melia

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain meliavolkinin, melianin C and limonoids.

Top Publications

  1. Cheng L, Lei Y, Liang Y, Tang D, Huang L, Tan Z. [Compared studies on the effect and toxicity of extractions of Fructus Meliae Toosendan in mice]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2007;30:1276-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effect and acute toxicity of different extraction of Fructus Meliae Toosendan...
  2. Carpinella M, Defagó M, Valladares G, Palacios S. Antifeedant and insecticide properties of a limonoid from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae) with potential use for pest management. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:369-74 pubmed
    ..for novel naturally occurring insecticides from plants, the activity of the fruit extract of the Argentinian Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) and its recently described limonoid meliartenin were investigated...
  3. Yu J, Min Z, Ip N. Melia toosendan regulates PC12 Cell differentiation via the activation of protein kinase A and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. Neurosignals. 2004;13:248-57 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the activities of potential neuroactive compounds in traditional Chinese medicine such as Melia toosendan using an in vitro model system, rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells...
  4. Carpinella M, Ferrayoli C, Palacios S. Antifungal synergistic effect of scopoletin, a hydroxycoumarin isolated from Melia azedarach L. fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:2922-7 pubmed
    ..search for antifungal compounds from plants, the hydroxycoumarin scopoletin (1) was isolated from seed kernels of Melia azedarach L...
  5. Nakajima H, Wakabayashi Y, Wakamatsu K, Imokawa G. An extract of Melia toosendan attenuates endothelin-1-stimulated pigmentation in human epidermal equivalents through the interruption of PKC activity within melanocytes. Arch Dermatol Res. 2011;303:263-76 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of redox balance regulation on epidermal pigmentation, we used an antioxidant-rich extract of the herb Melia toosendan (dried mature fruits) to assess its effect on endothelin-1 (EDN1)-stimulated pigmentation in human ..
  6. Yang S, Gao J, Zhang Q, Laatsch H. Toxic polyketides produced by Fusarium sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Melia azedarach. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:1887-9 pubmed publisher
    ..LN-10, an endophytic fungus originated from the leaves of Melia azedarach...
  7. Dong S, Zhang C, He X, Liu H, Wu Y, Yue J. Mesendanins A-J, limonoids from the leaves and twigs of Melia toosendan. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:1344-9 pubmed publisher
    Ten new limonoids, namely, mesendanins A-J (1-10), together with 14 known compounds, have been isolated from the leaves and twigs of Melia toosendan. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis.
  8. Xie F, Zhang M, Zhang C, Wang Z, Yu B, Kou J. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract and two limonoids from Melia toosendan fruit. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;117:463-6 pubmed publisher
    The fruit of Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc. (MTF) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of stomachache and many acute or chronic inflammations, as well as ascariasis...
  9. Wang G, Feng C, Chu S, Zhang R, Lu Y, Zhu J, et al. Toosendanin inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through suppression of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Int J Oncol. 2015;47:1767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Toosendanin (TSN) is a triterpenoid extracted from the bark or fruits of Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc and possesses antitumour effects on various human cancer cells...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Rana V, Maiti S. Differential distribution of metals in tree tissues growing on reclaimed coal mine overburden dumps, Jharia coal field (India). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018;25:9745-9758 pubmed publisher
    ..Cunn. ex Benth. and Melia azedarach L.)...
  2. Chen T, Cheng X, Wang Y, Yin W. Toosendanin inhibits adipogenesis by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Sci Rep. 2018;8:4626 pubmed publisher
    Toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities. However, its anti-adipogenic effect remains unknown...
  3. Alerico G, Beckenkamp A, Vignoli Silva M, Buffon A, von Poser G. Proliferative effect of plants used for wound healing in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;176:305-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Aqueous extracts from Achyrocline satureioides DC Lam., Matricaria recutita L., Melia azedarach L. and Mirabilis jalapa L...
  4. Kamau R, Juma B, Baraza L. Antimicrobial compounds from root, stem bark and seeds of Melia volkensii. Nat Prod Res. 2016;30:1984-7 pubmed publisher
    ..toosendanin (1), kulactone (2) and scopoletin (3), were isolated from either the root bark and/or the stem bark of Melia volkensii...
  5. Kai W, Yating S, Lin M, Kaiyong Y, Baojin H, Wu Y, et al. Natural product toosendanin reverses the resistance of human breast cancer cells to adriamycin as a novel PI3K inhibitor. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018;152:153-164 pubmed publisher
    ..we found for the first time that toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc, could successfully reverse adriamycin resistance in human breast cancer cells...
  6. Liu Y, Yang M, Wang X, Li T, Kong L. Caryophyllene sesquiterpenoids from the endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis sp. Fitoterapia. 2016;109:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..which was obtained from the fresh stem bark of Melia azedarach Linn...
  7. Raj A, Biswakarma S, Pala N, Shukla G, Vineeta -, Kumar M, et al. Indigenous uses of ethnomedicinal plants among forest-dependent communities of Northern Bengal, India. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2018;14:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Maximum number of 12 diseases/ailments was cured by Melia azedarach followed by Centella asiatica and Rauvolfia serpentina which were used to cure 11 diseases/ailments each...
  8. Asnake S, Teklehaymanot T, Hymete A, Erko B, Giday M. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial properties of selected plants in southern Ethiopia. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:448 pubmed publisher
    ..was to evaluate the safety and antimalarial activity of extracts of Ajuga integrifolia, Clerodendrum myricoides, Melia azedarach, Peponium vogelii and Premna schimperi, locally used by the Sidama people of Ethiopia to treat malaria...
  9. Zhang X, Lv L, Qin Y, Xu M, Jia X, Chen Z. Removal of aqueous Cr(VI) by a magnetic biochar derived from Melia azedarach wood. Bioresour Technol. 2018;256:1-10 pubmed publisher
    Magnetic biochar (MMABC) prepared from Melia azedarach wood was used for aqueous Cr(VI) removal. MMABC was a mesoporous material with SBET 5.219?m2/g and superparamagnetic magnetization 17...
  10. Kang W, Bao J, Zheng J, Xu F, Wang L. Potential of woody plants from a Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil1. Int J Phytoremediation. 2016;: pubmed
    ..acerilolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ligutrums lucidum, Viburnum awabuk, Firminan simplex, Robina pseudoacacial, Melia azedarach and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited high accumulated capacity and strong tolerance to heavy metals...
  11. Liu X, Wang H, Zhang L, Wang Y, Wang J, Wang P, et al. Anticancer effects of crude extract from Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Chin J Integr Med. 2016;22:362-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the anti-cancer effects of crude extract from Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc and its possible molecular mechanisms in vitro and in vivo...
  12. Chang H, Guo J, Fu X, Liu Y, Wyckhuys K, Hou Y, et al. Molecular-Assisted Pollen Grain Analysis Reveals Spatiotemporal Origin of Long-Distance Migrants of a Noctuid Moth. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..i>Olea europaea, Ligustrum lucidum, Robinia pseudoacacia, Castanopsis echinocarpa, Melia azedarach and Castanea henryi...
  13. Hu Y, Li Y, Qiu L, Li J, Heng L, Wei S, et al. New triterpenoids with diverse side-chains from the barks of Melia Toosendan. Fitoterapia. 2018;127:62-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Toosendines A-I; 1-9), along with three known tirucallane-type compounds were isolated from the barks of Melia toosendan...
  14. Mukungu N, Abuga K, Okalebo F, Ingwela R, Mwangi J. Medicinal plants used for management of malaria among the Luhya community of Kakamega East sub-County, Kenya. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;194:98-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Plants mostly used included Melia azedarach L, Aloe spp, Ajuga integrifolia Buch. Ham, Vernonia amygdalina Del., Rotheca myricoides (Hochst...
  15. Zhang Q, Zheng Q, Liang J, Li Q, Min Z. Two new limonoids isolated from the fuits of Melia toosendan. Chin J Nat Med. 2016;14:692-696 pubmed publisher
    ..2), together with other four known limonoids (3-6), were isolated from the fruits of Melia toosendan...
  16. Joray M, Villafañez F, González M, Crespo M, Laiolo J, Palacios S, et al. P53 tumor suppressor is required for efficient execution of the death program following treatment with a cytotoxic limonoid obtained from Melia azedarach. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017;109:888-897 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings position 1 as a potent antitumor agent, with potential for the development of novel chemotherapeutic drugs based on the induction of S-phase arrest. ..
  17. Khalid M, Hassani D, Bilal M, Butt Z, Hamayun M, Ahmad A, et al. Identification of oral cavity biofilm forming bacteria and determination of their growth inhibition by Acacia arabica, Tamarix aphylla L. and Melia azedarach L. medicinal plants. Arch Oral Biol. 2017;81:175-185 pubmed publisher
    ..and Melia azadirachta L.) was determined against the highest biofilm forming bacteria...
  18. Moreno Castilla C, García Rosero H, Carrasco Marín F. Symmetric Supercapacitor Electrodes from KOH Activation of Pristine, Carbonized, and Hydrothermally Treated Melia azedarach Stones. Materials (Basel). 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the potential use of Melia azedarach (MA) stones to prepare ACs for supercapacitors...
  19. de Groot A, Jagtman B, Woutersen M. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil. Dermatitis. 2017;28:360-362 pubmed publisher
    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by ..
  20. Sultana S, Akhtar N, Asif H. Antipyretic effects of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach Linn. seeds and Cucumis melo Linn. seeds in experimental rabbits. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017;30:1257-1261 pubmed
    To investigate the antipyretic activity of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach Linn. (HMEMA) seeds and Cucumis melo Linn. (HMECM) seeds in experimental animals...
  21. Jhou H, Wang Y, Wu C, Yu J, Chen C. Photosynthetic gas exchange responses of Swietenia macrophylla King and Melia azedarach L. plantations under drought conditions. Bot Stud. 2017;58:57 pubmed publisher
    ..Swietenia macrophylla King and Melia azedarach L. are economically valuable trees that are widely planted in southern Taiwan...
  22. Shi Y, Wang Z. Cure of experimental botulism and antibotulismic effect of toosendanin. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004;25:839-48 pubmed
    ..Toosendanin seems to have no effect on endopeptidase activity of BoNT, but blocks the toxin approach to its enzymatic substrate...
  23. Zhang Q, Li Q, Liang J, Min Z. [Limonoids from fruits of Melia toosendan]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2010;45:475-8 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of Melia toosendan, three limonoids were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC from the EtOAc extract of M. toosendan...
  24. Cheng L, Wang L, Wang Y, Liang R, Wang W, Hu N, et al. [Study on compound compatibility of Jinglingzi powder based on absorption-metabolism model]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2012;37:3130-6 pubmed
  25. Li M, Shi Y. Toosendanin interferes with pore formation of botulinum toxin type A in PC12 cell membrane. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006;27:66-70 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to explore the antibotulismic mechanisms of toosendanin...
  26. Orhan I, Guner E, Ozcelik B, Senol F, Caglar S, Emecen G, et al. Assessment of antimicrobial, insecticidal and genotoxic effects of Melia azedarach L. (chinaberry) naturalized in Anatolia. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012;63:560-5 pubmed publisher
    In this study, antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal and genotoxic activities of the fruit and leaf extracts of Melia azedarach of Turkish origin were evaluated for the first time...
  27. Ravichandiran V, Shanmugam K, Anupama K, Thomas S, Princy A. Structure-based virtual screening for plant-derived SdiA-selective ligands as potential antivirulent agents against uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Eur J Med Chem. 2012;48:200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..study, in vitro characterization of the active principles that could potentially antagonize with SdiA from the Melia dubia bark extracts has been described...
  28. Wu S, Su J, Sun L, Wang W, Zhao Y, Li H, et al. Triterpenoids and steroids from the fruits of Melia toosendan and their cytotoxic effects on two human cancer cell lines. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:1898-906 pubmed publisher
    ..meliasenins I-R (1-10), one new steroid (11), and 11 related known compounds (12-22) were isolated from fruits of Melia toosendan...
  29. Ma X, Zhou W, Feng T. [Electrophoresis identification of four kinds of seed-fruit Chinese drugs and its adulterants]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2000;23:264-5 pubmed
    ..To identify four kinds of seed-fruit Chinese drugs and its adulterants by electrophoresis and to research the dyeing effect of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250...
  30. Sang Y, Zhou C, Lu A, Yin X, Min Z, Tan R. Protolimonoids from Melia toosendan. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:917-20 pubmed publisher
    ..a five-membered ring in the side chain and the first cyclopentanyl protolimonoid, was isolated from the bark of Melia toosendan, along with two new tirucallanes, toosendanic acids A (2) and B (3)...
  31. Rachokarn S, Piyasaengthong N, Bullangpoti V. Impact of botanical extracts derived from leaf extracts Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) and Amaranthus viridis L. (Amaranthaceae) on populations of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and detoxification enzyme activities. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2008;73:451-7 pubmed
    ..This study explored the effects of senescent Leaf Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) and Amaranthus viridis L. (Amaranthaeae) extract on second instar S...
  32. Zhang Y, Tang C, Ke C, Yao S, Ye Y. Triterpenoids from the stem bark of Melia toosendan and determination of their absolute configurations at C(24). Chem Biodivers. 2013;10:1630-7 pubmed publisher
    Six new triterpenoids, meliasenins S-X (1-6, resp.), were isolated from the stem bark of Melia toosendan. Their structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry, NMR experiments, and comparison with the known compounds...
  33. Pettit G, Numata A, Iwamoto C, Morito H, Yamada T, Goswami A, et al. Antineoplastic agents. 489. Isolation and structures of meliastatins 1-5 and related euphane triterpenes from the tree Melia dubia. J Nat Prod. 2002;65:1886-91 pubmed
    The bark of the giant neem tree Melia dubia was found to contain 11 euphane-type triterpenes. Five new compounds, meliastatins 1-5 (1-5), proved to inhibit growth of the P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line (ED(50) 1.7-5.6 microg/mL)...
  34. He Y, Wang J, Liu X, Zhang L, Yi G, Li C, et al. Toosendanin inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inducing mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Planta Med. 2010;76:1447-53 pubmed publisher
    Toosendanin, a triterpenoid derivative isolated from Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc., possesses different pharmacological effects in humans and an important value in agriculture...
  35. Zhao X, Ge Z, Zhang Y, Lan X, Zhang B. [Study on rapid screening and identifying hepatotoxic compounds in toosendan fructus]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2013;38:1820-2 pubmed
    ..Further experiments showed that the 3 compounds displayed dose-dependent toxicity on HepG2 cells, suggesting that these compounds in Toosendan Fructus may cause hepatotoxicity...
  36. Zhang Q, Li J, Ge R, Liang J, Li Q, Min Z. Novel NGF-potentiating limonoids from the fruits of Melia toosendan. Fitoterapia. 2013;90:192-8 pubmed publisher
    Four new limonoids (1-4), together with five known limonoids (5-9), were isolated from the fruits of Melia toosendan. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D- and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, IR, [?](D))...
  37. Zhong G, Liu J, Weng Q, Hu M, Luo J. Laboratory and field evaluations of rhodojaponin-III against the imported cabbage worm Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Pest Manag Sci. 2006;62:976-81 pubmed
    ..5 and 625 mL ha(-1). These results suggest that further research to develop R-III, and extracts from R. molle, as biorational pesticides or as lead compounds for integrated pest management deserve consideration...
  38. He L, Ji P, Gong X, Li W, Cheng J, Qian H, et al. Physico-chemical characterization, antioxidant and anticancer activities in vitro of a novel polysaccharide from Melia toosendan Sieb. Et Zucc fruit. Int J Biol Macromol. 2011;49:422-7 pubmed publisher
    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide pMTPS-3, obtained from Melia toosendan Sieb...
  39. Tang X, Yang X, Kim Y, Kim S, Kang B, Choi D, et al. Protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan fruit against colon cancer. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2012;49:173-81 pubmed
    ..In this study, the inhibitory effects of ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan fruit (EMTF), a traditional medicine in the Chinese Pharmacopeia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo ..
  40. Feng D, Ke C, Lu C, Li S. Herbal plants as a promising source of natural antifoulants: evidence from barnacle settlement inhibition. Biofouling. 2009;25:181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts from six common Chinese herbs (Carpesium abrotanoides, Melia toosendan, Cnidium monnieri, Vitex negundo, Stemona sp...
  41. Zhang Y, Tang C, Ke C, Yao S, Ye Y. Limonoids and triterpenoids from the stem bark of Melia toosendan. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:664-8 pubmed publisher
    ..triterpenoids (8-15), named meliasenins A-H, and 13 known compounds have been isolated from the stem bark of Melia toosendan...
  42. Zhang Q, Shi Y, Liu X, Liang J, Ip N, Min Z. Minor limonoids from Melia toosendan and their antibacterial activity. Planta Med. 2007;73:1298-303 pubmed
    ..B (8), 1,7-di-O-acetyl-14,15-deoxyhavanensin (9) and 12-O-methylnimbolinin B (10),were isolated from the fruits of Melia toosendan. Their structures and relative configurations were established based on spectroscopic analysis...
  43. Ong E, Ong C. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of toosendanin in Melia toosendan Sieb. Et Zucc (Meliaceae) with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21:589-98 pubmed
    Toosendanin (TSN) is a triterpenoid derivative found in Melia toosendan Sieb. Et Zucc (Meliaceae) or chinaberry. TSN present in the medicinal plants was first isolated and established by spectroscopic methods...
  44. Bueno C, Lombardi M, Sales M, Alché L. A natural antiviral and immunomodulatory compound with antiangiogenic properties. Microvasc Res. 2012;84:235-41 pubmed publisher
    Meliacine (MA), an antiviral principle present in partially purified leaf extracts of Melia azedarach L...
  45. Ravichandiran V, Shanmugam K, Solomon A. Screening of SdiA inhibitors from Melia dubia seeds extracts towards the hold back of uropathogenic E.coli quorum sensing-regulated factors. Med Chem. 2013;9:819-27 pubmed
    ..The Quorum Sensing (QS) quenching efficiency of various solvent extracts of Melia dubia seeds was investigated against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to screen the competitive inhibitor of ..
  46. Kondoh S, Yahata H, Nakashizuka T, Kondoh M. Interspecific variation in vessel size, growth and drought tolerance of broad-leaved trees in semi-arid regions of Kenya. Tree Physiol. 2006;26:899-904 pubmed
    ..Don, Azadirachta indica A.H.L. Juss and Acacia gerrardii Benth.) and one deciduous (Melia volkensii Gürke) plantation tree species in Kenya, which has a conspicuous dry season...
  47. Zhang Y, Tang C, Ke C, Li X, Xie H, Ye Y. Limonoids from the fruits of Melia toosendan. Phytochemistry. 2012;73:106-13 pubmed publisher
    Fifteen limonoids, meliatoosenins E-S (1-15), and 10 known compounds were isolated from the fruits of Melia toosendan...
  48. Akhtar Y, Isman M. Generalization of a habituated feeding deterrent response to unrelated antifeedants following prolonged exposure in a generalist herbivore, Trichoplusia ni. J Chem Ecol. 2004;30:1349-62 pubmed
    ..We introduced neonate larvae (< 24-hr old) onto cabbage leaves treated with crude seed extracts of Melia volkensii (Meliaceae) or oil of Origanum vulgare ("oregano") (Lamiaceae) and allowed them to feed until ..
  49. Farag M, Ahmed M, Yousef H, Abdel Rahman A. Repellent and insecticidal activities of Melia azedarach L. against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Z Naturforsch C. 2011;66:129-35 pubmed
    A crude acetone extract and oil of ripe fruits from Melia azedarach L. were evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)...
  50. Prabhu S, Vaideki K, Anitha S, Rajendran R. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Melia dubia leaf extract and its characterisation. IET Nanobiotechnol. 2017;11:62-65 pubmed publisher
    ..work deals with the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (Nps) using the biocompounds extracted from Melia dubia leaves (MD L.) and zinc acetate as precursors...
  51. Qu H, Yu X, Zhi X, Lv M, Xu H. Natural-product-based insecticidal agents 14. Semisynthesis and insecticidal activity of new piperine-based hydrazone derivatives against Mythimna separata Walker in vivo. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:5552-7 pubmed publisher
    ..insecticidal activity compared to toosendanin at 1 mg/mL, a commercial botanical insecticide isolated from Melia azedarach...
  52. Zhao Q, Song Y, Feng C, Chen H. Cytotoxic tirucallane triterpenoids from the stem bark of Melia toosendan. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35:1903-7 pubmed publisher
    ..3) were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the stem bark of Melia toosendan. Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) analyses...