commonly by women to assuage menopausal symptoms including hot flashes and sleep disorders...
  31. Jang J, Lee J, Kang B, Chung K, Choi Y, Choi B. Dichloromethane fraction of Cimicifuga heracleifolia decreases the level of melanin synthesis by activating the ERK or AKT signaling pathway in B16F10 cells. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:232-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Cimicifuga rhizoma has long been used in traditional Korean medicine...
  32. Choi E. Deoxyactein Isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa protects osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells against antimycin A-induced cytotoxicity. J Appl Toxicol. 2013;33:488-94 pubmed publisher
    Deoxyactein is one of the major constituents isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa...
  33. Nian Y, Zhang X, Li Y, Wang Y, Chen J, Lu L, et al. Cycloartane triterpenoids from the aerial parts of Cimicifuga foetida Linnaeus. Phytochemistry. 2011;72:1473-81 pubmed publisher
    ..together with eight known compounds, were isolated from aerial parts of Cimicifuga foetida. Their structures were determined by application of spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods...
  34. Lu L, Chen J, Li Y, Qing C, Wang Y, Nian Y, et al. Studies on the constituents of Cimicifuga foetida collected in Guizhou Province and their cytotoxic activities. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2012;60:571-7 pubmed
    ..3), together with 18 known compounds, were isolated from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga foetida L. collected in Guizhou Province, China...
  35. Stromeier S, Petereit F, Nahrstedt A. Phenolic esters from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa do not cause proliferation effects in MCF-7 cells. Planta Med. 2005;71:495-500 pubmed
    ..isoferulate (cimiciphenone) were isolated from a commercially available extract of the rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. (syn. Actaea racemosa L...
  36. Pan R, Chen D, Si J, Zhao X, Li Z, Cao L. Immunosuppressive effects of new cyclolanostane triterpene diglycosides from the aerial part of Cimicifuga foetida. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..cimifoetiside A (1) and cimifoetiside B (2), were isolated from an 80% ethanolic extract of the aerial part of Cimicifuga foetida L. (Ranuculaceae)...
  37. Raus K, Brucker C, Gorkow C, Wuttke W. First-time proof of endometrial safety of the special black cohosh extract (Actaea or Cimicifuga racemosa extract) CR BNO 1055. Menopause. 2006;13:678-91 pubmed
    To investigate endometrial safety by assessment of endometrial biopsy samples and the tolerability and efficacy of the special Actaea or Cimicifuga racemosa extract (CR BNO 1055).
  38. Nian Y, Zhu H, Tang W, Luo Y, Du J, Qiu M. Triterpenes from the aerial parts of Cimicifuga yunnanensis and their antiproliferative effects on p53(N236S) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. J Nat Prod. 2013;76:896-902 pubmed publisher
    ..A and B (7, 8), and cimilactone C (9), and 15 known analogues (10-24) were isolated from the aerial parts of Cimicifuga yunnanensis...
  39. Walji R, Boon H, Guns E, Oneschuk D, Younus J. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt.): safety and efficacy for cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 2007;15:913-21 pubmed
    ..This paper will present the results of a systematic review of the safety and efficacy of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt.) in patients with cancer.
  40. Jarry H, Stromeier S, Wuttke W, Nahrstedt A. Petasiphenone, a phenol isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa, in vitro inhibits proliferation of the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Planta Med. 2007;73:184-7 pubmed
    Extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. (syn.: Actaea racemosa L.) (CR) inhibit the proliferation of the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP...
  41. Jarry H, Thelen P, Christoffel V, Spengler B, Wuttke W. Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055 inhibits proliferation of the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:178-82 pubmed
    Extracts from black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa, CR) exert an anti-proliferative action in human breast cancer cell cultures, which has been attributed to an anti-estrogenic effect...
  42. Nadaoka I, Watanabe K, Yasue M, Sami M, Kitagawa Y, Mimaki Y. Oral administration of Cimicifuga racemosa extract attenuates immobilization stress-induced reactions. Nat Prod Commun. 2012;7:15-8 pubmed
    Dried rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR), known as black cohosh, have been widely used as a herbal dietary supplement in the treatment of menopausal symptoms...
  43. Cao P, Pu X, Peng S, Zhang X, Ding L. Chemical constituents from Cimicifuga foetida. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2005;7:145-9 pubmed
    From the rhizoma of Cimicifuga foetida L. (Ranunculaceae) a new chromone, 6'-hydroxylangelicain (18), has been isolated together with 20 known compounds...
  44. Sammartino A, Tommaselli G, Gargano V, Di Carlo C, Attianese W, Nappi C. Short-term effects of a combination of isoflavones, lignans and Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric-related symptoms in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006;22:646-50 pubmed
    The present study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of a combination of isoflavones, lignans and Cimicifuga racemosa on acute climacteric-related symptoms in postmenopausal women in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled ..
  45. Wuttke W, Gorkow C, Seidlova Wuttke D. Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on bone turnover, vaginal mucosa, and various blood parameters in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Menopause. 2006;13:185-96 pubmed
    In this study, the effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) preparation CR BNO 1055 on markers of bone metabolism, hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), lipometabolism, vaginal maturity, and routine laboratory parameters were ..
  46. Nian Y, Zhang Y, Chen J, Lu L, Qiu M, Qing C. Cytotoxic chemical constituents from the roots of Cimicifuga foetida. [corrected]. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..7), together with eight known compounds (8-15), were isolated from the roots of Cimicifuga fetida. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods...
  47. He K, Pauli G, Zheng B, Wang H, Bai N, Peng T, et al. Cimicifuga species identification by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array/mass spectrometric/evaporative light scattering detection for quality control of black cohosh products. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1112:241-54 pubmed
    ..It is manufactured from roots and rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa (Ranunculaceae)...
  48. Nishida M, Yoshimitsu H, Nohara T. Three cycloartane glycosides from Cimicifuga rhizome and their immunosuppressive activities in mouse allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003;51:354-6 pubmed
    ..3), were isolated from a commercial Cimicifuga Rhizome...
  49. Nisslein T, Freudenstein J. Effects of an isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa on urinary crosslinks and other parameters of bone quality in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Metab. 2003;21:370-6 pubmed
    ..Because extracts of black cohosh are already recognized as safe and effective in the treatment of certain gynecological disorders, a longer-term clinical trial of this herbal remedy for the treatment of osteoporosis is warranted...
  50. Seidlova Wuttke D, Hesse O, Jarry H, Christoffel V, Spengler B, Becker T, et al. Evidence for selective estrogen receptor modulator activity in a black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract: comparison with estradiol-17beta. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003;149:351-62 pubmed
    ..In the present experiments, the effects of the clinically used Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) extract BNO 1055 in the uterus, in the bone and on serum luteinizing hormone (LH) were compared ..
  51. Leach M, Moore V. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD007244 pubmed publisher
  52. Pockaj B, Gallagher J, Loprinzi C, Stella P, Barton D, Sloan J, et al. Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of black cohosh in the management of hot flashes: NCCTG Trial N01CC1. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:2836-41 pubmed
    ..Hot flashes can cause significant morbidity in postmenopausal women undergoing or finished with breast cancer treatment. Black cohosh has been used to treat hot flashes, but definitive clinical data about efficacy have been equivocal...
  53. Hostanska K, Nisslein T, Freudenstein J, Reichling J, Saller R. Cimicifuga racemosa extract inhibits proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive and negative human breast carcinoma cell lines by induction of apoptosis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004;84:151-60 pubmed
    Hormone replacement therapy is contraindicated in women with breast cancer. Extracts from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa, have gained acceptance as a natural alternative for the treatment of menopausal symptoms...
  54. Fang Z, Nian Y, Li W, Wu J, Ge G, Dong P, et al. Cycloartane triterpenoids from Cimicifuga yunnanensis induce apoptosis of breast cancer cells (MCF7) via p53-dependent mitochondrial signaling pathway. Phytother Res. 2011;25:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..study was carried out to investigate the antitumor activity of five cycloartane triterpenoids isolated from Cimicifuga yunnanensis on the breast cancer cell line MCF7 and its corresponding drug resistant subline R-MCF7, including ..
  55. Burdette J, Liu J, Chen S, Fabricant D, Piersen C, Barker E, et al. Black cohosh acts as a mixed competitive ligand and partial agonist of the serotonin receptor. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:5661-70 pubmed
    Extracts of the rhizome of black cohosh [Actaea racemosa L., formerly called Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt.] were evaluated for potential mechanisms of action in the alleviation of menopausal hot flashes...
  56. Burdette J, Chen S, Lu Z, Xu H, White B, Fabricant D, et al. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa L.) protects against menadione-induced DNA damage through scavenging of reactive oxygen species: bioassay-directed isolation and characterization of active principles. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:7022-8 pubmed
    The roots/rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa L. (Nutt.) (black cohosh) have traditionally been used to treat menopausal symptoms through an unknown mechanism of action...
  57. Lu L, Chen J, Song H, Li Y, Nian Y, Qiu M. Five new triterpene bisglycosides with acyclic side chains from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga foetida L. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:729-33 pubmed
    ..of the cycloartane type, one of its derivative, and one of the lanostane type were isolated from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga foetida. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence...
  58. Seidlova Wuttke D, Stecher G, Kammann M, Haunschild J, Eder N, Stahnke V, et al. Osteoprotective effects of Cimicifuga racemosa and its triterpene-saponins are responsible for reduction of bone marrow fat. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:855-60 pubmed publisher
    ..obesity and osteoporosis both of which can be partially prevented by estradiol (E2) and the special extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) BNO 1055...
  59. Lee J, Cuong T, Kwack S, Seok J, Lee J, Jeong J, et al. Cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga heracleifolia and their anticomplementary activity. Planta Med. 2012;78:1391-4 pubmed publisher
    ..6) and (23R,24S)-25-O-anhydrocimigenol 3-O-?-D-xylopyranoside (7) were isolated from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga heracleifolia. Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR...
  60. Lude S, Torok M, Dieterle S, Knapp A, Kaeufeler R, Jaggi R, et al. Hepatic effects of Cimicifuga racemosa extract in vivo and in vitro. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:2848-57 pubmed
    Extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa are used frequently for menopausal complaints. Cimicifuga is well tolerated but can occasionally cause liver injury. To assess hepatotoxicity of cimicifuga in more detail, ethanolic C...
  61. Nian Y, Wang H, Zhou L, Su J, Li Y, Qiu M. Cytotoxic cycloartane triterpenes of the traditional Chinese medicine "shengma" (Cimicifuga dahurica). Planta Med. 2013;79:60-9 pubmed publisher
    ..triterpenes (1-12), together with fourteen known compounds (13-26), were isolated from the roots of Cimicifuga dahurica. Their structures were determined by application of spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods...
  62. Rostock M, Fischer J, Mumm A, Stammwitz U, Saller R, Bartsch H. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients with climacteric complaints - a prospective observational study. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2011;27:844-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As estrogen substitution is contraindicated, herbal alternatives, e.g. extracts of black cohosh are often used...
  63. Kolios L, Daub F, Sehmisch S, Frosch K, Tezval M, Stuermer K, et al. Absence of positive effect of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on fracture healing in osteopenic rodent model. Phytother Res. 2010;24:1796-806 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055 improves metaphyseal fracture healing in severe osteopenic bone in rats...
  64. Huntley A. The safety of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Cimicifuga racemosa). Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2004;3:615-23 pubmed
    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa/Cimicifuga racemosa) is a North American perennial plant that has been used for traditional medicinal purposes by the native Indian population...
  65. Tian Z, Yang M, Huang F, Li K, Si J, Shi L, et al. Cytotoxicity of three cycloartane triterpenoids from Cimicifuga dahurica. Cancer Lett. 2005;226:65-75 pubmed
    ..In addition, inhibition of cdc2 protein expression correlates with mechanism of G(2)/M arrest...
  66. Uebelhack R, Blohmer J, Graubaum H, Busch R, Gruenwald J, Wernecke K. Black cohosh and St. John's wort for climacteric complaints: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107:247-55 pubmed
    To investigate the efficacy of the fixed combination of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) extracts in women with climacteric complaints with a pronounced psychological component.
  67. Einbond L, Shimizu M, Nuntanakorn P, Seter C, Cheng R, Jiang B, et al. Actein and a fraction of black cohosh potentiate antiproliferative effects of chemotherapy agents on human breast cancer cells. Planta Med. 2006;72:1200-6 pubmed