mistletoe

Summary

Summary: Parasitic plants that form a bushy growth on branches of host trees which are in the order Santalales. It includes the Christmas mistletoe family (VISCACEAE), the showy mistletoe family (LORANTHACEAE) and the catkin mistletoe family (Eremolepidaceae). The composition of toxins, lectins, tyramine, phenethylamines, and other compounds may be affected by the host.

Top Publications

  1. Lee J, Kim J, Lee Y, Byeon S, Kim B, Rhee M, et al. In vitro immunoregulatory effects of Korean mistletoe lectin on functional activation of monocytic and macrophage-like cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:2043-51 pubmed
    Korean mistletoe lectin (KML) is one of the major active components in Viscum album var. (coloratum), displaying various biological effects such as anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities...
  2. Steuer Vogt M, Bonkowsky V, Ambrosch P, Scholz M, Neiss A, Strutz J, et al. The effect of an adjuvant mistletoe treatment programme in resected head and neck cancer patients: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Eur J Cancer. 2001;37:23-31 pubmed
    The effect of an adjuvant mistletoe extract treatment was tested in a prospective, randomised controlled clinical trial involving 477 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma...
  3. Huber R, Klein R, Berg P, Lüdtke R, Werner M. Effects of a lectin- and a viscotoxin-rich mistletoe preparation on clinical and hematologic parameters: a placebo-controlled evaluation in healthy subjects. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8:857-66 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe preparations, which are widely used among patients with cancer in Germany, have immunomodulating properties in vitro and in vivo...
  4. Deeni Y, Sadiq N. Antimicrobial properties and phytochemical constituents of the leaves of African mistletoe (Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (DC) Danser) (Loranthaceae): an ethnomedicinal plant of Hausaland, Northern Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;83:235-40 pubmed
    African mistletoe (Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (DC) Danser) called 'Kauchi' in Hausa is a hemi-plant parasite used ethnomedicinally by the Hausa and the Fulani tribes of Northern Nigeria as a remedy for several human and animal ailments ..
  5. Yoon T, Yoo Y, Kang T, Her E, Kim S, Kim K, et al. Cellular and humoral adjuvant activity of lectins isolated from Korean mistletoe (Viscum album colaratum). Int Immunopharmacol. 2001;1:881-9 pubmed
    The adjuvant effect of lectins (KML-C) isolated from Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) on induction of humoral and cellular immune responses against keyhole limpet hemocyanine (KLH) was examined...
  6. Mengs U, Schwarz T, Bulitta M, Weber K. Antitumoral effects of an intravesically applied aqueous mistletoe extract on urinary bladder carcinoma MB49 in mice. Anticancer Res. 2000;20:3565-8 pubmed
    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a locally applied aqueous mistletoe extract (AME) on the growth of urinary bladder carcinoma MB49 in an orthotopic murine model...
  7. Lavelle E, Grant G, Pusztai A, Pfuller U, Leavy O, McNeela E, et al. Mistletoe lectins enhance immune responses to intranasally co-administered herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D2. Immunology. 2002;107:268-74 pubmed
    The mucosal adjuvant properties of the three type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) from the European mistletoe, Viscum album L., were investigated...
  8. Gabius H. Probing the cons and pros of lectin-induced immunomodulation: case studies for the mistletoe lectin and galectin-1. Biochimie. 2001;83:659-66 pubmed
    ..As documented in vitro and in vivo for the galactoside-specific mistletoe lectin, its apparent immunomodulatory capacity reflected in upregulation of production of proinflammatory ..
  9. Li S, Gullbo J, Lindholm P, Larsson R, Thunberg E, Samuelsson G, et al. Ligatoxin B, a new cytotoxic protein with a novel helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain from the mistletoe Phoradendron liga. Biochem J. 2002;366:405-13 pubmed
    A new basic protein, designated ligatoxin B, containing 46 amino acid residues has been isolated from the mistletoe Phoradendron liga (Gill.) Eichl. (Viscaceae)...

More Information

Publications86

  1. Pevzner I, Agapov I, Niwa H, Maluchenko N, Moisenovich M, Pfüller U, et al. Differences in amino acid sequences of mistletoe lectin I and III B-subunits determining carbohydrate binding specificity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1675:155-64 pubmed
    Toxic lectins of European mistletoe Viscum album L.--MLI (viscumin), MLII and MLIII--are present in water extracts of this plant. Earlier we have cloned the full-length gene of MLIII precursor [A.G. Tonevitsky, I.I. Agapov, I.B...
  2. Ostermann T, Raak C, Bussing A. Survival of cancer patients treated with mistletoe extract (Iscador): a systematic literature review. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:451 pubmed publisher
    In Europe, extracts from Viscum album (VA-E), the European white-berry mistletoe, are widely used to treat patients with cancer. We searched several databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, NCCAM, NLM, DIMDI, CAMbase, and Medline...
  3. Stein G, Pfuller U, Schietzel M, Bussing A. Toxic proteins from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.): increase of intracellular IL-4 but decrease of IFN-gamma in apoptotic cells. Anticancer Res. 2000;20:1673-8 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe lectins (ML), the major biologically active components of mistletoe extracts, which are used for adjuvant cancer therapy, induce apoptosis in lymphocytes and tumor cells...
  4. Coulon A, Mosbah A, Lopez A, Sautereau A, Schaller G, Urech K, et al. Comparative membrane interaction study of viscotoxins A3, A2 and B from mistletoe (Viscum album) and connections with their structures. Biochem J. 2003;374:71-8 pubmed
    ..and B (VB) are, together with viscotoxin A3 (VA3), among the most abundant viscotoxin isoforms that occur in mistletoe-derived medicines used in anti-cancer therapy...
  5. Mishra V, Sharma R, Yadav S, Babu C, Singh T. Purification and characterization of four isoforms of Himalayan mistletoe ribosome-inactivating protein from Viscum album having unique sugar affinity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;423:288-301 pubmed
    ..proteins having antitumor and immunomodulatory properties constitute the active principle of widely used mistletoe therapy in Europe...
  6. Klein R, Classen K, Fischer S, Errenst M, Scheffler A, Stein G, et al. Induction of antibodies to viscotoxins A1, A2, A3, and B in tumour patients during therapy with an aqueous mistletoe extract. Eur J Med Res. 2002;7:359-67 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe extracts exert immunomodulatory properties on immunocompetent cells of the innate as well as the specific immune system. These effects have been mainly ascribed to mistletoe lectin 1 (ML-1) present in most of the extracts...
  7. Elsässer Beile U, Leiber C, Wetterauer U, Bühler P, Wolf P, Lucht M, et al. Adjuvant intravesical treatment with a standardized mistletoe extract to prevent recurrence of superficial urinary bladder cancer. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:4733-6 pubmed
    ..In the present phase I/II clinical trial, an aqueous mistletoe extract, standardized to mistletoe lectin, was applied intravesically to 30 patients with superficial urothelial ..
  8. Johansson S, Gullbo J, Lindholm P, Ek B, Thunberg E, Samuelsson G, et al. Small, novel proteins from the mistletoe Phoradendron tomentosum exhibit highly selective cytotoxicity to human breast cancer cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003;60:165-75 pubmed
    Four novel proteins (phoratoxins C-F) have been isolated from the North American mistletoe Phoradendron tomentosum...
  9. Grossarth Maticek R, Ziegler R. Randomized and non-randomized prospective controlled cohort studies in matched pair design for the long-term therapy of corpus uteri cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador). Eur J Med Res. 2008;13:107-20 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe preparations such as Iscador are in common use as complementary/anthroposophic medications for many cancer indications, particularly for solid cancers. Efficacy of this complementary therapy is still discussed controversially...
  10. Lyu S, Park W. Mistletoe lectin (Viscum album coloratum) modulates proliferation and cytokine expressions in murine splenocytes. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;39:662-70 pubmed
    It is well documented that an extract of European mistletoe has a variety of biological effects, such as the stimulation of cytokine production from immune cells, and additional immunoadjuvant activities...
  11. Beuth J, Schneider B, Schierholz J. Impact of complementary treatment of breast cancer patients with standardized mistletoe extract during aftercare: a controlled multicenter comparative epidemiological cohort study. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:523-7 pubmed
    To investigate the safety and efficacy of complementary treatment of breast cancer patients with the standardized mistletoe extract (sME) HELIXOR in routine practice during aftercare through a multicenter comparative epidemiological ..
  12. Burkhart J, Wälchli C, Heusser P, Weissenstein U, Baumgartner S, Andres A. In vitro investigation into the potential of a mistletoe extract to alleviate adverse effects of cyclophosphamide. Altern Ther Health Med. 2010;16:40-8 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe extracts have been shown to provide deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-stabilizing effects in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro...
  13. Huber R, Eisenbraun J, Miletzki B, Adler M, Scheer R, Klein R, et al. Pharmacokinetics of natural mistletoe lectins after subcutaneous injection. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:889-97 pubmed publisher
    Knowledge of natural mistletoe lectins (nML) pharmacokinetics can be regarded as essential for further rational studies with mistletoe preparations...
  14. Ernst E, Schmidt K, Steuer Vogt M. Mistletoe for cancer? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Int J Cancer. 2003;107:262-7 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe extracts are widely used in the treatment of cancer. The results of clinical trials are however highly inconsistent. We therefore conducted a systematic review of all randomised clinical trials of this unconventional therapy...
  15. Kienle G, Kiene H. Complementary cancer therapy: a systematic review of prospective clinical trials on anthroposophic mistletoe extracts. Eur J Med Res. 2007;12:103-19 pubmed
    Anthroposophic Mistletoe therapy is a widely used complementary cancer treatment. To evaluate prospective clinical trials on the effectiveness of anthroposophic mistletoe therapy for cancer. Systematic review...
  16. Mansky P. Mistletoe and cancer: controversies and perspectives. Semin Oncol. 2002;29:589-94 pubmed
    Extracts and preparations from the tree parasitic plant mistletoe (Viscum album L.) have been used in the treatment of cancer for decades...
  17. Burger A, Mengs U, Kelter G, Schüler J, Fiebig H. No evidence of stimulation of human tumor cell proliferation by a standardized aqueous mistletoe extract in vitro. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:3801-6 pubmed
    The in vitro antiproliferative or stimulatory activity of an aqueous mistletoe extract (AME) with a defined content of bioactive mistletoe lectin (ML) was investigated in 6 human tumor cell lines, including two melanomas and ..
  18. Bussing A, Vervecken W, Wagner M, Wagner B, Pfuller U, Schietzel M. Expression of mitochondrial Apo2.7 molecules and caspase-3 activation in human lymphocytes treated with the ribosome-inhibiting mistletoe lectins and the cell membrane permeabilizing viscotoxins. Cytometry. 1999;37:133-9 pubmed
    ..It is unclear whether expression of newly described mitochondrial Apo2.7 molecules (7A6 antigen) is specific for apoptosis or may also occur in necrosis...
  19. Zarkovic N, Kalisnik T, Loncaric I, Borovic S, Mang S, Kissel D, et al. Comparison of the effects of Viscum album lectin ML-1 and fresh plant extract (Isorel) on the cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity of melanoma B16F10. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 1998;13:121-31 pubmed
    ..The aims of this study were to compare the concentration dependent effects of the pure mistletoe lectin (ML-1) with the fresh plant Viscum album extract (Isorel) and its different MW components on the in vitro ..
  20. Stein G, Berg P. Characterisation of immunological reactivity of patients with adverse effects during therapy with an aqueous mistletoe extract. Eur J Med Res. 1999;4:169-77 pubmed
    Drugs, which are effective are also bond to exert adverse effects. This is also true for mistletoe extracts...
  21. Bussing A, Schietzel M. Apoptosis-inducing properties of Viscum album L. extracts from different host trees, correlate with their content of toxic mistletoe lectins. Anticancer Res. 1999;19:23-8 pubmed
    ..A clinically relevant direct anti-tumour effect might be induced only by their intratumoural or intrapleural injection, and thus effectiveness is highly dependent on the apoptosis-inducing potencies of the extracts used...
  22. Huber R, Lüdtke H, Wieber J, Beckmann C. Safety and effects of two mistletoe preparations on production of Interleukin-6 and other immune parameters - a placebo controlled clinical trial in healthy subjects. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:116 pubmed publisher
    In Germany, Iscucin® Populi (IP), a preparation from mistletoe growing on the poplar tree, is used in cancer therapy while Viscum Mali e planta tota (VM), a preparation from mistletoe growing on the apple tree, is used in patients with ..
  23. Stein G, Bussing A, Schietzel M. Activation of dendritic cells by an aqueous mistletoe extract and mistletoe lectin-3 in vitro. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:267-74 pubmed
    ..Since mistletoe extracts are applied to tumour patients, their influence on the activation/generation of DC was investigated.
  24. Elsässer Beile U, Voss M, Schühle R, Wetterauer U. Biological effects of natural and recombinant mistletoe lectin and an aqueous mistletoe extract on human monocytes and lymphocytes in vitro. J Clin Lab Anal. 2000;14:255-9 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe lectin is thought to constitute the active principle in extract preparations from mistletoe, which are widely used as immunomodulators in adjuvant tumor therapy...
  25. Hostanska K, Vuong V, Rocha S, Soengas M, Glanzmann C, Saller R, et al. Recombinant mistletoe lectin induces p53-independent apoptosis in tumour cells and cooperates with ionising radiation. Br J Cancer. 2003;88:1785-92 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe extracts are used as alternative cancer treatment in addition to standard chemotherapy and radiation treatment and have an immunostimulatory and pain-relieving effect...
  26. Choi S, Lyu S, Park W. Mistletoe lectin induces apoptosis and telomerase inhibition in human A253 cancer cells through dephosphorylation of Akt. Arch Pharm Res. 2004;27:68-76 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe lectin has been reported to induce apoptosis in different cancer cell lines in vitro and to show antitumor activity against a variety of tumors in animal models...
  27. Moustapha B, Marina G, Raúl F, Raquel C, Mahinda M. Chemical constituents of the Mexican mistletoe (Psittacanthus calyculatus). Molecules. 2011;16:9397-403 pubmed publisher
  28. Lyu S, Kwon Y, Joo H, Park W. Preparation of alginate/chitosan microcapsules and enteric coated granules of mistletoe lectin. Arch Pharm Res. 2004;27:118-26 pubmed
    The aqueous extract of European mistletoe (Viscum album, L.) has been used in cancer therapy. The purified mistletoe lectins, main components of mistletoe, have demonstrated cytotoxic and immune-system-stimulating activities...
  29. Rigling A, Eilmann B, Koechli R, Dobbertin M. Mistletoe-induced crown degradation in Scots pine in a xeric environment. Tree Physiol. 2010;30:845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides drought, infection with pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp...
  30. Tonevitsky A, Agapov I, Temiakov D, Moisenovich M, Maluchenko N, Solopova O, et al. Study of heterogeneity of lectins in mistletoe preparations by monoclonal antibodies to their A-subunits. Arzneimittelforschung. 1999;49:970-5 pubmed
    Monoclonal antibodies (monAbs) displaying diverse affinity to native and recombinant mistletoe lectins A-chains (ML I-A, ML II-A, ML III-A and rML-A) have been obtained...
  31. Gorter R, van Wely M, Reif M, Stoss M. Tolerability of an extract of European mistletoe among immunocompromised and healthy individuals. Altern Ther Health Med. 1999;5:37-44, 47-8 pubmed
    European mistletoe (Viscum album L) has been used parenterally for more than 80 years as an anticancer medication with significant immunomodulating action...
  32. Kelter G, Schierholz J, Fischer I, Fiebig H. Cytotoxic activity and absence of tumor growth stimulation of standardized mistletoe extracts in human tumor models in vitro. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:223-33 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe extracts are widely used in complementary and alternative cancer therapy in Europe. The extracts possess cytotoxic, as well as immunostimulatory effects...
  33. Karagöz A, Onay E, Arda N, Kuru A. Antiviral potency of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. album) extracts against human parainfluenza virus type 2 in Vero cells. Phytother Res. 2003;17:560-2 pubmed
    Various extracts from the leaves of mistletoe (Viscum album L. ssp. album) were investigated for their antiviral activity on human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV-2) growth in Vero cells...
  34. Stein G, Pfuller U, Schietzel M, Bussing A. Intracellular expression of IL-4 and inhibition of IFN-gamma by extracts from European mistletoe is related to induction of apoptosis. Anticancer Res. 2000;20:2987-94 pubmed
    Extracts from European mistletoe are used for adjuvant cancer treatment. Their influence on the intracellular expression of cytokines of the T-helper cells type-1 (Th1; IFN-gamma) or type-2 (Th2; IL-4) is still unknown.
  35. Bock P, Friedel W, Hanisch J, Karasmann M, Schneider B. [Efficacy and safety of long-term complementary treatment with standardized European mistletoe extract (Viscum album L.) in addition to the conventional adjuvant oncologic therapy in patients with primary non-metastasized mammary carcinoma. Results o. Arzneimittelforschung. 2004;54:456-66 pubmed
    ..therapy in primary, non-metastatic mammary carcinoma patients in UICC stage I-III with a standardized European mistletoe extract (Viscum album L...
  36. Beuth J, Ko H, Schneider H, Tawadros S, Kasper H, Zimst H, et al. Intratumoral application of standardized mistletoe extracts down regulates tumor weight via decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and necrosis in a murine model. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:4451-6 pubmed
    The cytotoxic in vitro activity of standardized mistletoe extracts (ME) was examined by established assays towards the human ductal breast carcinoma cell line BT474. A dose-dependent (optimum 25 mg/mL medium) and significantly (p < 0...
  37. Bar Sela G, Haim N. Abnoba-viscum (mistletoe extract) in metastatic colorectal carcinoma resistant to 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin-based chemotherapy. Med Oncol. 2004;21:251-4 pubmed
    A phase II trial was designed to determine whether mistletoe extract can induce objective tumor response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer resistant to 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (5FU/LCV)-based chemotherapy...
  38. Eck J, Langer M, Möckel B, Baur A, Rothe M, Zinke H, et al. Cloning of the mistletoe lectin gene and characterization of the recombinant A-chain. Eur J Biochem. 1999;264:775-84 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe lectin I (MLI) is the major active constituent of mistletoe extracts, which are widely used for adjuvant tumour therapy...
  39. Krauspenhaar R, Eschenburg S, Perbandt M, Kornilov V, Konareva N, Mikailova I, et al. Crystal structure of mistletoe lectin I from Viscum album. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;257:418-24 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) from Viscum album has been solved by molecular replacement techniques. The structure has been refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 24...
  40. Grossarth Maticek R, Ziegler R. Prospective controlled cohort studies on long-term therapy of breast cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador). Forsch Komplementmed. 2006;13:285-92 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe preparations such as Iscador (Weleda, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany) are commonly used in complementary and alternative / anthroposophic medicine for many cancer indications, particularly for solid cancers...
  41. Horneber M, Bueschel G, Huber R, Linde K, Rostock M. Mistletoe therapy in oncology. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;:CD003297 pubmed publisher
    b>Mistletoe extracts are commonly used in cancer patients. It is claimed that they improve survival and quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients.
  42. Pae H, Seo W, Oh G, Shin M, Lee H, Kim S, et al. Potentiation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis by mistletoe lectin. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2000;22:697-709 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe lectins (MLs) constitute the active principle in extract preparations from mistletoe, commonly used as immunomodulator in adjuvant tumor therapy...
  43. Piao B, Wang Y, Xie G, Mansmann U, Matthes H, Beuth J, et al. Impact of complementary mistletoe extract treatment on quality of life in breast, ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer patients. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Anticancer Res. 2004;24:303-9 pubmed
    Standardized aqueous mistletoe extracts have been applied to cancer patients for several decades as complementary medicine...
  44. Gerhard I, Abel U, Loewe Mesch A, Huppmann S, Kuehn J. [Problems of randomized studies in complementary medicine demonstrated in a study on mistletoe treatment of patients with breast cancer]. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004;11:150-7 pubmed
    Prospective randomized studies on mistletoe therapy repeatedly demonstrated that there is a basic problem in the matter of enrolling the appropriate number of patients within a reasonable amount of time...
  45. Friedel W, Matthes H, Bock P, Zanker K. Systematic evaluation of the clinical effects of supportive mistletoe treatment within chemo- and/or radiotherapy protocols and long-term mistletoe application in nonmetastatic colorectal carcinoma: multicenter, controlled, observational cohort study. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2009;7:137-45 pubmed
    In Europe, patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) frequently receive mistletoe extracts to improve quality of life and survival...
  46. Münstedt K, Entezami A, Kullmer U. [Oncologic mistletoe therapy: physicians' use and estimation of efficiency]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2000;125:1222-6 pubmed
    In the field of unorthodox therapies in oncology, mistletoe extracts represent the most important method in Germany. In spite of its use for decades, there is no sufficient evidence for its efficiency...
  47. Braun J, Ko H, Schierholz J, Beuth J. Standardized mistletoe extract augments immune response and down-regulates local and metastatic tumor growth in murine models. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:4187-90 pubmed
    The immunomodulatory and antimetastatic activity of standardized aqueous mistletoe extract (sME) was evaluated in BALB/c-mice. Regular subcutaneous (s.c...
  48. Park H, Hong J, Kwon H, Kim Y, Lee K, Kim J, et al. TLR4-mediated activation of mouse macrophages by Korean mistletoe lectin-C (KML-C). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:721-5 pubmed publisher
    Korean mistletoe lectin (KML-C) is an adjuvant that activates systemic and mucosal immune cells to release cytokines including TNF-alpha, which induces immunity against viruses and cancer cells...
  49. Bussing A, Rosenberger A, Stumpf C, Schietzel M. [Development of lymphocyte subsets in tumor patients after subcutaneous administration of mistletoe extracts]. Forsch Komplementarmed. 1999;6:196-204 pubmed
    In order to exclude the possibility that mistletoe therapy may result in immunosuppression, as indicated by a significant reduction of defined lymphocyte subsets,
  50. Rostock M, Huber R. Randomized and double-blind studies--demands and reality as demonstrated by two examples of mistletoe research. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004;11 Suppl 1:18-22 pubmed
    Two examples of clinical research with mistletoe extracts were used to demonstrate essential difficulties in carrying out randomized and placebo-controlled trials...
  51. Watson D, Rawsthorne J. Mistletoe specialist frugivores: latterday "Johnny Appleseeds" or self?serving market gardeners?. Oecologia. 2013;172:925-32 pubmed
    ..As aerial parasites, mistletoe seeds need to be deposited upon branches of suitable hosts, and mistletoe specialist frugivores (from eight ..
  52. Tusenius K, Spoek A, van Hattum J. Exploratory study on the effects of treatment with two mistletoe preparations on chronic hepatitis C. Arzneimittelforschung. 2005;55:749-53 pubmed
    Twenty-one patients with chronic hepatitis C were treated with a mistletoe preparation as monotherapy (either Iscador or Abnoba viscum) during one year. The treatment was well tolerated...
  53. Mengs U, Göthel D, Leng Peschlow E. Mistletoe extracts standardized to mistletoe lectins in oncology: review on current status of preclinical research. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:1399-407 pubmed
    Since the identification and characterization of mistletoe lectins as pharmacologically active constituents at the end of the 1980s, research on mistletoe has made substantial advances...
  54. Zuzak T, Rist L, Eggenschwiler J, Grotzer M, Viviani A. Paediatric medulloblastoma cells are susceptible to Viscum album (Mistletoe) preparations. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:3485-92 pubmed
    ..Evidence for cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Viscum album (Mistletoe) in vitro is available, however, no data concerning paediatric tumours, especially paediatric brain tumours, has ..
  55. Maletzki C, Linnebacher M, Savai R, Hobohm U. Mistletoe lectin has a shiga toxin-like structure and should be combined with other Toll-like receptor ligands in cancer therapy. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013;62:1283-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Mistletoe extract (ME) is applied as an adjuvant treatment in cancer therapy in thousands of patients each year in Europe...
  56. Schink M, Tröger W, Dabidian A, Goyert A, Scheuerecker H, Meyer J, et al. Mistletoe extract reduces the surgical suppression of natural killer cell activity in cancer patients. a randomized phase III trial. Forsch Komplementmed. 2007;14:9-17 pubmed
    ..The influence of a perioperative infusion of a standardized mistletoe extract (Iscador) on immune functions was tested in a prospective, sequential, randomized clinical trial.
  57. Maier G, Fiebig H. Absence of tumor growth stimulation in a panel of 16 human tumor cell lines by mistletoe extracts in vitro. Anticancer Drugs. 2002;13:373-9 pubmed
    Extracts of Viscum album (mistletoe) are widely used as complementary cancer therapies in Europe. The mistletoe lectins have been identified as the main active principle of mistletoe extracts...
  58. Sabová L, Pilatova M, Szilagyi K, Sabo R, Mojzis J. Cytotoxic effect of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract on Jurkat cells and its interaction with doxorubicin. Phytother Res. 2010;24:365-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Mistletoe preparations are frequently used by cancer patients because of their ability to stimulate the immunity and to improve the quality of life...
  59. Ostermann T, Bussing A. Retrolective studies on the survival of cancer patients treated with mistletoe extracts: a meta-analysis. Explore (NY). 2012;8:277-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In this respect, retrolective studies have been applied to examine the therapeutic potential of adjuvant mistletoe treatment.
  60. Seifert G, Jesse P, Laengler A, Reindl T, Lüth M, Lobitz S, et al. Molecular mechanisms of mistletoe plant extract-induced apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia in vivo and in vitro. Cancer Lett. 2008;264:218-28 pubmed publisher
    Viscum album (Mistletoe) is one of the most widely used alternative cancer therapies. Aqueous mistletoe extracts (MT) contain the three mistletoe lectins I, II and III as one predominant group of biologically active agents...
  61. Kang T, Song S, Yoon T, Yoo Y, Lee K, Her E, et al. Isolation and characterization of two Korean mistletoe lectins. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;40:959-65 pubmed
    Two isolectins (KML-IIU and the KML-IIL) were individually isolated from the previously reported Korean mistletoe lectin, KML-C, by using an immunoaffinity column...
  62. Heinzerling L, von Baehr V, Liebenthal C, von Baehr R, Volk H. Immunologic effector mechanisms of a standardized mistletoe extract on the function of human monocytes and lymphocytes in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. J Clin Immunol. 2006;26:347-59 pubmed
    Even though mistletoe extracts have been in clinical use for centuries their exact mode of action is still unknown. Currently, the application scheme for registered preparations is a dose-escalating scheme to thus reduce side effects...
  63. Tabiasco J, Pont F, Fournie J, Vercellone A. Mistletoe viscotoxins increase natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:2591-600 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe extracts have immunomodulatory activity. We show that nontoxic concentrations of Viscum album extracts increase natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing of tumor cells but spare nontarget cells from NK lysis...
  64. Grossarth Maticek R, Kiene H, Baumgartner S, Ziegler R. Use of Iscador, an extract of European mistletoe (Viscum album), in cancer treatment: prospective nonrandomized and randomized matched-pair studies nested within a cohort study. Altern Ther Health Med. 2001;7:57-66, 68-72, 74-6 passim pubmed
    In anthroposophical medicine, total extracts of Viscum album (mistletoe) have been developed to treat cancer patients. The oldest such product is Iscador...
  65. Niwa H, Tonevitsky A, Agapov I, Saward S, Pfüller U, Palmer R. Crystal structure at 3 A of mistletoe lectin I, a dimeric type-II ribosome-inactivating protein, complexed with galactose. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:2739-49 pubmed
    The X-ray structure of mistletoe lectin I (MLI), a type-II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), cocrystallized with galactose is described. The model was refined at 3.0 A resolution to an R-factor of 19...
  66. Mooney K, Linhart Y. Contrasting cascades: insectivorous birds increase pine but not parasitic mistletoe growth. J Anim Ecol. 2006;75:350-7 pubmed
    ..We excluded insectivorous birds with cages from ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa trees parasitized by dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium vaginatum...
  67. Bauer C, Oppel T, Rueff F, Przybilla B. Anaphylaxis to viscotoxins of mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;94:86-9 pubmed
    Extracts of mistletoe (Viscum album) are used in many countries for adjuvant cancer therapy. These extracts contain mistletoe lectins and viscotoxins that are supposed to have immunostimulating and cytotoxic effects, respectively...
  68. Pryme I, Bardocz S, Pusztai A, Ewen S. Dietary mistletoe lectin supplementation and reduced growth of a murine non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Histol Histopathol. 2002;17:261-71 pubmed publisher
    The growth of a murine non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) tumour has been shown to be reduced by incorporating mistletoe lectin (ML-1) into the diet...
  69. Duong Van Huyen J, Sooryanarayana -, Delignat S, Bloch M, Kazatchkine M, Kaveri S. Variable sensitivity of lymphoblastoid cells to apoptosis induced by Viscum album Qu FrF, a therapeutic preparation of mistletoe lectin. Chemotherapy. 2001;47:366-76 pubmed
    Viscum album (VA) Qu FrF preparation consists of an aqueous extract of Viscum album, the European mistletoe. It has cytotoxic and immunomodulatory properties that support its usefulness in cancer therapy...
  70. Burger A, Mengs U, Schüler J, Fiebig H. Anticancer activity of an aqueous mistletoe extract (AME) in syngeneic murine tumor models. Anticancer Res. 2001;21:1965-8 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe extracts have been used for decades for non-specific stimulation of the immune system in cancer therapy. Mistletoe lectins (ML) have been identified as the active principle with cytotoxic and immunomodulatory potencies...
  71. Langer M, Möckel B, Eck J, Zinke H, Lentzen H. Site-specific mutagenesis of mistletoe lectin: the role of RIP activity in apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;264:944-8 pubmed
    Recombinant mistletoe lectin (rML) belongs to the class of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP) composed of a catalytically active A-chain with rRNA N-glycosidase activity and a B-chain with carbohydrate binding properties...
  72. Fernandez T, Wagner M, Varela B, Ricco R, Hajos S, Gurni A, et al. Study of an Argentine mistletoe, the hemiparasite Ligaria cuneifolia (R. et P.) Tiegh. (Loranthaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;62:25-34 pubmed
    ..et P.) Tiegh. is an hemiparasite species used in Argentine folk medicine as a substitute for the European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) based on its putative activity of decreasing high blood pressure...
  73. Song S, Moldoveanu Z, Nguyen H, Kim E, Choi K, Kim J, et al. Intranasal immunization with influenza virus and Korean mistletoe lectin C (KML-C) induces heterosubtypic immunity in mice. Vaccine. 2007;25:6359-66 pubmed
    The mucosal adjuvanticity of Korean mistletoe lectin C (KML-C) was investigated in mice intranasally immunized with inactivated influenza virus (H1N1)...
  74. Soler M, Stoeva S, Voelter W. Complete amino acid sequence of the B chain of mistletoe lectin I. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;246:596-601 pubmed
    The primary structure of the B chain of mistletoe lectin I, the component of a commercially available extract from Viscum album exhibiting immunomodulatory capacity, was established based on amino acid sequence analysis of the protein ..
  75. Kienle G, Berrino F, Bussing A, Portalupi E, Rosenzweig S, Kiene H. Mistletoe in cancer - a systematic review on controlled clinical trials. Eur J Med Res. 2003;8:109-19 pubmed
    b>Mistletoe preparations are among the most widely used unconventional cancer therapies in Central Europe. Their clinical effectiveness, however, is controversial.
  76. Stein G, Bussing A, Schietzel M. Stimulation of the maturation of dendritic cells in vitro by a fermented mistletoe extract. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:4215-9 pubmed
    ..In our investigation we analysed the influence of a fermented mistletoe extract often used for adjuvant treatment of cancer patients on the generation and maturation of DC.
  77. Burger A, Mengs U, Schüler J, Fiebig H. Antiproliferative activity of an aqueous mistletoe extract in human tumor cell lines and xenografts in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 2001;51:748-57 pubmed
    The in vitro antiproliferative activity of an aqueous mistletoe extract (AME) with a defined content of bioactive mistletoe lectin (ML) was tested in 25 human tumor cell lines, including 20 solid and 5 hematological malignancies and 47 ..