azadirachta

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain azadirachtin A (a limonoid commonly referred to as azadirachtin) and other TRITERPENES. They have been used in PESTICIDES. The old name of Melia azadirachta is very similar to a related plant, MELIA AZEDARACH.

Top Publications

  1. Mishra R, Singh S. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica on the reproductive organs in male mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 2005;43:1093-103 pubmed
    ..of oral administration (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight/day, for 28 days) of aqucous leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) on the male reproductive organs of the Parkes (P) strain mice was investigated...
  2. Bandyopadhyay U, Biswas K, Chatterjee R, Bandyopadhyay D, Chattopadhyay I, Ganguly C, et al. Gastroprotective effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract: possible involvement of H(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibition and scavenging of hydroxyl radical. Life Sci. 2002;71:2845-65 pubmed
    The antisecretory and antiulcer effects of aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark have been studied along with its mechanism of action, standardisation and safety evaluation...
  3. Anyaehie U. Medicinal properties of fractionated acetone/water neem [Azadirachta indica] leaf extract from Nigeria: a review. Niger J Physiol Sci. 2009;24:157-9 pubmed
    ..Each part of neem plant [Azadirachta indica A...
  4. Bose A, Haque E, Baral R. Neem leaf preparation induces apoptosis of tumor cells by releasing cytotoxic cytokines from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Phytother Res. 2007;21:914-20 pubmed
    ..These observations suggested that NLP could induce tumor cellular apoptosis by releasing cytotoxic cytokines from human PBMC. ..
  5. Carneiro S, Carvalho F, Santana L, Sousa A, Neto J, Chaves M. The cytotoxic and antileishmanial activity of extracts and fractions of leaves and fruits of Azadirachta indica (A Juss.). Biol Res. 2012;45:111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Research on Azadirachta indica fractions and extracts has shown that they have excellent anti-leishmanial activity based on bioactivity-..
  6. Xu J, Fan Q, Yin Z, Li X, Du Y, Jia R, et al. The preparation of neem oil microemulsion (Azadirachta indica) and the comparison of acaricidal time between neem oil microemulsion and other formulations in vitro. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..The median lethal time value was 81.7463 min with the toxicity regression equations of Y=-6.0269+3.1514X. These results demonstrated that neem oil microemulsion was effective against Sarcoptes scabie var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. ..
  7. Razzaghi Abyaneh M, Allameh A, Tiraihi T, Shams Ghahfarokhi M, Ghorbanian M. Morphological alterations in toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus exposed to neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf and seed aqueous extracts. Mycopathologia. 2005;159:565-70 pubmed
    The mode of action of the extracts prepared from neem plant i.e., Azadirachta indica on aflatoxin formation in toxigenic Aspergillus species is not well understood. Aflatoxin production by A...
  8. Lucantoni L, Yerbanga R, Lupidi G, Pasqualini L, Esposito F, Habluetzel A. Transmission blocking activity of a standardized neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extract on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in its vector Anopheles stephensi. Malar J. 2010;9:66 pubmed publisher
    ..Azadirachtin, a limonoid (tetranortriterpenoid) abundant in neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae) seeds, is a promising candidate, inhibiting Plasmodium exflagellation in vitro at low ..
  9. Roy M, Kobori M, Takenaka M, Nakahara K, Shinmoto H, Isobe S, et al. Antiproliferative effect on human cancer cell lines after treatment with nimbolide extracted from an edible part of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica). Phytother Res. 2007;21:245-50 pubmed
    Nimbolide, a triterpenoid extracted from the flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), was found to have antiproliferative activity against some cancer cell lines. Treatment of cells with 0.5-5...

More Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. Baral R, Chattopadhyay U. Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf mediated immune activation causes prophylactic growth inhibition of murine Ehrlich carcinoma and B16 melanoma. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004;4:355-66 pubmed
    ..melanoma (B16Mel) was observed, following treatment of mice (Swiss and C57BL/6) with aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) (1 unit/mice/week for 4 weeks) either before or after inoculation of 1 x 10(6) tumor cells...
  2. Dua V, Pandey A, Raghavendra K, Gupta A, Sharma T, Dash A. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes. Malar J. 2009;8:124 pubmed publisher
    ..Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties...
  3. Yanpallewar S, Sen S, Tapas S, Kumar M, Raju S, Acharya S. Effect of Azadirachta indica on paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Phytomedicine. 2003;10:391-6 pubmed
    b>Azadirachta indica, a plant used widely in Ayurveda, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and adaptogenic properties. The present study evaluates its hepatoprotective role...
  4. Waheed A, Miana G, Ahmad S. Clinical investigation of hypoglycemic effect of seeds of Azadirachta-inidca in type-2 (NIDDM) diabetes mellitus. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006;19:322-5 pubmed
    The present study was designed to investigate clinically the hypoglycemic effect of seeds of Azadirachta indica in Type-2 diabetes mellitus...
  5. Bose A, Chakraborty K, Sarkar K, Goswami S, Haque E, Chakraborty T, et al. Neem leaf glycoprotein directs T-bet-associated type 1 immune commitment. Hum Immunol. 2009;70:6-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that NLGP may be effective in maintaining normal immune homeostasis by upregulating type 1 response in immunosuppressed hosts, which may have significant role in the induction of host protective antitumor functions. ..
  6. Sarkar K, Bose A, Haque E, Chakraborty K, Chakraborty T, Goswami S, et al. Induction of type 1 cytokines during neem leaf glycoprotein assisted carcinoembryonic antigen vaccination is associated with nitric oxide production. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:753-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding of the mechanism of this NO related immune modulation would have great impact in proposing CEAM phi NLGP vaccine in clinic for the treatment of CEA+ tumors. ..
  7. Mahapatra S, Karnes R, Holmes M, Young C, Cheville J, Kohli M, et al. Novel molecular targets of Azadirachta indica associated with inhibition of tumor growth in prostate cancer. AAPS J. 2011;13:365-77 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Azadirachta indica (common name: neem) contains multiple active compounds that have potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer ..
  8. Udeinya I, Mbah A, Chijioke C, Shu E. An antimalarial extract from neem leaves is antiretroviral. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004;98:435-7 pubmed
    ..The extract showed antiretroviral activity with a mechanism of action that may involve inhibition of cytoadhesion. The results may help in the development of novel antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs. ..
  9. Dasgupta T, Banerjee S, Yadava P, Rao A. Chemopreventive potential of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf extract in murine carcinogenesis model systems. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;92:23-36 pubmed
    ..Indian Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss...
  10. Boeke S, Boersma M, Alink G, van Loon J, van Huis A, Dicke M, et al. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;94:25-41 pubmed
    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects...
  11. Verma V, Gond S, Kumar A, Kharwar R, Strobel G. The endophytic mycoflora of bark, leaf, and stem tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) from Varanasi (India). Microb Ecol. 2007;54:119-25 pubmed
    A systematic study was made of the endophytes of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (the neem tree) growing in several of its natural habitats in India...
  12. Nwafor S, Akah P, Okoli C, Onyirioha A, Nworu C. Interaction between chloroquine sulphate and aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) in rabbits. Acta Pharm. 2003;53:305-11 pubmed
    ..This study was carried out to investigate the effect of concurrent oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) on the pharmacokinetic properties of chloroquine sulphate in experimental rabbits...
  13. Chaturvedi R, Razdan M, Bhojwani S. In vitro morphogenesis in zygotic embryo cultures of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.). Plant Cell Rep. 2004;22:801-9 pubmed
    ..However, it was possible to regenerate plantlets from immature zygotic embryo cultures of neem via neomorph formation and adventitious shoot bud formation. The transplantation survival of these plants was more than 80%. ..
  14. Mukherjee A, Doley R, Saikia D. Isolation of a snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor (AIPLAI) from leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem): mechanism of PLA2 inhibition by AIPLAI in vitro condition. Toxicon. 2008;51:1548-53 pubmed publisher
    A compound (AIPLAI (Azadirachta indica PLA(2) inhibitor)) purified from the methanolic leaf extract of A. indica (Neem) inhibits the cobra and Russell's viper venoms (RVVs) phospholipase A(2) enzymes in a dose-dependent manner...
  15. Dorababu M, Prabha T, Priyambada S, Agrawal V, Aryya N, Goel R. Effect of Bacopa monniera and Azadirachta indica on gastric ulceration and healing in experimental NIDDM rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2004;42:389-97 pubmed
  16. Mishra V, Parveen N, Singhal K, Khan N. Antifilarial activity of Azadirachta indica on cattle filarial parasite Setaria cervi. Fitoterapia. 2005;76:54-61 pubmed
    Alcohol and aqueous extracts of flowers of Azadirachta indica were tested in vitro for their potential antifilarial activity against whole worm, nerve muscle (n.m.) preparation and microfilariae of Setaria cervi...
  17. Arakaki J, Suzui M, Morioka T, Kinjo T, Kaneshiro T, Inamine M, et al. Antioxidative and modifying effects of a tropical plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) on azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic lesions in the rat colon. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006;7:467-71 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) has short-term chemopreventive effects on endpoint preneoplastic lesions involved in rat colon carcinogenesis and might also exert antioxidative ..
  18. Veitch G, Boyer A, Ley S. The azadirachtin story. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47:9402-29 pubmed publisher
    ..There are now over 1000 publications relating to this natural product which cover all aspects of structural, biological and synthetic studies. Herein, we describe the worldwide synthesis efforts towards this fascinating molecule. ..
  19. Howard A, Adongo E, Hassanali A, Omlin F, Wanjoya A, Zhou G, et al. Laboratory evaluation of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) wood chippings on Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:107-14 pubmed
    b>Azadirachta indica A. Juss (the neem tree), a source of limonoid insect growth regulatory (IGRs), grows well in many places in sub-Saharan Africa...
  20. Chakraborty K, Bose A, Chakraborty T, Sarkar K, Goswami S, Pal S, et al. Restoration of dysregulated CC chemokine signaling for monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients by neem leaf glycoprotein maximizes tumor cell cytotoxicity. Cell Mol Immunol. 2010;7:396-408 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a new approach in cancer immunotherapy by modulating dysregulated CCR5 signals from MO/Mphi...
  21. Krishnan N, Pattnaik S, Jain P, Gaur P, Choudhary R, Vaidyanathan S, et al. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:464 pubmed publisher
    The Azadirachta indica (neem) tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin...
  22. Wandscheer C, Duque J, da Silva M, Fukuyama Y, Wohlke J, Adelmann J, et al. Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Toxicon. 2004;44:829-35 pubmed
    ..from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever...
  23. Sarkar K, Bose A, Chakraborty K, Haque E, Ghosh D, Goswami S, et al. Neem leaf glycoprotein helps to generate carcinoembryonic antigen specific anti-tumor immune responses utilizing macrophage-mediated antigen presentation. Vaccine. 2008;26:4352-62 pubmed publisher
    ..NLGP also directs CEA vaccination towards Th1 bias, by modulating cytokine secretion. This NLGP-generated anti-CEA immune response would be effective as a vaccine to lyse CEA(+) tumors in vitro and in vivo. ..
  24. Gianotti R, Bomblies A, Dafalla M, Issa Arzika I, Duchemin J, Eltahir E. Efficacy of local neem extracts for sustainable malaria vector control in an African village. Malar J. 2008;7:138 pubmed publisher
    ..Laboratory studies investigating the effects of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) extracts on Anopheles larvae have shown high rates of larval mortality and reductions in adult ..
  25. Landau S, Provenza F, Gardner D, Pfister J, Knoppel E, Peterson C, et al. Neem-tree (Azadirachta indica Juss.) extract as a feed additive against the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) in sheep (Ovis aries). Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:311-7 pubmed publisher
    ..6 (P<0.09). As AZA affects embryo development and ticks at the molting stages, we expect that following treatments of hosts for longer periods, one-host ticks will be more affected than the three-host tick D. variabilis...
  26. Kaushik N. Determination of azadirachtin and fatty acid methyl esters of Azadirachta indica seeds by HPLC and GLC. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2002;374:1199-204 pubmed
    ..The peaks are detected using an FID. Both the methods do not require any clean up or defatting of seeds. This results in faster, easier and more economical sample preparation. ..
  27. Bose A, Baral R. Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity of tumor cells initiated by neem leaf preparation is associated with CD40-CD40L-mediated endogenous production of interleukin-12. Hum Immunol. 2007;68:823-31 pubmed
    ..Overall the results suggest that NLP effects NK cellular cytotoxicity by CD40-CD40L-mediated endogenous production of IL-12, which critically controls perforin-dependent tumor cell cytotoxicity. ..
  28. Chakraborty T, Bose A, Barik S, Goswami K, Banerjee S, Goswami S, et al. Neem leaf glycoprotein inhibits CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs to restrict murine tumor growth. Immunotherapy. 2011;3:949-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the possibility of NLGP being an excellent tool as a T-cell anergy breaker by abrogating the suppressor functions of Tregs in cancer needs to be explored further in the clinic. ..
  29. Chattopadhyay R. Possible mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract: part II. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;89:217-9 pubmed
    Hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats has already been reported...
  30. Mahfuzul Hoque M, Bari M, Inatsu Y, Juneja V, Kawamoto S. Antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) and Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) extracts against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2007;4:481-8 pubmed
    The antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against 21 strains of foodborne pathogens were determined--Listeria monocytogenes (five strains), Staphylococcus aureus (four strains), ..
  31. Nicoletti M, Serafini M, Aliboni A, D Andrea A, Mariani S. Toxic effects of neem cake extracts on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:89-94 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, the neem cake is a promising low-cost, easily available on the market, and natural resource to develop a new bioinsecticide, mainly in developing countries. ..
  32. Denardi S, Bechara G, de Oliveira P, Camargo Mathias M. Inhibitory action of neem aqueous extract (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks. Microsc Res Tech. 2011;74:889-99 pubmed publisher
    The present study revealed unheard of data about the action of aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, proving that these extracts in 10 and 20% concentrations do not ..
  33. Haque E, Mandal I, Pal S, Baral R. Prophylactic dose of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf preparation restricting murine tumor growth is nontoxic, hematostimulatory and immunostimulatory. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2006;28:33-50 pubmed
    ..In other words, tumor growth restriction was observed only when mice were injected with immunostimulatory doses of NLP (0.5 unit and 1 unit). ..
  34. Lucantoni L, Giusti F, Cristofaro M, Pasqualini L, Esposito F, Lupetti P, et al. Effects of a neem extract on blood feeding, oviposition and oocyte ultrastructure in Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Tissue Cell. 2006;38:361-71 pubmed
    Secondary metabolites of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae) exhibit a wide range of biological activities in insects...
  35. Denardi S, Bechara G, de Oliveira P, Mathias M. Ultrastructural analysis of the oocytes of female Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks subjected to the action of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem). Ultrastruct Pathol. 2012;36:56-67 pubmed publisher
    The present study provides ultrastructural information about the acaricidal effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the ovaries of R. sanguineus engorged females...
  36. Kumar S, Suresh P, Vijayababu M, Arunkumar A, Arunakaran J. Anticancer effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on prostate cancer cell line (PC-3). J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;105:246-50 pubmed
    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent cancer and the leading cause of male cancer death. Azadirachta indica (neem tree) has been used successfully centuries to reduce tumors by herbalists throughout Southeast Asia...
  37. Charleston D, Kfir R, Vet L, Dicke M. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica. Bull Entomol Res. 2005;95:457-65 pubmed
    ..different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus)...
  38. Paul R, Prasad M, Sah N. Anticancer biology of Azadirachta indica L (neem): a mini review. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011;12:467-76 pubmed publisher
    Neem (Azadirachta indica), a member of the Meliaceae family, is a fast growing tropical evergreen tree with a highly branched and stout, solid stem...
  39. Prashant G, Chandu G, Murulikrishna K, Shafiulla M. The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: an in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res. 2007;18:148-51 pubmed
    ..An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries...
  40. Gangar S, Koul A. Azadirachta indica modulates carcinogen biotransformation and reduced glutathione at peri-initiation phase of benzo(a)pyrene induced murine forestomach tumorigenesis. Phytother Res. 2008;22:1229-38 pubmed publisher
    The present study evaluated the effects of aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) on the activities of certain phase I (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b(5) and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase) as well as phase II (glutathione-S-..
  41. Sarkar K, Goswami S, Roy S, Mallick A, Chakraborty K, Bose A, et al. Neem leaf glycoprotein enhances carcinoembryonic antigen presentation of dendritic cells to T and B cells for induction of anti-tumor immunity by allowing generation of immune effector/memory response. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:865-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In support, significant upregulation of CD44 on the surface of lymphocytes from DCNLGPCEA immunized mice was noticed with a substantial reduction in L-selectin (CD62L)...
  42. Mossini S, de Oliveira K, Kemmelmeier C. Inhibition of patulin production by Penicillium expansum cultured with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts. J Basic Microbiol. 2004;44:106-13 pubmed
    Aqueous extract of the leaves of neem [Azadirachta indica A. JUSS (Meliaceae)] was tested in vitro for antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum...
  43. Sithisarn P, Supabphol R, Gritsanapan W. Antioxidant activity of Siamese neem tree (VP1209). J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;99:109-12 pubmed
    Leaves, fruits, flowers and stem bark extracts from the Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var...
  44. Baral R, Mandal I, Chattopadhyay U. Immunostimulatory neem leaf preparation acts as an adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of poorly immunogenic B16 melanoma surface antigen vaccine. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5:1343-52 pubmed
    ..We concluded that NLP might be a potential immune adjuvant for inducing active immunity towards tumor antigens...
  45. Udeinya I, Brown N, Shu E, Udeinya F, Quakeyie I. Fractions of an antimalarial neem-leaf extract have activities superior to chloroquine, and are gametocytocidal. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006;100:17-22 pubmed
    The antimalarial activities of two fractions (IRDN-A and IRDN-B) of an extract from the leaves of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) were compared with those of chloroquine, in in-vitro assays against Plasmodium falciparum...
  46. Chaube S, Prasad P, Khillare B, Shrivastav T. Extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf induces apoptosis in rat oocytes cultured in vitro. Fertil Steril. 2006;85 Suppl 1:1223-31 pubmed
    ..To determine whether aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE) could induce degeneration of rat oocytes and, if so, whether apoptosis is involved during NLE-induced degeneration of oocytes cultured in vitro...
  47. Srivastava R, Ghosh S, Mandal D, Azhahianambi P, Singhal P, Pandey N, et al. Efficacy of Azadirachta indica extracts against Boophilus microplus. Parasitol Res. 2008;104:149-53 pubmed publisher
    Extracts were prepared from leaf, bark, and seed of Azadirachta indica, leaf and seed of Prunus persica, bark of Mangifera indica, and leaf of Psidium guajava and were evaluated against Boophilus microplus...
  48. Verma V, Gond S, Kumar A, Mishra A, Kharwar R, Gange A. Endophytic actinomycetes from Azadirachta indica A. Juss.: isolation, diversity, and anti-microbial activity. Microb Ecol. 2009;57:749-56 pubmed publisher
    Endophytic actinomycetes from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. were screened and evaluated for their anti-microbial activity against an array of pathogenic fungi and bacteria...
  49. Manikandan P, Vidjaya Letchoumy P, Prathiba D, Nagini S. Combinatorial chemopreventive effect of Azadirachta indica and Ocimum sanctum on oxidant-antioxidant status, cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis in a rat forestomach carcinogenesis model. Singapore Med J. 2008;49:814-22 pubmed
    We investigated the combinatorial chemopreventive efficacy of Azadirachta indica (AI) and Ocimum sanctum (OS) against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis, based on changes in oxidant-antioxidant ..
  50. Oluwole Busayo A, Laura Z, Olufunke Olubusola D, Oluwafunmike Sharon A, Luciana D, Ezekiel Ademola C. Ameliorative effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica on renal histologic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Am J Chin Med. 2011;39:903-16 pubmed publisher
    We studied the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (AIE) on the microanatomy of the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
  51. Manikandan P, Ramalingam S, Vinothini G, Ramamurthi V, Singh I, Anandan R, et al. Investigation of the chemopreventive potential of neem leaf subfractions in the hamster buccal pouch model and phytochemical characterization. Eur J Med Chem. 2012;56:271-81 pubmed publisher
    Chemoprevention by medicinal plants has evolved as a practical strategy to control the incidence of cancer. Azadirachta indica (neem) containing various bioactive components is a promising candidate for chemoprevention...
  52. Perez Gutierrez R, Damian Guzman M. Meliacinolin: a potent ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitor isolated from Azadirachta indica leaves and in vivo antidiabetic property in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35:1516-24 pubmed
    In India, Azadirachta indica is typically known as 'neem tree' and its leaves has long been used in the ayurvedic medical tradition as a treatment for diabetes mellitus...
  53. Gajalakshmi S, Abbasi S. Neem leaves as a source of fertilizer-cum-pesticide vermicompost. Bioresour Technol. 2004;92:291-6 pubmed
    Vermicomposting of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was accomplished in "high-rate" reactors operated at the earthworm (Eudrilus eugeniae) densities of 62.5 and 75 animals per litre of reactor volume...
  54. Siddiqui B, Afshan F, Gulzar T, Hanif M. Tetracyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry. 2004;65:2363-7 pubmed
    ..Their structures and the relative configurations were determined by spectroscopic methods ((1)H and (13)C NMR, IR, and MS) and 2D NMR experiments...
  55. Aladakatti R, Ahamed R. Changes in Sertoli cells of albino rats induced by Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaves. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;16:67-80 pubmed
    b>Azadirachta indica leaf powder, 0.05 mg testosterone, or combined leaf powder + testosterone was administered for 48 days to different groups of 3-month-old albino rats...
  56. Harish Kumar G, Chandra Mohan K, Jagannadha Rao A, Nagini S. Nimbolide a limonoid from Azadirachta indica inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. Invest New Drugs. 2009;27:246-52 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the cytotoxic effects of nimbolide, a limonoid present in leaves and flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) on human choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells...
  57. Manikandan P, Anandan R, Nagini S. Evaluation of Azadirachta indica leaf fractions for in vitro antioxidant potential and protective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to pBR322 DNA and red blood cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:6990-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and the methanolic fraction (MF) from the crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of Azadirachta indica A...
  58. Chianese G, Yerbanga S, Lucantoni L, Habluetzel A, Basilico N, Taramelli D, et al. Antiplasmodial triterpenoids from the fruits of neem, Azadirachta indica. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:1448-52 pubmed publisher
    ..two new triterpenoid derivatives, neemfruitins A (9) and B (10), have been isolated from the fruits of neem, Azadirachta indica, a traditional antimalarial plant used by Asian and African populations...
  59. Atangwho I, Ebong P, Eyong E, Asmawi M, Ahmad M. Synergistic antidiabetic activity of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta indica: biochemical effects and possible mechanism. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:878-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In Nigeria, the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (VA) and Azadirachta indica A...
  60. Roop J, Dhaliwal P, Guraya S. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2005;38:943-7 pubmed
    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties...
  61. Bonincontro A, Di Ilio V, Pedata O, Risuleo G. Dielectric properties of the plasma membrane of cultured murine fibroblasts treated with a nonterpenoid extract of Azadirachta indica seeds. J Membr Biol. 2007;215:75-9 pubmed
    Neem oil is a natural product obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica...
  62. Okumu F, Knols B, Fillinger U. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Malar J. 2007;6:63 pubmed
    ..Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated...
  63. Wu S, Chen Y, Shao S, Wang L, Li Z, Yang L, et al. Ten-membered lactones from Phomopsis sp., an endophytic fungus of Azadirachta indica. J Nat Prod. 2008;71:731-4 pubmed publisher
    ..obtained from the stem of Azadirachta indica...
  64. Kusari S, Verma V, Lamshoeft M, Spiteller M. An endophytic fungus from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. that produces azadirachtin. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28:1287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These compounds are exclusive to the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, from where they are currently sourced...
  65. Dallaqua B, Saito F, Rodrigues T, Calderon I, Rudge M, Herrera E, et al. Treatment with Azadirachta indica in diabetic pregnant rats: negative effects on maternal outcome. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143:805-11 pubmed publisher
    The role of Azadirachta indica (neem) against Chagas disease and its antibiotic and antidiabetic action have been demonstrated in non-pregnant animals...
  66. Isah A, Ibrahim Y, Iwalewa E. Evaluation of the antimalarial properties and standardization of tablets of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) in mice. Phytother Res. 2003;17:807-10 pubmed
    The antimalarial activities of the tablet suspension of the bark and leaf of Azadirachta indica were evaluated on Plasmodium yoelli nigeriensis infected mice...
  67. Bhattacharyya K, Sharma A. Azadirachta indica leaf powder as an effective biosorbent for dyes: a case study with aqueous Congo Red solutions. J Environ Manage. 2004;71:217-29 pubmed
    In the present work, the leaves of Azadirachta indica (locally known as the Neem tree) in the form of a powder were investigated as a biosorbent of dyes taking aqueous Congo Red solution as a model system...
  68. Subapriya R, Bhuvaneswari V, Ramesh V, Nagini S. Ethanolic leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) inhibits buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters. Cell Biochem Funct. 2005;23:229-38 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study, demonstrate that ethanolic neem leaf extract inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP tumours by protecting against oxidative stress...
  69. Polaquini S, Svidzinski T, Kemmelmeier C, Gasparetto A. Effect of aqueous extract from Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on hydrophobicity, biofilm formation and adhesion in composite resin by Candida albicans. Arch Oral Biol. 2006;51:482-90 pubmed
    b>Azadirachta indica, a Meliaceae family tree, has been used in India for many years in the treatment of several diseases in medicine and dentistry...
  70. Ghorbanian M, Razzaghi Abyaneh M, Allameh A, Shams Ghahfarokhi M, Qorbani M. Study on the effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. juss) leaf extract on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and production of aflatoxin by it at different incubation times. Mycoses. 2008;51:35-9 pubmed
    ..05). AFB(1) secretion/production ratio in all of control and treated samples, other than 2nd day, approximately stayed and neem had no effect on it...
  71. Chakraborty K, Bose A, Pal S, Sarkar K, Goswami S, Ghosh D, et al. Neem leaf glycoprotein restores the impaired chemotactic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients by maintaining CXCR3/CXCL10 balance. Int Immunopharmacol. 2008;8:330-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Efficacy of NLGP in restoration of the dysregulation of the chemokine signaling may be utilized to design new immunotherapeutic protocol...
  72. Haque E, Baral R. Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf preparation induces prophylactic growth inhibition of murine Ehrlich carcinoma in Swiss and C57BL/6 mice by activation of NK cells and NK-T cells. Immunobiology. 2006;211:721-31 pubmed
    ..NLP-stimulated spleen cells showed greater secretion of TNFalpha and IFNgamma. Thus, NLP-activated NK and NK-T cells in mice may regulate tumor cell cytotoxicity by enhancing the secretion of different cytotoxic cytokines...
  73. Udeinya J, Shu E, Quakyi I, Ajayi F. An antimalarial neem leaf extract has both schizonticidal and gametocytocidal activities. Am J Ther. 2008;15:108-10 pubmed publisher
    ..0 microg/mL. This extract, if found safe, may provide materials for development of new antimalarial drugs that may be useful both in treatment of malaria as well as the control of its transmission through gametocytes...
  74. Tripathi A, Chandrasekaran N, Raichur A, Mukherjee A. Antibacterial applications of silver nanoparticles synthesized by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2009;5:93-8 pubmed
    ..This work demonstrates the possible use of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles by its incorporation in cloths leading them to sterilization...
  75. Dkhil M, Al Quraishy S, Abdel Moneim A, Delic D. Protective effect of Azadirachta indica extract against Eimeria papillata-induced coccidiosis. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves was used in vivo for its pharmacological, antioxidant, and anticoccidial properties...
  76. Vaibhav K, Shrivastava P, Khan A, Javed H, Tabassum R, Ahmed M, et al. Azadirachta indica mitigates behavioral impairments, oxidative damage, histological alterations and apoptosis in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model of rats. Neurol Sci. 2013;34:1321-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Azadirachta indica Linn. (Meliaceae) has been used from ancient times as a remedy for various ailments. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties of A...
  77. Mallick A, Barik S, Goswami K, Banerjee S, Ghosh S, Sarkar K, et al. Neem leaf glycoprotein activates CD8(+) T cells to promote therapeutic anti-tumor immunity inhibiting the growth of mouse sarcoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e47434 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings support a paradigm in which NLGP dynamically orchestrates the activation, expansion, and recruitment of CD8(+) T cells into established tumors to operate significant tumor cell lysis...
  78. Koul O, Multani J, Singh G, Daniewski W, Berlozecki S. 6beta-hydroxygedunin from Azadirachta indica. Its potentiation effects with some non-azadirachtin limonoids in neem against lepidopteran larvae. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:2937-42 pubmed
    The biological activity of 6beta-hydroxygedunin isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss...
  79. Aladakatti R, Ahamed R. Ultrastructural changes in Leydig cells and cauda epididymal spermatozoa induced by Azadirachta indica leaves in albino rats. Phytother Res. 2005;19:756-66 pubmed
    The effects of Azadirachta indica leaves (500 mg/kg body weight, orally/day), testosterone (0...
  80. Dorababu M, Joshi M, Bhawani G, Kumar M, Chaturvedi A, Goel R. Effect of aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves on offensive and diffensive gastric mucosal factors in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;50:241-9 pubmed
    Standardized aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves (AIE) has been reported to show both ulcer protective and ulcer healing effects in normal as well as in diabetic rats...
  81. Manikandan P, Letchoumy P, Gopalakrishnan M, Nagini S. Evaluation of Azadirachta indica leaf fractions for in vitro antioxidant potential and in vivo modulation of biomarkers of chemoprevention in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:2332-43 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the chemopreventive potential of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf fractions based on in vitro antioxidant assays, and in vivo inhibitory effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) ..
  82. Vinothini G, Manikandan P, Anandan R, Nagini S. Chemoprevention of rat mammary carcinogenesis by Azadirachta indica leaf fractions: modulation of hormone status, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:1852-63 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the chemopreventive potential of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MF) of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis...
  83. Khan Z, Hussain J, Hashmi A. Shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the green synthesis of Ag-nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2012;95:229-34 pubmed publisher
    ..bromide, CTAB, is reported to the green synthesis of Ag-nanoparticles for the first time using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract...
  84. Pai M, Acharya L, Udupa N. Evaluation of antiplaque activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract gel--a 6-week clinical study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90:99-103 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica A...
  85. Yanpallewar S, Rai S, Kumar M, Chauhan S, Acharya S. Neuroprotective effect of Azadirachta indica on cerebral post-ischemic reperfusion and hypoperfusion in rats. Life Sci. 2005;76:1325-38 pubmed
    We assessed the effect of Azadirachta indica (A. indica), a plant that has been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic properties, on cerebral reperfusion injury and long term cerebral hypoperfusion...
  86. Mandal Ghosh I, Chattopadhyay U, Baral R. Neem leaf preparation enhances Th1 type immune response and anti-tumor immunity against breast tumor associated antigen. Cancer Immun. 2007;7:8 pubmed
    ..The potent immune activation by an aqueous preparation of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf (NLP) suggests its possible utility for enhancing immune responses to tumor vaccines...
  87. Goswami S, Bose A, Sarkar K, Roy S, Chakraborty T, Sanyal U, et al. Neem leaf glycoprotein matures myeloid derived dendritic cells and optimizes anti-tumor T cell functions. Vaccine. 2010;28:1241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..With emergence of the NLGP as a promising DC maturating agent, NLGP-DCs can be used as a candidate vaccine tool for antigen specific cancer immunotherapy...
  88. Denardi S, Bechara G, Oliveira P, Camargo Mathias M. Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) induced morphological changes on oocytes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) tick females. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:462-70 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these plants is Azadirachta indica (neem), whose main active ingredient is azadirachtin, a compound shown to have acaricide and insecticide ..
  89. Brahmachari G. Neem--an omnipotent plant: a retrospection. Chembiochem. 2004;5:408-21 pubmed
    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) has universally been accepted as a wonder tree because of its diverse utility. Multidirectional therapeutic uses of neem have been known in India since the Vedic times...
  90. Bose A, Chakraborty K, Sarkar K, Goswami S, Chakraborty T, Pal S, et al. Neem leaf glycoprotein induces perforin-mediated tumor cell killing by T and NK cells through differential regulation of IFNgamma signaling. J Immunother. 2009;32:42-53 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these results, we conclude that NLGP might be effective to recover the suppressed cytotoxic functions of NK and T cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients...
  91. Roy S, Goswami S, Bose A, Chakraborty K, Pal S, Haldar A, et al. Neem leaf glycoprotein partially rectifies suppressed dendritic cell functions and associated T cell efficacy in patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:571-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the DC maturating efficacy of NLGP might be much more effective in the earlier stages of CaCx, where the extent of immune dysregulation is less and, thus, the scope of further investigation may be explored...
  92. Verma V, Singh S, Prakash S. Bio-control and plant growth promotion potential of siderophore producing endophytic Streptomyces from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. J Basic Microbiol. 2011;51:550-6 pubmed publisher
    Three endophytic actinomycetes strains recovered from surface sterilized root tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae), plants were selected through tests for their potential as bio-control and plant growth promoting agents...